FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS.
Author of "Practical Forestry,"
"Hardy Coniferous Trees," "British Orchids," &c.,
SECOND AND CHEAP EDITION.
"GARDENING WORLD" OFFICE,
1, Clement's Inn, Strand, W.C.
Printed by Hicks, Wilkinson & Sears,
4, Dorset Buildings, Salisbury Square, London, E.C.
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION, 1893.
This book has been written and is published with
the distinct object in view of bringing home to the minds of
planters of Hardy Trees and Shrubs, the fact that the monotonous
repetition, in at least nine-tenths of our Parks and Gardens, of
such Trees as the Elm, the Lime, and the Oak, and such Shrubs as
the Cherry Laurel and the Privet, is neither necessary nor
desirable. There is quite a host of choice and beautiful flowering
species, which, though at present not generally known are yet
perfectly hardy, of the simplest culture, and equally well adapted
for the ornamentation of our Public and Private Parks and
Of late years, with the marked decline in the
cultivation of Coniferous Trees, many of which are ill adapted for
the climate of this country, the interest in our lovely flowering
Trees and Shrubs has been greatly revived. This fact has been well
exemplified in the numerous enquiries after these subjects, and the
space devoted to their description and modes of cultivation in the
In the hope, too, of helping to establish a
much-desired standard of nomenclature, I have followed the generic
names adopted by the authors of The Genera Plantarum, and
the specific names and orthography, as far as I have been able, of
the Index Kewensis; and where possible I have given the
synonyms, the date of introduction, and the native country. The
alphabetical arrangement that has been adopted, both with regard to
the genera and species, it is hoped, will greatly facilitate the
work of reference to its pages. The descriptive notes and hints on
cultivation, the selected lists of Trees and Shrubs for various
special purposes, and the calendarial list which indicates the
flowering season of the different species, may be considered all
the more valuable for being concisely written, and made readily
accessible by means of the Index.
No work written on a similar plan and treating
solely of Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs has hitherto
been published; and it is not supposed for a moment that the
present one will entirely supply the deficiency; but should it meet
with any measure of public approval, it may be the means of paving
the way towards the publication of a more elaborate work—and
one altogether more worthy of the interesting and beautiful
Flowering Trees and Shrubs that have been found suitable for
planting in the climate of the British Isles.
Of the fully thirteen hundred species and
varieties of Trees and Shrubs enumerated, all may be depended upon
as being hardy in some part of the country. Several of them, and
particularly those introduced from China and Japan, have not before
been included in a book of this character. Trials for the special
purpose of testing the hardiness of the more tender kinds have been
instituted and carried out in several favoured parts of England and
PREFACE TO SECOND
AND CHEAP EDITION, 1897.
The First Edition of Hardy Ornamental Flowering
Trees and Shrubs having been sold out, it has been considered
desirable to run off a second and cheap edition on exactly similar
lines to the first, and previous to the more elaborate illustrated
edition which is now in hand.
FLOWERING TREES & SHRUBS.
ABELIA CHINENSIS (syn A. rupestris).—The Rock
Abelia China, 1844. This is a neat, twiggy shrub, growing from 2
ft. to 3 ft. high, with slender shoots, and very pleasing, shining
green serrated leaves. The tubular, sweet-scented flowers are
produced in clusters at the ends of the shoots, even the smallest,
and are of a very delicate shade of pink—indeed, almost
white. It makes an excellent wall plant, but by no means refuses to
grow and flower freely without either shelter or protection,
provided a fairly rich and well drained soil is provided. From
August to October is the flowering period of this handsome
deciduous shrub. This is the only really hardy species of the
genus, for though the rosy-purple flowered A. floribunda from
Mexico has stood for several years uninjured in the South of
England, it is not to be relied upon. Both species are readily
propagated from cuttings.
A. TRIFLORA.—Himalayan regions, 1847. A half-hardy and
beautiful species with small lanceolate, entire leaves, and pretty
star-shaped flowers that are white and flushed with pink. The long,
narrow, and hairy calyx-lobes give a light and feathery appearance
to the flowers, which are produced continuously from May to
November. It does best as a wall plant, and several beautiful
examples may be seen in and around London, as also at Exeter, and
in the South of Ireland.
ADENOCARPUS DECORTICANS (syn A. Boissieri).—Spain,
1883. This little known hardy shrub, a native of the Sierra Nevada
mountains, in Spain, is one of great beauty, and well worthy of
extended culture. The flowers are produced abundantly, and are of a
bright yellow colour, resembling those of our common Broom, to
which family it is nearly allied. Peaty soil suits it well, and
repeated trials have clearly proved that it is hardy, at least in
the South of England.
AESCULUS CALIFORNICA (syn Pavia
californica).—California. This is one of the handsomest
species, of low, spreading habit, and blooming freely about
AE. GLABRA (syn Ae. rubicunda).—Red-flowered Horse
Chestnut. North America, 1820. If only for its neat and moderate
growth, and attractive spikes of brightly-coloured flowers, this
species must be considered as one of the handsomest and most
valuable of small growing trees. Being of moderate size, for we
rarely meet with specimens of greater height than 30 feet, and of
very compact habit, it is rendered peculiarly suitable for planting
in confined spots, and where larger growing and more straggling
subjects would be out of place. It withstands soot and smoke well,
and is therefore much valued for suburban planting. The long spikes
of pretty red flowers are usually produced in great abundance, and
as they stand well above the foliage, and are of firm lasting
substance, they have a most pleasing and attractive appearance. As
there are numerous forms of the red-flowered Horse Chestnut,
differing much in the depth of flower colouring, it may be well to
warn planters, for some of these have but a faint tinge of pink
overlying a dirty yellowish-green groundwork, while the finest and
most desirable tree has the flowers of a decided pinky-red. There
is a double-flowered variety Ae. glabra flore-pleno (syn Ae.
rubicunda flore-pleno) and one of particular merit named Ae.
AE. HIPPOCASTANUM.—The Common Horse Chestnut. Asia, 1629.
A fine hardy free-flowering tree, supposed to have been introduced
from Asia, and of which there are several varieties, including a
double-flowered, a variegated, and several lobed and cut-leaved
forms. The tree needs no description, the spikes of pinky-white
flowers, which are produced in great abundance, and ample foliage
rendering it one of, if not the handsomest tree of our
acquaintance. It gives a pleasing shade, and forms an imposing and
picturesque object in the landscape, especially where the
conditions of soil—a rich free loam—are provided. Ae.
Hippocastanum alba flore-pleno (the double white Horse Chestnut),
has a decidedly pyramidal habit of growth, and the flowers, which
are larger than those of the species, are perfectly double. It is a
very distinct and desirable large growing tree. Ae. Hippocastanum
laciniata and Ae. Hippocastanum digitalis are valuable for their
divided leaves; while Ae. Hippocastanum foliis variegatis has the
foliage rather irregularly variegated.
AE. PARVIFLORA (syn Pavia macrostachya).—Buckeye.
North America, 1820. This is very distinct, and possesses feature
which are shared by no other hardy tree or shrub in cultivation.
Rarely exceeding 12 feet in height, and with a spread of often as
much as 20 feet, this shrub forms a perfect hemisphere of foliage,
and which, when tipped with the pretty fragrant flowers, renders it
one of the most effective and handsome. The foliage is large, and
resembles that of the common Horse Chestnut, while the pure white
flowers, with their long projecting stamens and red-tipped anthers,
are very pretty and imposing when at their best in July. It
succeeds well in rich, dampish loam, and as a shrub for standing
alone in any conspicuous position it has, indeed, few equals.
AE. PAVIA (syn Pavia rubra).—Red Buckeye. North
America, 1711. A small growing and slender-branched tree or shrub,
which bears an abundance of brownish-scarlet flowers. There are
several good varieties, two of the best being Ae. Pavia
atrosanguinea, and Ae. Pavia Whittleyana, with small, brilliant red
There are several other species, such as Ae. Pavia humilis
(syn Pavia humilis) of trailing habit; Ae. flava (syn
Pavia flava) bearing pretty yellow flowers; Ae. Pavia
macrocarpa (syn Pavia macrocarpa) an open-headed and
graceful tree; Ae. flava discolor (syn Pavia discolor); and
Ae. chinensis; but they have not been found very amenable to
cultivation, except in very favoured parts of the South of England
AILANTHUS GLANDULOSA.—Tree of Heaven. China, 1751. A
handsome, fast-growing tree, with large pinnate leaves that are
often fully three feet long, and terminal erect clusters of not
very showy greenish-white flowers that exhale a rather disagreeable
odour. It is one of the most distinct and imposing of
pinnate-leaved trees, and forms a neat specimen for the lawn or
park. Light loam or a gravelly subsoil suits it well.
AKEBIA QUINATA.—Chinese Akebia. China, 1845. This, with
its peculiarly-formed and curiously-coloured flowers, though
usually treated as a cool greenhouse plant, is yet sufficiently
hardy to grow and flower well in many of the southern and western
English counties, where it has stood uninjured for many years. It
is a pretty twining evergreen, with the leaves placed on long
slender petioles, and palmately divided into usually five leaflets.
The sweet-scented flowers, particularly so in the evening, are of a
purplish-brown or scarlet-purple, and produced in axillary racemes
of from ten to a dozen in each. For covering trellis-work, using as
a wall plant, or to clamber over some loose-growing specimen shrub,
from which a slight protection will also be afforded, the Akebia is
peculiarly suitable, and soon ascends to a height of 10 feet or 12
feet. Any ordinary garden soil suits it, and propagation by
cuttings is readily affected.
AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA.—Dwarf June Berry. N.W. America,
1888. This is a shrub of great beauty, growing about 8 feet high,
and a native of the mountains from British America to California.
This differs from A. canadensis in having much larger and more
brilliant-tinted fruit, and in its shorter and more compact flower
racemes. The shape of the leaves cannot be depended on as a point
of recognition, those before me, collected in the native habitat of
the plant, differing to a wide extent in size and shape, some being
coarsely serrated while others are almost entire.
A. CANADENSIS.—June Berry. Canada, 1746. Unquestionably
this is one of the most beautiful and showy of early flowering
trees. During the month of April the profusion of snow-white
flowers, with which even young specimens are mantled, render the
plant conspicuous for a long way off, while in autumn the golden
yellow of the dying-off foliage is quite as remarkable. Being
perfectly hardy, of free growth, and with no particular desire for
certain classes of soils, the June Berry should be widely planted
for ornamental effect. In this country it attains to a height of 40
feet, and bears globose crimson fruit. There are several varieties,
including A. canadensis rotundifolia, A. canadensis oblongifolia,
and A. canadensis oligocarpa, the latter being by some botanists
ranked as a species.
A. VULGARIS.—Common Amelanchier. South of Europe, 1596.
This is the only European species, and grows about 16 feet in
height. It has been in cultivation in this country for nearly 300
years. Generally this species flowers earlier than the American
ones, has rounder and less deeply serrated leaves, but the flowers
are much alike. A. vulgaris cretica, from Crete and Dalmatia, is
readily distinguished by the soft white hairs with which the under
sides of the leaves are thickly covered. To successfully cultivate
the Amelanchiers a good rich soil is a necessity, while shelter
from cutting winds must be afforded if the sheets of flowers are to
be seen in their best form.
AMORPHA CANESCENS.—Lead Plant. Missouri, 1812. This is of
much smaller growth than A. fruticosa, with neat pinnate foliage,
whitened with hoary down, and bearing panicles of bluish-purple
flowers, with conspicuous orange anthers. It is a charming shrub,
and all the more valuable as it flowers at the end of summer, when
few hardy plants are in bloom. To grow it satisfactorily a dry,
sandy soil is a necessity.
A. FRUTICOSA.—False Indigo. Carolina, 1724. This is a fast
growing shrub of fully 6 feet high, of loose, upright habit, and
with pretty pinnate leaves. The flowers are borne in densely packed
spikes, and are of a purplish tint with bright yellow protruding
anthers and produced at the end of summer. It prefers a dry, warm
soil of a sandy or chalky nature, and may readily be increased from
cuttings or suckers, the latter being freely produced. Hard cutting
back when full size has been attained would seem to throw fresh
vigour into the Amorpha, and the flowering is greatly enhanced by
such a mode of treatment. A native of Carolina, and perfectly hardy
in most parts of the country. Of this species there are several
varieties, amongst others, A. fruticosa nana, a dwarf, twiggy
plant; A. fruticosa dealbata, with lighter green foliage than the
type; and others differing only in the size and width of the
ANDROMEDA POLIFOLIA.—An indigenous shrub of low growth,
with lanceolate shining leaves, and pretty globose pinky-white
flowers. Of it there are two varieties. A. polifolia major and A.
polifolia angustifolia, both well worthy of culture for their neat
habit and pretty flowers.
See CASSANDRA, CASSIOPE, LEUCOTHOË, OXYDENDRUM, PIERIS, and
ARALIA MANDSHURICA (syn Dimorphanthus
mandschuricus).—Manchuria, 1866. There is not much beauty
about this Chinese tree, for it is but a big spiny stake, with no
branches, and a tuft of palm-like foliage at the top. The flowers,
however, are both large and conspicuous, and impart to the tree an
interesting and novel appearance. They are individually small, of a
creamy-white colour, and produced in long, umbellate racemes, and
which when fully developed, from their weight and terminal
position, are tilted gracefully to one side. Usually the stem is
spiny, with Horse Chestnut-like bark, while the terminal bud, from
its large size, as if all the energy of the plant was concentrated
in the tip, imparts a curious and somewhat ungainly appearance to
the tree. From its curious tropical appearance this species is well
worthy of a place in the shrubbery. It is unmindful of soil, if
that is of at all fair quality, and may be said to be perfectly
hardy over the greater part of the country.
A. SPINOSA.—Angelica Tree. Virginia, 1688. Amongst
autumn-flowering shrubs this takes a high place, for in mild
seasons it blooms well into October. It grows about 12 feet high,
with large tri-pinnate leaves, composed of numerous serrulate
leaflets. The individual flowers are small and whitish, but being
borne in large branched panicles have a very imposing appearance.
It is of free growth, and produces suckers abundantly.
See also FATSIA.
ARBUTUS ANDRACHNE.—Levant, 1724. This Mediterranean
species is of stout growth, with narrow Laurel-like leaves, reddish
deciduous bark, and greenish-white flowers that are produced freely
in May. A hybrid form, said to have originated between this species
and A. Unedo, partakes in part of the nature of both shrubs, but
the flowers are larger than those of A. Unedo.
A. MENZIESII (syn A. procera).—Tall Strawberry
Tree. North-west America, 1827. This is hardy in many parts of
these islands, particularly maritime districts, and is worthy of
culture if only for the large racemose panicles of
deliciously-scented white flowers, and peculiar metallic-green
leaves. The fruit is orange-red, and only about half the size of
those of our commonly cultivated species.
A. UNEDO.—Strawberry Tree. Ireland. This is a beautiful
evergreen shrub or small-growing tree, sometimes fully 20 feet
high, with ovate-lanceolate leaves, and clusters of pure white or
yellowish-tinged flowers appearing in September and October. The
bright scarlet fruit, about the size of and resembling a
Strawberry, is highly ornamental, and when borne in quantity
imparts to the plant an unusual and very attractive appearance.
Generally speaking, the Arbutus is hardy, although in inland
situations it is sometimes killed to the ground in severe winters,
but, springing freely from the root, the plant soon becomes
re-established. In a young state it suffers too, but after becoming
established and a few feet high, the chances of injury are greatly
minimised. Three well-marked varieties are A. Unedo coccinea and A.
Unedo rubra, bearing scarlet and deep-red flowers, and A. Unedo
microphylla, with much smaller leaves than those of the parent
A. UNEDO CROOMEI differs considerably from the former, in having
larger foliage, larger clusters of reddish-pink flowers, and the
bark of the young shoots of an enticing ruddy, or rather
brownish-red colour. It is a very desirable and highly ornamental
plant, and one that is well worthy of extended culture.
There are several others, to wit A. photiniaefolia, A.
Rollissoni, A. Millerii, with large leaves, and pretty pink
flowers, and A. serratifolia, having deeply serrated leaves. Deep,
light loam, if on chalk all the better, and a fairly warm and
sheltered situation, would seem to suit the Arbutus best.
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI.—Bearberry. Britain. A neat shrub
of trailing habit, and with flowers resembling those of the
Arbutus, but much smaller. The leaves are entire, dark green in
colour, and about an inch long, and obovate or oblong in shape.
Fruit globular, of a bright red, smooth and shining. This is a
native shrub, being found in Scotland, northern England and
A. ALPINA.—Black Bearberry. Scotland. This is confined to
the northern Highlands of Scotland, is of smaller growth, with
toothed deciduous leaves, and small drooping flowers of two or
ARISTOLOCHIA SIPHO.—Dutchman's Pipe. North America, 1763.
A large-growing, deciduous climbing shrub, remarkable for its ample
foliage, and curiously formed yellow and purple streaked flowers. A
native of North America, it is perfectly hardy in this country, and
makes an excellent wall plant where plenty of space can be afforded
for the rambling branches. What a pity it is that so ornamental a
climber, whose big, dark-green leaves overlap each other as if
intended for keeping a house cool in warm weather, is not more
generally planted. It does well and grows fast in almost any
ASIMINA TRILOBA.—Virginian Papaw. Pennsylvania, 1736. This
is a curious and uncommon shrub that one rarely sees outside the
walls of a botanic garden. The flowers are dark purple or chocolate
brown, fully 2 inches across, and succeeded by a yellow, oblong,
pulpy fruit, that is relished by the natives, and from which the
name of North American Custard Apple has been derived. In this
country it is quite at home, growing around London to quite 12 feet
in height, but it wants a warm, dry soil, and sunny sheltered
situation. As a wall plant it does well.
AZARA MICROPHYLLA.—Chili, 1873. This is the only
recognised hardy species, and probably the best from an ornamental
point of view. In mild seaside districts it may succeed as a
standard in the open ground, but generally it is cultivated as a
wall plant, and for which it is peculiarly suitable. The small dark
green, glossy leaves are thickly arranged on the nearly horizontal
branches, while the flowers, if they lack in point of showiness,
are deliciously fragrant and plentifully produced. For
wall-covering, especially in an eastern aspect, it is one of the
neatest of shrubs.
Other species in cultivation are A. serrata, A. lanceolata, and
A. integrifolia, but for general planting, and unless under the
most favoured conditions, they are not to be recommended. The
Azaras are by no means particular about the quality of soil in
which they are planted, and succeed well even in stiffish loam,
bordering on clay.
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA.—Groundsel Tree or Sea Purslane.
North America. For seaside planting this is an invaluable shrub, as
it succeeds well down even to high water mark, and where it is
almost lashed by the salt spray. The flowers are not very
ornamental, resembling somewhat those of the Groundsel, but white
with a tint of purple. Leaves obovate in shape, notched, and
thickly covered with a whitish powder, which imparts to them a
pleasing glaucous hue. Any light soil that is tolerably dry suits
well the wants of this shrub, but it is always seen in best
condition by the seaside. Under favourable conditions it attains to
a height of 12 feet, with a branch spread nearly as much in
diameter. A native of the North American coast from Maryland to
B. PATAGONICA.—Megallan. This is a very distinct and quite
hardy species, with small deep green leaves and white flowers. It
succeeds under the same conditions as the latter.
BERBERIDOPSIS CORALLINA.—Coral Barberry. Chili, 1862. This
handsome evergreen, half-climbing shrub is certainly not so well
known as its merits entitle it to be. Unfortunately it is not hardy
in every part of the country, though in the southern and western
English counties, but especially within the influence of the sea,
it succeeds well as a wall plant, and charms us with its globular,
waxy, crimson or coral-red flowers. The spiny-toothed leaves
approach very near those of some of the Barberries, and with which
the plant is nearly allied. It seems to do best in a partially
shady situation, and in rich light loam.
BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM (syn Mahonia
Aquifolium).—Holly-leaved Barberry. North America, 1823.
This justly ranks as one of the handsomest, most useful, and
easily-cultivated of all hardy shrubs. It will grow almost any
where, and in any class of soil, though preferring a fairly rich
loam. Growing under favourable conditions to a height of 6 feet,
this North American shrub forms a dense mass of almost impenetrable
foliage. The leaves are large, dark shining green, thickly beset
with spines, while the deliciously-scented yellow flowers, which
are produced at each branch tip, render the plant particularly
attractive in spring. It is still further valuable both on account
of the rich autumnal tint of the foliage, and pretty plum colour of
the plentifully produced fruit.
B. AQUIFOLIUM REPENS (syn Mahonia repens).—Creeping
Barberry. This is of altogether smaller growth than the preceding,
but otherwise they seem nearly allied. From its dense, dwarf
growth, rising as it rarely does more than a foot from the ground,
and neat foliage, this Barberry is particularly suitable for edging
beds, or forming a low evergreen covering for rocky ground or
B. ARISTATA, a native of Nepaul, is a vigorous-growing species,
resembling somewhat our native plant, with deeply serrated leaves,
brightly tinted bark, and yellow flowers. It is of erect habit,
branchy, and in winter is rendered very conspicuous by reason of
the bright reddish colour of the leafless branches.
B. BEALEI (syn Mahonia Bealli).—Japan. This species
is one of the first to appear in bloom, often by the end of January
the plant being thickly studded with flowers. It is a handsome
shrub, of erect habit, the leaves of a yellowish-green tint, and
furnished with long, spiny teeth. The clusters of racemes of
deliciously fragrant yellow flowers are of particular value, being
produced so early in the season.
B. BUXIFOLIA (syn B. dulcis and B.
microphylla).—Straits of Magellan, 1827. A neat and
erect-growing shrub of somewhat stiff and upright habit, and
bearing tiny yellow flowers. This is a good rockwork plant, and
being of neat habit, with small purplish leaves, is well worthy of
B. CONGESTIFLORA, from Chili, is not yet well-known, but
promises to become a general favourite with lovers of hardy shrubs.
It is of unusual appearance for a Barberry, with long, decumbent
branches, which are thickly covered with masses of orange-yellow
flowers. The branch-tips, being almost leafless and smothered with
flowers, impart to the plant a striking, but distinctly ornamental
B. DARWINII.—Chili, 1849. This is, perhaps, the best known
and most ornamental of the family. It forms a dense bush, sometimes
10 feet high, with dark glossy leaves, and dense racemes of
orange-yellow flowers, produced in April and May, and often again
in the autumn.
B. EMPETRIFOLIA.—Straits of Magellan, 1827. This is a
neat-habited and dwarf evergreen species, that even under the best
cultivation rarely exceeds 2 feet in height. It is one of the
hardiest species, and bears, though rather sparsely, terminal
golden-yellow flowers, which are frequently produced both in spring
and autumn. For its compact growth and neat foliage it is alone
worthy of culture.
B. FORTUNEI (syn Mahonia Fortunei).—China, 1846.
This is rather a rare species in cultivation, with finely toothed
leaves, composed of about seven leaflets, and bearing in abundance
clustered racemes of individually small yellow flowers. A native of
China, and requiring a warm, sunny spot to do it justice.
B. GRACILIS (syn Mahonia gracilis).—Mexico. A
pretty, half-hardy species, growing about 6 feet high, with slender
branches, and shining-green leaves with bright red stalks. Flowers
small, in 3-inch long racemes, deep yellow with bright red
pedicels. Fruit globular, deep purple.
B. ILICIFOLIA (syn B. Neumanii).—South America,
1791. This is another handsome evergreen species from South
America, and requires protection in this country. The thick,
glossy-green leaves, beset with spines, and large orange-red
flowers, combine to make this species one of great interest and
B. JAPONICA (syn Mahonia japonica).—Japan. This is
not a very satisfactory shrub in these isles, although in warm
seaside districts, and when planted in rich loam, on a gravelly
subsoil, it forms a handsome plant with noble foliage, and
deliciously fragrant yellow flowers.
B. NEPALENSIS (syn Mahonia nepalensis).—Nepaul
Barberry. This is a noble Himalayan species that one rarely sees in
good condition in this country, unless when protected by glass. The
long, chalky-white stems, often rising to 8 feet in height, are
surmounted by dense clusters of lemon-yellow flowers. Planted
outdoors, this handsome and partly evergreen Barberry must have the
protection of a wall.
B. NERVOSA (syn Mahonia glumacea).—North America,
1804. This, with its terminal clusters of reddish-yellow flowers
produced in spring, is a highly attractive North-west American
species. It is of neat and compact growth, perfectly hardy, but as
yet it is rare in cultivation. The autumnal leafage-tint is very
B. PINNATA (syn Mahonia facicularis).—A native of
Mexico, this species is of stout growth, with long leaves, that are
thickly furnished with sharp spines. The yellow flowers are
produced abundantly, and being in large bunches render the plant
very conspicuous. It is, unfortunately, not very hardy, and
requires wall protection to do it justice.
B. SINENSIS.—China, 1815. This is a really handsome and
distinct species, with twiggy, deciduous branches, from the
undersides of the arching shoots of which the flowers hang in great
profusion. They are greenish-yellow inside, but of a dark
brownish-crimson without, while the leaves are small and round, and
die off crimson in autumn.
B. STENOPHYLLA, a hybrid between B. Darwinii and B.
empetrifolia, is one of the handsomest forms in cultivation, the
wealth of golden-yellow flowers being remarkable, as is also the
dark purple berries. It is very hardy, and of the freest
B. TRIFOLIOLATA (syn Mahonia trifoliolata).—Mexico,
1839. This is a very distinct and beautiful Mexican species that
will only succeed around London as a wall plant. It grows about a
yard high, with leaves fully 3 inches long, having three terminal
sessile leaflets, and slender leaf stalks often 2 inches long. The
ternate leaflets are of a glaucous blue colour, marbled with dull
green, and very delicately veined. Flowers small, bright yellow,
and produced in few-flowered axillary racemes on short peduncles.
The berries are small, globular, and light red.
B. TRIFURCA (syn Mahonia trifurca).—China, 1852.
This is a shrub of neat low growth, but it does not appear to be at
B. VULGARIS.—Common Barberry. This is a native species,
with oblong leaves, and terminal, drooping racemes of yellow
flowers. It is chiefly valued for the great wealth of
orange-scarlet fruit. There are two very distinct forms, one
bearing silvery and the other black fruit, and named respectively
B. vulgaris fructo-albo and B. vulgaris fructo-nigro.
B. WALLICHIANA (syn B. Hookeri).—Nepaul, 1820. This
is exceedingly ornamental, whether as regards the foliage, flowers,
or fruit. It is of dense, bushy growth, with large, dark green
spiny leaves, and an abundance of clusters of clear yellow flowers.
The berries are deep violet-purple, and fully half-an-inch long.
Being perfectly hardy and of free growth it is well suited for
BERCHEMIA VOLUBILIS.—Climbing Berchemia. Carolina, 1714. A
rarely seen, deciduous climber, bearing rather inconspicuous
greenish-yellow flowers, succeeded by attractive, violet-tinted
berries. The foliage is neat and pretty, the individual leaves
being ovate in shape and slightly undulated or wavy. It is a
twining shrub that in this country, even under favourable
circumstances, one rarely sees ascending to a greater height than
about 12 feet. Sandy peat and a shady site suits it best, and so
placed it will soon cover a low-growing tree or bush much in the
way that our common Honeysuckle does. It is propagated from layers
BIGNONIA CAPREOLATA—Virginia and other parts of America,
1710. This is not so hardy as to be depended upon throughout the
country generally, though in the milder parts of England and
Ireland it succeeds well as a wall plant. It is a handsome climbing
shrub, with long, heart-shaped leaves, usually terminating in
branched tendrils, and large orange flowers produced singly.
BILLARDIERA LONGIFLORA.—Blue Apple Berry. Van Diemen's
Land, 1810. If only for its rich, blue berries, as large as those
of a cherry, this otherwise elegant climbing shrub is well worthy
of a far greater share of attention than it has yet received, for
it must be admitted that it is far from common. The greenish
bell-shaped blossoms produced in May are, perhaps, not very
attractive, but this is more than compensated for by the highly
ornamental fruit, which renders the plant an object of great beauty
about mid-September. Leaves small and narrow, on slender, twining
stems, that clothe well the lower half of a garden wall in some
sunny favoured spot. Cuttings root freely if inserted in sharp sand
and placed in slight heat, while seeds germinate quickly.
BRYANTHUS ERECTUS.—Siberia. This is a pretty little
Ericaceous plant, nearly allied to Menziesia, and with a plentiful
supply of dark-green leaves. The flowers, which are borne in
crowded clusters at the points of the shoots, are bell-shaped, and
of a pleasing reddish-lilac colour. It wants a cool, moist peaty
soil, and is perfectly hardy. When in a flowering stage the
Bryanthus is one of the brightest occupants of the peat bed, and is
a very suitable companion for such dwarf plants as the Heaths,
Menziesias, and smaller growing Kalmias.
B. EMPETRIFORMIS (syn Menziesia
empetrifolia).—North America, 1829. This is a compact,
neat species, and well suited for alpine gardening. The flowers are
rosy-purple, and produced abundantly.
BUDDLEIA GLOBOSA.—Orange Ball Tree. Chili, 1774. A shrubby
species, ranging in height from 12 feet to 20 feet, and the only
one at all common in gardens. Favoured spots in Southern England
would seem to suit the plant fairly well, but to see it at its best
one must visit some of the maritime gardens of North Wales, where
it grows stout and strong, and flowers with amazing luxuriance.
Where it thrives it must be ranked amongst the most beautiful of
wall plants, for few, indeed, are the standard specimens that are
to be met with, the protection afforded by a wall being almost a
necessity in its cultivation. The leaves are linear-lanceolate, and
covered with a dense silvery tomentum on the under side, somewhat
rugose above, and partially deciduous. Flowers in small globular
heads, bright orange or yellow, and being plentifully produced are
very showy in early summer. It succeeds well in rich moist loam on
B. LINDLEYANA.—China, 1844. This has purplish-red flowers
and angular twigs, but it cannot be relied upon unless in very
sheltered and mild parts of the country.
B. PANICULATA (syn B. crispa).—Nepaul, 1823. This
may at once be distinguished by its curly, woolly leaves, and
fragrant lilac flowers. It is a desirable species, but suffers from
BUPLEURUM FRUTICOSUM.—Hare's Ear. South Europe, 1596. A
small-growing, branching shrub, with obovate-lanceolate leaves, and
compound umbels of yellowish flowers. It is more curious than
CAESALPINIA SEPIARIA (syn C. japonica).—India,
1857. This is as yet a comparatively little known shrub, but one
that from its beauty and hardihood is sure to become a general
favourite. Planted out in a light, sandy, peaty soil, and where
fully exposed, this shrub has done well, and proved itself a
suitable subject for the climate of England at least. The hard
prickles with which both stem and branches are provided renders the
shrub of rather formidable appearance, while the leaves are of a
peculiarly pleasing soft-green tint. For the flowers, too, it is
well worthy of attention, the pinky anthers contrasting so markedly
with the deep yellow of the other portions of the flower. They are
arranged in long racemes, and show well above the foliage.
CALLUNA VULGARIS (syn Erica vulgaris).—Common Ling
on Heather. This is the commonest native species, with
purplish-pink flowers on small pedicels. There are many very
distinct and beautiful-flowering forms, the following being some of
the best: C. vulgaris alba, white-flowered; C. vulgaris Hammondi,
C. vulgaris minor, and C. vulgaris pilosa, all white-flowered
forms; C. vulgaris Alportii, and C. vulgaris Alportii variegata,
the former bearing rich crimson flowers, and the latter with
distinctly variegated foliage; C. vulgaris argentea, and C.
vulgaris aurea, with silvery-variegated and golden foliage; C.
vulgaris flore-pleno, a most beautiful and free-growing variety,
with double flowers; C. vulgaris Foxii, a dwarf plant that does not
flower freely; and C. vulgaris pumila, and C. vulgaris dumosa,
which are of small cushion-like growth.
CALOPHACA WOLGARICA.—Siberia, 1786. This member of the Pea
family is of dwarf, branching growth, thickly clothed with
glandular hairs, and bears yellow flowers, succeeded by
reddish-purple pods. It is of no special importance as an
ornamental shrub, and is most frequently seen grafted on the
Laburnum, though its natural easy habit of growth is far
preferable. Hailing from Siberia, it may be considered as fairly
hardy at least.
CALYCANTHUS FLORIDUS.—Carolina Allspice. Carolina, 1726.
If only for the purplish-red, pleasantly-scented flowers, this
North American shrub is worthy of extensive culture. The hardiness,
accommodating nature, and delicious perfume of its
brightly-coloured flowers render this shrub one of the choicest
subjects for the shrubbery or edges of the woodland path. It is of
easy though compact growth, reaching in favourable situations a
height of 12 feet, and with ovate leaves that are slightly
pubescent. Growing best in good fairly moist loam, where partial
shade is afforded, the sides of woodland drives and paths will suit
this Allspice well; but it wants plenty of room for
branch-development. There are several nursery forms of this shrub,
such as C. floridus glaucus, C. floridus asplenifolia, and C.
floridus nanus, all probably distinct enough, but of no superior
ornamental value to the parent plant.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.—Californian or Western Allspice.
California, 1831. This is larger in all its parts than the former,
and for decorative purposes is even preferable to that species. The
flowers are dark crimson, and nearly twice as large as those of C.
floridus, but rather more sparsely produced. This is a very
distinct and desirable species, and one that can be recommended for
lawn and park planting, but, like the former, it delights to grow
in a rather moist and shady situation.
CARAGANA ARBORESCENS.—Siberian Pea Tree. Siberia, 1752. On
account of its great hardihood, this is a very desirable garden
shrub or small-growing tree. The bright-yellow, pea-shaped flowers
are very attractive, while the deep-green, pinnate foliage imparts
to the tree a somewhat unusual but taking appearance. Soil would
not seem to be of much moment in the cultivation of this, as,
indeed, the other species of Caragana, for it thrives well either
on dry, sunny banks, where the soil is light and thin, or in good
stiff, yellow loam.
C. FRUTESCENS.—Siberia, 1852. Flowers in May, and is of
partially upright habit; while C. Chamlagii, from China, has
greenish-yellow flowers, faintly tinted with pinky-purple.
C. MICROPHYLLA (syn C. Altagana), also from Siberia, is
smaller of growth than the foregoing, but the flowers are
individually larger. It is readily distinguished by the more
numerous and hairy leaflets and thorny nature.
C. SPINOSA.—Siberia, 1775. This, as the name indicates, is
of spiny growth, and is a beautiful and distinct member of the
family. They are all hardy, and readily propagated from seed.
CARDIANDRA ALTERNIFOLIA.—Japan, 1866. With its neat habit,
and pretty purple-and-white, plentifully-produced flowers, this is
worthy of the small amount of care and coddling required to insure
its growth in this country. Hailing from Japan, it cannot be
reckoned as very hardy, but treated as a wall plant this pretty
evergreen does well and flowers freely. It can, however, be said
that it is equally hardy with some of the finer kinds of Hydrangea,
to which genus it is nearly allied.
CARPENTERIA CALIFORNICA.—Sierra Nevada, California, 1880.
This is undoubtedly one of the most distinct and beautiful of hardy
shrubs. That it is perfectly hardy in England and Ireland
recently-conducted experiments conclusively prove, as plants have
stood unprotected through the past unusually severe winters with
which this country has been visited. When in full bloom the
pure-white flowers, resembling those of the Japanese Anemone,
render it of great beauty, while the light gray leaves are of
themselves sufficient to make the shrub one of particular
attraction. The Carpenteria is nearly related to the Mock Orange
(Philadelphus), grows about 10 feet in height, with lithe and
slender branches, and light gray leaves. The flowers, which are
pure white with a bunch of yellow stamens, and sweet-scented, are
produced usually in fives at the branch-tips, and contrast markedly
with the long and light green foliage. It grows and flowers with
freedom almost anywhere, but is all the better for wall protection.
From cuttings or suckers it is readily increased.
CARYOPTERIS MASTACANTHUS.—China and Japan, 1844. This is a
neat-growing Chinese shrub, and of value for its pretty flowers
that are produced late in the autumn. It must be ranked as fairly
hardy, having stood through the winters of Southern England
unprotected; but it is just as well to give so choice a shrub the
slight protection afforded by a wall. The leaves are neat,
thickly-arranged, and hoary, while the whole plant is twiggy and of
strict though by no means formal growth. Flowers lavender-blue,
borne at the tips of the shoots, and appearing in succession for a
considerable length of time. Light, sandy peat would seem to suit
it well, at least in such it grows and flowers freely.
CASSANDRA CALYCULATA (syn Andromeda
calyculata).—North America, 1748. This is a handsome
species from the Virginian swamps, but one that is rarely seen in a
very satisfactory condition in this country. It grows about 18
inches high, with lanceolate dull-green leaves, and pretty
pinky-white flowers, individually large and produced abundantly.
For the banks of a pond or lake it is a capital shrub and very
effective, particularly if massed in groups of from a dozen to
twenty plants in each. There are several nursery forms, of which A.
calyculata minor is the best and most distinct.
CASSINIA FULVIDA (syn Diplopappus
chrysophyllus).—New Zealand. This is a neat-growing and
beautiful shrub, the rich yellow stems and under sides of the
leaves imparting quite a tint of gold to the whole plant. The
flowers are individually small, but the whole head, which is
creamy-white, is very effective, and contrasts strangely with the
golden sheen of this beautiful shrub. It is inclined to be of
rather upright growth, is stout and bushy, and is readily increased
from cuttings planted in sandy soil in the open border. Probably in
the colder parts of the country this charming shrub might not prove
perfectly hardy, but all over England and Ireland it seems to be
quite at home. The flowers are produced for several months of the
year, but are at their best about mid-November, thus rendering the
shrub of still further value. It grows freely in sandy peaty soil
of a light nature.
CASSIOPE FASTIGIATA (syn Andromeda fastigiata) and C.
TETRAGONA (syn Andromeda tetragona) are small-growing
species, only suitable for rock gardening—the former of neat
upright habit, with large pinky-white bells all along the stems;
and the latter of bushy growth, with square stems and small white
CASTANEA SATIVA (syn C. vesca and C.
vulgaris).—Sweet Spanish Chestnut. Asia Minor. Few
persons who have seen this tree as an isolated specimen and when in
full flower would feel inclined to exclude it from our list. The
long, cylindrical catkins, of a yellowish-green colour, are usually
borne in such abundance that the tree is, during the month of June,
one of particular interest and beauty. So common a tree needs no
description, but it may be well to mention that there are several
worthy varieties, and which flower almost equally well with the
CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES.—Indian Bean. North America, 1798.
When in full bloom this is a remarkable and highly ornamental tree,
the curiously-marked flowers and unusually large, bronzy-tinted
foliage being distinct from those of almost any other in
cultivation. That it is not, perhaps, perfectly hardy in every part
of the country is to be regretted, but the numerous fine old
specimens that are to be met with all over the country point out
that there need be little to fear when assigning this pretty and
uncommon tree a position in our parks and gardens. The flowers,
produced in spikes at the branch-tips, are white, tinged with
violet and speckled with purple and yellow in the throat.
Individually the flowers are of large size and very ornamental,
and, being produced freely, give the tree a bright and pleasing
appearance when at their best. Usually the tree attains to a height
of 30 feet in this country, with rather crooked and ungainly
branches, and large heart-shaped leaves that are downy beneath. It
flourishes well on any free soil, and is an excellent
smoke-resisting tree. C. bignonioides aurea is a decided variety,
that differs mainly in the leaves being of a desirable golden
C. BUNGEI and C. KAEMPFERI, natives of China and Japan, are
hardly to be relied upon, being of tender growth, and, unless in
the most favoured situations, suffer from our severe winters. They
resemble our commonly cultivated tree.
C. SPECIOSA.—United States, 1879. The Western Catalpa is
more erect and taller of growth than C. bignonioides. The flowers
too are larger, and of purer white, and with the throat markings of
purple and yellow more distinct and not inclined to run into each
other. Leaves large, heart-shaped, tapering to a point, of a light
pleasing green and soft to the touch. It flowers earlier, and is
more hardy than the former.
CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS.—New Jersey Tea. North America, 1713.
A shrub of 4 feet in height, with deep green serrated leaves, that
are 2 inches long and pubescent on the under sides. Flowers white,
in axillary panicles, and produced in great abundance. This is one
of the hardiest species, but succeeds best when afforded wall
C. AZUREUS.—Mexico, 1818. This species, though not hardy
enough for every situation, is yet sufficiently so to stand
unharmed as a wall plant. It grows from 10 feet to 12 feet high,
with deep-green leaves that are hoary on the under sides. The
flowers, which are borne in large, axillary panicles, are bright
blue, and produced in June and the following months. In a light,
dry soil and sunny position this shrub does well as a wall plant,
for which purpose it is one of the most ornamental. There are
several good nursery forms, of which the following are amongst the
best:—C. azureus Albert Pettitt, C. azureus albidus, C.
azureus Arnddii, one of the best, C. azureus Gloire de Versailles,
and C. azureus Marie Simon.
C. CUNEATUS (syn C. verrucosus).—California, 1848.
This is another half-hardy species that requires wall protection,
which may also be said of C. Veitchianus, one of the most beautiful
of the family, with dense clusters of rich blue flowers and a neat
habit of growth.
C. DENTATUS.—California, 1848. With deeply-toothed,
shining-green leaves, and deep blue, abundantly-produced flowers,
this is a well-known wall plant that succeeds in many parts of the
country, particularly within the influence of the sea. It commences
flowering in May, and frequently continues until frosts set in. It
is a very desirable species, that in favoured situations will grow
to fully 10 feet high, and with a spread laterally of nearly the
C. PAPILLOSUS.—California, 1848. This is a straggling
bush, with small, blunt leaves, and panicles of pale blue flowers
on long footstalks. A native of California and requiring wall
C. RIGIDUS.—Another Californian species, is of upright,
stiff growth, a sub-evergreen, with deep purple flowers produced in
April and May.
There are other less hardy kinds, including C. floribundus, C.
integerrimus, C. velutinus, and C. divaricatus.
CEDRELA SINENSIS (syn Ailanthus flavescens).—China,
1875. This is a fast growing tree, closely resembling the
Ailanthus, and evidently quite as hardy. It has a great advantage
over that tree, in that the flowers have an agreeable odour, those
of the Ailanthus being somewhat sickly and unpleasant. The flowers
are individually small, but arranged in immense hanging bunches
like those of Koelreuteria paniculata, and being pleasantly scented
are rendered still the more valuable. The whole plant has a yellow
hue, and the roots have a peculiar reddish colour, and very unlike
those of the Ailanthus, which are white.
CELASTRUS SCANDENS.—Climbing Waxwork, or Bitter Sweet.
North America, 1736. When planted in rich, moist soil, this soon
forms an attractive mass of twisting and twining growths, with
distinct glossy foliage in summer and brilliant scarlet fruit in
autumn. The flowers are inconspicuous, the chief beauty of the
shrub being the show of fruit, which resembles somewhat those of
the Spindle Tree (Euonymus), and to which it is nearly allied. A
native of North America, it grows from 12 feet to 15 feet high, and
is useful in this country for covering arches or tree stems, or for
allowing to run about at will on a mound of earth or on
CELTIS AUSTRALIS.—South Europe, 1796. This species is much
like C. occidentalis, with black edible fruit. It is not of so tall
growth as the American species.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.—Nettle tree. North America, 1656. In
general appearance this tree resembles the Elm, to which family it
belongs. It has reticulated, cordate-ovate, serrated leaves, with
small greenish flowers on slender stalks, and succeeded by
blackish-purple fruit about the size of a pea. A not very
ornamental tree, at least so far as flowers are concerned, but
valuable for lawn planting. It varies very much in the size and
shape of the leaves.
CERCIS CANADENSIS.—North America, 1730. This species
resembles C. Siliquastrum, but is of much smaller growth, and bears
paler flowers; while C. CHINENSIS, which is not hardy, has large,
C. SILIQUASTRUM.—Judas Tree. South Europe, 1596. A
small-growing tree of some 15 feet in height, and with usually a
rather ungainly and crooked mode of growth. It is, however, one of
our choicest subjects for ornamental planting, the handsome
reniform leaves and rosy-purple flowers produced along the branches
and before the leaves appear rendering it a great favourite with
planters. There are three distinct forms of this shrub—the
first, C. Siliquastrum alba, having pure white flowers; C.
Siliquastrum carnea, with beautiful deep pink flowers; and C.
Siliquastrum variegata, with neatly variegated foliage, though
rather inconstant of character. Natives of South Europe, and
amongst the oldest trees of our gardens.
They all succeed best when planted in rather damp loam, and do
not object to partial shade, the common species growing well even
beneath the drip of large standard trees.
CHIMONANTHUS FRAGRANS.—Winter Flower. Japan, 1766. This
Japanese shrub is certainly one of the most remarkable that could
be brought under notice, the deliciously fragrant flowers being
produced in abundance during the winter months, and while the plant
is yet leafless. Being of slender growth, it is best suited for
planting against a wall, the protection thus afforded being just
what is wanted for the perfect development of the pretty flowers.
C. fragrans grandiflora has larger and less fragrant flowers than
the species, and is more common in cultivation.
CHIONANTHUS RETUSA.—China, 1852. This is not a very hardy
species, and, being less ornamental than the American form, is not
to be recommended for general planting.
C. VIRGINICA.—Fringe Tree. North America, 1736. A very
ornamental, small-growing tree, with large deciduous leaves and
pendent clusters of pure white flowers with long fringe-like
petals, and from which the popular name has arisen. It is a
charming tree, or rather shrub, in this country, for one rarely
sees it more than 10 feet high, and one that, to do it justice,
must have a cool and rather damp soil and a somewhat shady
CHOISYA TERNATA.—Mexican Orange Flower. Mexico, 1825. A
beautiful and distinct shrub that succeeds well in the south and
west of England. The evergreen leaves are always fresh and
beautiful, and of a dark shining green, while the sweetly-fragrant
flowers are produced freely on the apices of last year's wood. They
have a singular resemblance to those of the orange, and on the
Continent are commonly grown as a substitute for that popular
flower. The plant succeeds well in any light, rich soil, and soon
grows into a goodly-sized shrub of 4 feet or 5 feet in height. As a
wall plant it succeeds well, but in warm, maritime situations it
may be planted as a standard without fear of harm. Cuttings root
freely if placed in slight heat.
CISTUS CRISPUS.—Portugal, 1656. This is a distinct
species, with curled leaves, and large reddish-purple flowers. It
is a valuable ornamental shrub, but, like the others, suffers from
the effects of frost.
C. LADANIFERUS.—Gum Cistus. Spain, 1629. A pretty but
rather tender shrub, growing in favourable situations to about 4
feet in height. It has lanceolate leaves that are glutinous above,
and thickly covered with a whitish tomentum on the under sides, and
large and showy vhite flowers with a conspicuous purple blotch at
the base of each petal. Unless in southern and western England, but
particularly on the sea-coast, this handsome Portuguese shrub is
not to be depended on, in so far as hardihood is concerned.
C. LAURIFOLIUS.—Laurel-leaved Cistus. Spain, 1731. This is
the hardiest species in cultivation, but, like the latter, is
favourable to the milder parts of these islands, and especially
maritime districts. Frequently it rises to 7 feet in height, and is
then an object of great beauty, the large yellowish-white flowers
showing well above the deep green Laurel-like leaves.
C. MONSPELIENSIS (South of Europe, 1656), and its variety C.
monspeliensis florentinus, the former with white, and the latter
with white and yellow flowers, are fairly hardy in the milder parts
of Britain, but cannot be recommended for general planting.
C. PURPUREUS.—Purple-flowered Cistas. In this species,
which may rank next to the latter in point of hardihood, the
flowers are of a deep reddish-purple, and with a darker blotch at
the base of each petal.
C. SALVIFOLIUS is of loose and rather untidy growth, with rugose
leaves and white flowers. It is very variable in character, and the
form generally cultivated grows about 4 feet high, and has
ovate-lanceolate, almost glabrous leaves.
Other species that are occasionally to be found in collections
are C. creticus, with yellow and purple flowers; C. hirsutus, white
with yellow blotches at the base of the petals; and C. Clusii, with
very large pure-white flowers. All the species of Gum Cistus, or
Rock Rose as they are very appropriately named, will be found to
succeed best when planted in exalted positions, and among light,
though rich, strong soil. They are easy of propagation.
CITRUS TRIFOLIATA.—Japan, 1869. This is a singular
low-growing shrub, with ternate leaves, spiny branches, and
fragrant white flowers. It is hardy in many English situations, but
does not fruit freely, although the orange-blossom-like flowers are
produced very abundantly. A pretty little glossy-leaved shrub that
is well worthy of attention, particularly where a cosy corner can
be put aside for its cultivation.
CLADRASTIS AMURENSIS.—Amoor Yellow Wood. Amur, 1880. This
is a shrub that is sure to be extensively cultivated when better
known, and more readily procured. It has stood uninjured for
several years in various parts of England, so that its hardihood
may be taken for granted. The pretty olive-green of the bark, and
the greyish-green of the leathery leaves, render the shrub one of
interest even in a flowerless state. In July and August the dense
spikes of white, or rather yellowish-white flowers are produced
freely, and that, too, even before the shrub has attained to a
height of 2 feet. It is well worthy of extended culture.
C. TINCTORIA (syn C. lutea and Virgilia
lutea).—Yellow Wood. North America, 1812. This is a
handsome deciduous tree that does well in many parts of the
country, and is valued for the rich profusion of white flowers
produced, and which are well set-off by the finely-cut pinnate
leaves. It is a valuable tree for park and lawn planting, requiring
a warm, dry soil, and sunny situation—conditions under which
the wood becomes well-ripened, and the flowers more freely
CLEMATIS ALPINA (syn Atragene alpina, A. austriaca and
A. siberica).—Europe and North America. This is a
climbing species with bi-ternately divided leaves, and large
flowers with four blue sepals and ten to twelve small flattened
organs, which are usually termed petals.
C. CIRRHOSA.—Evergreen Virgin's Bower. Spain, 1596. An
interesting, early-flowering species. The flowers, which are
greenish-white, are produced in bunches and very effective. It is
an evergreen species, of comparative hardihood, and flowers well in
C. FLAMMULA.—Virgin's Bower. France, 1596. This old and
well-known plant is quite hardy in this country. The leaves are
pinnate, and the flowers white and fragrant. C. Flammula
rubro-marginata is a worthy and beautiful-leaved variety.
C. FLORIDA.—Japan, 1776. This is a beautiful species, and
an old inhabitant of English gardens. Leaves composed of usually
three oval-shaped leaflets, and unusually bright of tint. The
flowers are very large, and pure white. It should be planted in a
warm sheltered corner against a wall.
C. GRAVEOLENS.—This is a dwarf shrub, with neatly
tripinnate leaves, and solitary, strongly-scented yellow flowers of
medium size. A native of Chinese Tartary, and quite hardy.
C. LANUGINOSA.—China, 1851. A handsome species, with large
purple leaves that are hairy on the under sides. Flowers pale blue
or lilac, very large, and composed of six or eight spreading
sepals. C. lanuginosa pallida has immense flowers, often fully half
a foot in diameter. Flowers in June.
C. MONTANA.—Nepaul, 1831. This is valuable on account of
its flowering in May. It is a free-growing species, with
trifoliolate leaves on long footstalks, and large white flowers. C.
montana grandiflora is a beautiful variety, having large white
flowers so abundantly produced as to hide the foliage. It is quite
hardy and of rampant growth.
C. PATENS (syns C. caerulea and C. azurea
grandiflora).—Japan, 1836. This has large, pale-violet
flowers, and is the parent of many single and double flowered
forms. The typical form is, however, very deserving of cultivation,
on account of the freedom with which it blooms during June and July
from the wood of the previous year. It is perfectly hardy even in
the far north.
C. VIORNA.—Leather Flower. United States. This is a showy,
small-flowered species, the flowers being campanulate,
greenish-white within and purplish without. C. Viorna coccinea is
not yet well known, but is one of the prettiest of the
small-flowered section. The flowers, which are leathery as in the
species, are of a beautiful vermilion on the outside and yellow
C. VITALBA.—Lady's Bower, or Old Man's Beard. A handsome
native climbing shrub, common in limestone or chalky districts, and
unusually abundant in the southern English counties. Clambering
over some neglected fence, often to nearly 20 feet in height, this
vigorous-growing plant is seen to best advantage, the three or
five-lobed leaves and festoons of greenish-white, fragrant flowers,
succeeded by the curious and attractive feathery carpels, render
the plant one of the most distinct and desirable of our native
wildlings flowering in August.
C. VITICELLA.—Spain, 1569. This is a well-known species of
not too rampant growth, and a native of Spain and Italy. The
flowers vary a good deal in colour, but in the typical plant they
are reddish-purple and produced throughout the summer. Crossed with
C. lanuginosa, this species has produced many ornamental and
beautiful hybrids, one of the finest and most popular being C.
C. WILLIAMSI (syn C. Fortunei).—Japan, 1863. The
fragrant, white flowers of this species are semi-double, and
consist of about 100 oblong-lanceolate sepals narrowed to the base.
The leathery leaves are trifoliolate with heart-shaped leaflets. It
proves quite hardy, and has several varieties.
GARDEN VARIETIES.—As well as the above there are many
beautiful garden hybrids, some of which in point of floral
colouring far outvie the parent forms. Included in the following
list are a few of the most beautiful kinds:—
Alba Victor. Alexandra. Beauty of Worcester. Belle of Woking.
Blue Gem. Duchess of Edinburgh. Edith Jackman. Fairy Queen. John
Gould Veitch. Lady Bovill. Lord Beaconsfield. Lucie Lemoine. Madame
Baron Veillard. Miss Bateman. Mrs. A. Jackman. Othello. Prince of
Wales. Rubella. Star of India. Stella. Venus Victrix. William
CLERODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM.—Japan, 1800. This is at once one
of the most beautiful and distinct of hardy shrubs. It is of stout,
nearly erect growth, 8 feet high, and nearly as much through, with
large, dark-green, ovate leaves, and deliciously fragrant white
flowers, with a purplish calyx, and which are at their best in
September. Thriving well in any light soil, being of vigorous
constitution, and extremely handsome of flower, are qualities which
combine to render this shrub one of particular importance in our
C. FOETIDUM, a native of China, is only hardy in southern and
seaside situations, where it forms a bush 5 feet high, with
heart-shaped leaves, and large clusters of rosy-pink flowers.
CLETHRA ACUMINATA.—Pointed-leaved Pepper Tree. Carolina,
1806. This is not so hardy as C. alnifolia, hailing from the
Southern States of North America, but with a little protection is
able to do battle with our average English winter. It resembles C.
alnifolia, except in the leaves, which are sharp pointed, and like
that species delights to grow in damp positions. The flowers are
white and drooping, and the growth more robust than is that of C.
alnifolia generally. For planting by the pond or lake-side, the
Pepper Trees are almost invaluable.
C. ALNIFOLIA.—Alder-leaved Pepper Tree. North America,
1831. A rather stiff-growing shrub of about 5 feet in height, with
leaves resembling those of our common Alder, and bearing towards
the end of July spikes of almost oppressively fragrant dull-white
flowers at the tips of the branches. It is a valuable shrub, not
only in an ornamental way, but on account of it thriving in damp,
swampy ground, where few others could exist, while at the same time
it will succeed and flower freely in almost any good garden
COCCULUS CAROLINUS.—This is a half hardy, twining shrub,
of free growth when planted by a tree stem in a sheltered wood, but
with by no means showy flowers; indeed, it may be described in few
words as a shrub of no great beauty nor value.
C. LAURIFOLIUS, from the Himalayas and Japan, is even less hardy
than the above, although, used as a wall plant, it has survived for
many years in the south and west of England. The foliage of this
species is neat and ornamental, but liable to injury from cold
COLLETIA CRUCIATA (syn C. bictonensis).—Chili,
1824. With flattened woody branches, and sharp-pointed spines which
take the place of leaves, this is at once one of the most singular
of hardy flowering shrubs. It forms a stout dense bush about 4 feet
high, and bears quantities of small white flowers, which render the
plant one of great beauty during the summer months.
C. SPINOSA.—Peru, 1823. This species grows fairly well in
some parts of England and Ireland, and is a curious shrub with
awl-shaped leaves, and, like the other members of the family, an
abundant producer of flowers. It thrives best as a wall plant, and
when favourably situated a height of 12 feet is sometimes
COLUTEA ARBORESCENS.—Bladder Senna. France, 1548. This is
a common plant in English gardens, bearing yellow Pea-shaped
flowers, that are succeeded by curious reddish bladder-like seed
pods. It grows to 10 feet or 12 feet in height, and is usually of
lax and slender growth, but perfectly hardy.
C. CRUENTA (syn C. orientalis and C.
sanguine).—Oriental Bladder Senna. Levant, 1710. This is
a free-growing, round-headed, deciduous bush, of from 6 feet to 8
feet high when fully grown. The leaves are pinnate and glaucous,
smooth, and bright green above, and downy beneath. Flowers
individually large, of a reddish-copper colour, with a yellow spot
at the base of the upper petal. The fruit is an inflated
boat-shaped reddish pod. The Bladder Sennas are of very free
growth, even in poor, sandy soil, and being highly ornamental,
whether in flower or fruit, are to be recommended for extensive
CORIARIA MYRTIFOLIA.—South Europe, 1629. A deciduous shrub
growing to about 4 feet in height, with Myrtle-like leaves, and
upright terminal racemes of not very showy flowers, produced about
mid-summer—generally from May to August. For its pretty
foliage and the frond-like arrangement of its branches it is
principally worthy of culture. From southern Europe and the north
of Africa, where it is an occupant of waste ground and hedges, but
still rare in our gardens.
CORNUS ALBA.—White-fruited Dogwood. Siberia, 1741. This is
a native of northern Asia and Siberia, not of America as Loudon
stated. For the slender, red-barked branches and white or creamy
flowers, this species is well worthy of notice, while the white
fruit renders it very distinct and effective. It grows to about 10
feet in height. C. alba Spathi is one of the most ornamental of
shrubs bearing coloured leaves, these in spring being of a
beautiful bronzy tint, and changing towards summer to a mixture of
gold and green, or rather an irregular margin of deep gold
surrounds each leaf. It was first sent out by the famous Berlin
nurseryman whose name it bears. C. alba Gouchaulti is another
variegated leaved variety, but has no particular merit, and
originated in one of the French nurseries.
C. ALTERNIFOLIA.—North America, 1760. This species is a
lover of damp ground, and grows from 20 feet to nearly 30 feet
high, with clusters of pale yellow flowers, succeeded by
bluish-black berries that render the plant highly ornamental. It is
still rare in British gardens.
C. AMOMUM (syn C. sericea).—From the eastern United
States. It is a low-growing, damp-loving shrub, with
yellowish-white flowers, borne abundantly in small clusters. It
grows about 8 feet in height, and has a graceful habit, owing to
the long and lithe branches spreading regularly over the ground.
The fruit is pale blue, and the bark a conspicuous purple.
C. ASPERIFOLIA is another showy American species, with
reddish-brown bark, hairy leaves, of small size, and rather small
flowers that are succeeded by pearly-white berries borne on
conspicuous reddish stalks.
C. BAILEYI resembles somewhat the better-known C. stolonifera,
but it is of more erect habit, is not stoloniferous, has rather
woolly leaves, at least on the under side, and bears
yellowish-white fruit. It grows in sandy soil, and is a native of
C. CALIFORNICA (syn C. pubescens) grows fully 10 feet
high, with smooth branches, hairy branchlets, and cymes of pretty
white flowers, succeeded by white fruit. It occurs from southern
California to British Columbia.
C. CANADENSIS.—Dwarf Cornel or Birchberry. Canada, 1774.
This is of herbaceous growth, and remarkable for the large
cream-coloured flower bracts, and showy red fruit.
C. CANDIDISSIMA (syn C. paniculata) is a beautiful
American species, with panicled clusters of almost pure white
flowers, that are succeeded by pale blue fruit. It is a small
growing tree, with narrow, pointed leaves, and greyish coloured,
smooth bark. Like many of its fellows, this species likes rather
C. CIRCINATA, from the eastern United States, is readily
distinguished by its large, round leaves, these sometimes measuring
6 inches long by 3-1/2 inches wide. The yellowish-white flowers are
individually small, and succeeded by bright blue fruits, each as
large as a pea.
C. CAPITATA (syn Benthamia fragifera).—Nepaul,
1825. An evergreen shrub, with oblong, light green leaves and
terminal inconspicuous greenish flowers, surrounded by an involucre
of four large, pinky-yellow bracts. It is this latter that renders
the shrub so very conspicuous when in full flower. Unfortunately,
the Benthamia is not hardy throughout the country, the south and
west of England, especially Cornwall, and the southern parts of
Ireland being the favoured spots where this handsome shrub or small
growing tree—for in Cornwall it has attained to fully 45 feet
in height, and in Cork nearly 30 feet—may be found in a
really thriving condition. Around London it does well enough for a
time, but with severe frost it gets cut back to the ground, and
though it quickly recovers and grows rapidly afterwards, before it
is large enough to flower freely it usually suffers again. The
fruits are as large and resemble Strawberries, and of a rich
scarlet or reddish hue, and though ripe in October they frequently
remain on the trees throughout the winter. Both for its flowers and
fruit, this Nepaul shrub-tree is well worthy of a great amount of
trouble to get it established in a cosy corner of the garden. Rich,
well-drained loam is all it wants, while propagation by seed is
C. FLORIDA, the Florida Dogwood, is not always very satisfactory
when grown in this country, our climate in some way or other being
unsuitable for its perfect development. It is a handsome shrub or
small-growing tree, with small flowers surrounded by a large and
conspicuous white involucre. The leaves are ovate-oblong, and
pubescent on the undersides. It is a valuable as well as ornamental
little tree, and is worthy of a great amount of coddling and
coaxing to get it established.
C. KOUSA (syn Benthamia japonica).—Japan. This is a
very distinct and beautiful flowering shrub. Flowers very small
individually, but borne in large clusters, and yellow, the showy
part being the four large, pure white bracts which subtend each
cluster of blossoms, much like those in Cornus florida, only the
bracts are more pointed than those of the latter species. Being
quite hardy, and a plant of great interest and beauty, this little
known Cornus is sure to be widely planted when better known.
C. MACROPHYLLA (syn C. brachypoda).—Himalayas,
China and Japan, 1827. This is an exceedingly handsome species, of
tabulated appearance, occasioned by the branches being arranged
almost horizontally. The leaves are of large size, elliptic-ovate,
and are remarkable for their autumnal tints. The elder-like flowers
appear in June. They are pure white and arranged in large cymes. C.
macrophylla variegata is a distinct and very ornamental form of the
above, in which the leaf margins are bordered with white.
C. MAS.—Cornelian Cherry. Austria, 1596. One of our
earliest flowering trees, the clusters of yellow blooms being
produced in mild seasons by the middle of February. It is not at
all fastidious about soil, thriving well in that of very opposite
description. It deserves to be extensively cultivated, if only for
the profusion of brightly-tinted flowers, which completely cover
the shoots before the leaves have appeared. C. Mas
aurea-elegantissima, the tricolor-leaved Dogwood, is a strikingly
ornamental shrub, with green leaves encircled with a golden band,
the whole being suffused with a faint pinky tinge. It is of more
slender growth than the species, and a very desirable acquisition
to any collection of hardy ornamental shrubs. C. Mas
argenteo-variegata is another pretty shrub, the leaves being
margined with clear white.
C. NUTTALLII grows to fully 50 feet in height, and is one of the
most beautiful of the Oregon and Californian forest trees. The
flower bracts are of large size, often 6 inches across, the
individual bracts being broad and white, and fully 2-1/2 inches
C. OFFICINALIS is a Japanese species, that is, however, quite
hardy in this country, and nearly resembles the better known C.
Mas, but from which it may at once be known by the tufts of
brownish hairs that are present in the axils of the principal leaf
C. STOLONIFERA.—Red Osier Dogwood. North America, 1741.
This has rather inconspicuous flowers, that are succeeded by
whitish fruit, and is of greatest value for the ruddy tint of the
young shoots. It grows fully 6 feet high, and increases rapidly by
underground suckers. The species is quite hardy.
C. TARTARICA (syn C. siberica).—Siberia, 1824. This
has much brighter coloured bark, and is of neater and dwarfer
habit, than the typical C. alba. It is a very beautiful and
valuable shrub, of which there is a variegated leaved form.
COROKIA COTONEASTER.—New Zealand, 1876. A curious,
dwarf-growing shrub, with small, bright yellow, starry flowers
produced in June. The hardiness of the shrub is rather
CORONILLA EMERUS.—Scorpion Senna. France, 1596. This
shrub, a native of the middle and southern parts of Europe, forms
an elegant loose bush about 5 feet high, with smooth, pinnate,
sub-evergreen leaves, and Pea-shaped flowers, that are reddish in
the bud state, but bright yellow when fully expanded. It is an
elegant plant, and on account of its bearing hard cutting back, is
well suited for ornamental hedge formation; but however used the
effect is good, the distinct foliage and showy flowers making it a
general favourite with planters. It will thrive in very poor soil,
but prefers a light rich loam.
CORYLOPSIS HIMALAYANA.—E. Himalayas, 1879. This is a
stronger growing species than C. pauciflora and C. spicata, with
large leaves averaging 4 inches long, that are light green above
and silky on the under sides. The parallel veins of the leaves are
very pronounced, while the leaf-stalks, as indeed the young twigs
too, are covered with a hairy pubescence.
C. PAUCIFLORA is readily distinguished from the former by its
more slender growth, smaller leaves, and fewer flowered spikes.
C. SPICATA.—Japan, 1864. This Japanese shrub is of very
distinct appearance, having leaves like those of our common Hazel,
and drooping spikes of showy-yellowish, fragrant flowers that are
produced before the leaves. There is a variegated form in
The various species of Corylopsis are very ornamental garden
plants, and to be recommended, on account of their early flowering,
for prominent positions in the shrubbery or by the woodland walk.
Light, rich loam seems to suit them well.
CORYLUS AVELLANA PURPUREA.—Purple Hazel. This has large
leaves of a rich purple colour, resembling those of the purple
Beech, and is a very distinct plant for the shrubbery border.
Should be cut down annually if large leaves are desired.
C. COLURNA.—Constantinople Hazel. Turkey, 1665. This is
the largest and most ornamental of the family, and is mentioned
here on account of the showy catkins with which the tree is usually
well supplied. When thickly produced, as they usually are on
established specimens, these long catkins have a most effective and
pleasing appearance, and tend to render the tree one of the most
distinct in cultivation. Under favourable circumstances, such as
when growing in a sweet and rather rich brown loam, it attains to
fully 60 feet in height, and of a neat shape, from the branches
being arranged horizontally, or nearly so. Even in a young state
the Constantinople Hazel is readily distinguished from the common
English species, by the softer and more angular leaves, and by the
whitish bark which comes off in long strips. The stipules, too,
form an unerring guide to its identity, they being long, linear,
COTONEASTER BACILLARIS.—Nepaul, 1841. A large-growing
species, and one of the few members of the family that is more
ornamental in flower than in fruit. It is of bold, portly, upright
growth, and sends up shoots from the base of the plant. The pretty
white flowers are borne in clusters for some distance along the
slender shoots, and have a very effective and pleasing appearance;
indeed, the upper portion of the plant has the appearance of a mass
of white blossoms.
C. FRIGIDA.—Nepaul, 1824. The species forms a large shrub
or low tree with oblong, elliptical, sub-evergreen leaves. The
flowers are white and borne in large corymbs, which are followed by
scarlet berries in September.
C. MICROPHYLLA.—Small-leaved Cotoneaster. Nepaul, 1825.
This is, from a flowering point of view, probably the most useful
of any member of this rather large genus. Its numerous pretty white
flowers, dark, almost Yew-green leaves, and abundance of the
showiest red berries in winter, will ever make this dwarf,
clambering plant a favourite with those who are at all interested
in beautiful shrubs. All, or nearly all, the species of Cotoneaster
are remarkable and highly valued for their showy berries, but,
except the above, and perhaps C. buxifolia (Box-leaved
Cotoneaster), few others are worthy of consideration from a purely
flowering point of view.
C. SIMONSII.—Khasia, 1868. The stems of this species
usually grow from 4 feet to 6 feet high, with sub-erect habit. The
leaves are roundly-elliptic and slightly silky beneath. The small
flowers are succeeded by a profusion of scarlet berries that ripen
in autumn. This is generally considered the best for garden
CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS.—South Europe, 1640. This is a very
vigorous-growing species, with a wide, spreading head of rather
upright-growing branches. The flowers are showy and the fruit large
and of a pleasing red colour.
C. AZAROLUS ARONIA (syn C. Aronia).—Aronia Thorn.
South Europe, 1810. This tree attains to a height of 20 feet, has
deeply lobed leaves that are wedge-shaped at the base, and slightly
pubescent on the under sides. The flowers, which usually are at
their best in June, are white and showy, and succeeded by large
yellow fruit. Generally the Aronia Thorn forms a rather upright and
branchy specimen of neat proportions, and when studded with its
milk-white flowers may be included amongst the most distinct and
ornamental of the family.
C. COCCINEA.—Scarlet-fruited Thorn. North America, 1683.
If only for its lovely white flowers, with bright, pinky anthers,
it is well worthy of a place even in a selection of ornamental
flowering trees and shrubs. It is, however, rendered doubly
valuable in that the cordate-ovate leaves turn of a warm brick
colour in the autumn, while the fruit, and which is usually
produced abundantly, is of the brightest red.
C. COCCINEA MACRANTHA.—North America, 1819. This bears
some resemblance to the Cockspur Thorn, but has very long, curved
spines—longer, perhaps, than those of any other species.
C. CORDATA is one of the latest flowering species, in which
respect it is even more hardy than the well-known C.
tanace-tifolia. It forms a small compact tree, of neat and regular
outline, with dark green shining leaves, and berries about the same
size as those of the common species, and deep red.
C. CRUS-GALLI.—Cockspur Thorn. North America, 1691. This
has large and showy white flowers that are succeeded by deep red
berries. It is readily distinguished by the long, curved spines
with which the whole tree is beset. Of this species there are
numerous worthy forms, including C. Crus-galli Carrierii, which
opens at first white, and then turns a showy flesh colour; C.
Crus-galli Layi, C. Crus-galli splendens, C. Crus-galli prunifolia,
C. Crus-galli pyracanthifolia, and C. Crus-galli salicifolia, all
forms of great beauty—whether for their foliage, or beautiful
and usually plentifully-produced flowers.
C. DOUGLASII.—North America, 1830. This is peculiar in
having dark purple or almost black fruit. It is of stout growth,
often reaching to 20 feet in height, and belongs to the
C. NIGRA (syn C. Celsiana).—A tree 20 feet high,
with stout branches, and downy, spineless shoots. Leaves large,
ovate-acute, deeply incised, glossy green above and downy beneath.
Flowers large and fragrant, pure white, and produced in close heads
in June. Fruit large, oval, downy, and yellow when fully ripe. A
native of Sicily, and known under the names of C. incisa and C.
Leeana. This species must not be confused with a variety of our
common Thorn bearing a similar name.
C. OXYACANTHA.—Common Hawthorn. This is, perhaps, the most
ornamental species in cultivation, and certainly the commonest. The
common wild species needs no description, the fragrant flowers
varying in colour from pure white to pink, being produced in the
richest profusion. Under cultivation, however, it has produced some
very distinct and desirable forms, far superior to the parent,
including amongst others those with double-white, pink, and scarlet
C. OXYACANTHA PUNICEA flore-pleno (Paul's double-scarlet Thorn),
is one of, if not the handsomest variety, with large double flowers
that are of the richest crimson. Other good flowering kinds include
C. Oxyacantha praecox (Glastonbury Thorn); C. Oxyacantha
Oliveriana; C. Oxyacantha punicea, with deep scarlet flowers; C.
Oxyacantha rosea, rose-coloured and abundantly-produced flowers; C.
Oxyacantha foliis aureis, with yellow fruit; C. Oxyacantha
laciniata, cut leaves; C. Oxyacantha multiplex, double-white
flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis argenteis, having silvery-variegated
leaves: C. Oxyacantha pendula, of semi-weeping habit; C. Oxyacantha
stricta, with an upright and stiff habit of growth; C. Oxyacantha
Leeana, a good form; and C. Oxyacantha leucocarpa.
C. PARVIFOLIA.—North America, 1704. This is a miniature
Thorn, of slow growth, with leaves about an inch long, and solitary
pure-white flowers of large size. The flowers open late in the
season, and are succeeded by yellowish-green fruit.
C. PYRACANTHA.—Fiery Thorn. South Europe, 1629. This is a
very distinct species, with lanceolate serrated leaves, and pinkish
or nearly white flowers. The berries of this species are, however,
the principal attraction, being orange-scarlet, and produced in
dense clusters. C. Pyracantha crenulata and C. Pyracantha Lelandi
are worthy varieties of the above, the latter especially being one
of the most ornamental-berried shrubs in cultivation.
C. TANACETIFOLIA.—Tansy-leaved Thorn. Greece, 1789. This
is a very late-flowering species, and remarkable for its Tansy-like
foliage. It is of unusually free growth, and in almost any class of
soil, and is undoubtedly, in so far at least as neatly divided
leaves and wealth of fruit are concerned, one of the most distinct
and desirable species of Thorn.
Other good species and varieties that may just be mentioned as
being worthy of cultivation are C. apiifolia, C. Crus-galli
horrida, C. orientalis, and C. tomentosum (syn C. punctata).
To a lesser or greater extent, the various species and varieties of
Thorn are of great value for the wealth and beauty of flowers they
produce, but the above are, perhaps, the most desirable in that
particular respect. They are all of free growth, and, except in
waterlogged soils, thrive well and flower freely.
CYTISUS ALBUS.—White Spanish Broom. Portugal, 1752. This
is a large-growing shrub of often 10 feet in height, with wiry,
somewhat straggling branches, and remarkable for the wealth of
pure-white flowers it produces. In May and June, if favourably
situated, every branch is wreathed with small white flowers, and
often to such an extent that at a short distance away the plant
looks like a sheet of white. Being perfectly hardy and of very free
growth in any light soil, and abundantly floriferous, this handsome
shrub is one of particular value in ornamental planting. By placing
three or five plants in clump-fashion, the beauty of this Broom is
C. ALDUS INCARNATUS (syn C. incarnatus) resembles C.
purpureus in its leaves and general appearance, but it is of larger
growth. The flowers, which are at their best in May, are of a
vinous-rose colour, and produced plentifully.
C. BIFLORUS (syn C. elongatus).—Hungary, 1804. This
is a dwarf, spreading, twiggy bush, of fully a yard high. Leaves
trifoliolate, clothed beneath with closely adpressed hairs, and
bright yellow, somewhat tubular flowers, usually produced in
C. DECUMBENS.—A charming alpine species, of low, spreading
growth, bright-green three-parted leaves, and bearing axillary
bunches of large yellow, brownish-purple tinted flowers. A native
of the French and Italian Alps, and quite hardy.
C. NIGRICANS.—Austria, 1730. Another beautiful species,
with long, erect racemes of golden-yellow flowers, and one whose
general hardihood is undoubted. On its own roots, and allowed to
roam at will, this pretty, small-growing Broom is of far greater
interest than when it is grafted mop-high on a Laburnum stem, and
pruned into artificial shapes, as is, unfortunately, too often the
C. PURPUREUS.—Purple Broom. Austria, 1792. Alow, spreading
shrub, with long wiry shoots, clothed with neat trifoliolate
leaves, and bearing an abundance of its purple, Pea-shaped flowers.
There is a white-flowered form, C. purpureus albus, and another
named C. purpureus ratis-bonensis, with pretty yellow flowers,
produced on long and slender shoots.
C. SCOPARIUS.—Yellow Broom. This is a well-known native
shrub, with silky, angular branches, and bright yellow flowers in
summer. There are several varieties, but the most remarkable and
handsome is C. scoparius Andreanus, in which the wings of the
flowers are of a rich golden brown. It is one of the showiest
shrubs in cultivation.
For ornamental planting the above are about the best forms of
Broom, but others might include C. austriacus, C. Ardoini, and C.
capitatus, the latter being unusually hardy, and bearing dense
heads of flowers. In so far as soil is concerned, the Brooms are
readily accommodated, while either from seeds or cuttings they are
DABOËCIA POLIFOLIA (syn Menziesia polifolia).—St.
Dabeoc's Heath. South Western Europe, Ireland and the Azores. A
dwarf, and rather straggling, viscid shrub, with linear-ovate
leaves that are silvery beneath. The flowers are pink, and
abundantly produced. D. polifolia alba has white flowers; and D.
polifolia atro-purpurea, purplish flowers.
DANAË LAURUS (syn D. racemosa and Ruscus
racemosus).—Alexandrian Laurel. A native of Portugal
(1739), with glossy-green leaf substitutes, and racemes of small,
not very showy, greenish-yellow flowers.
DAPHNE ALPINA.—Italy, 1759. A deciduous species, which has
white or rosy-white, sweet-scented flowers. It is a pretty, but
rare shrub, that grows well in light sandy leaf soil.
D. ALTAICA.—Siberia, 1796. Though rare in gardens, this is
a pretty and neat-foliaged species, and bears white flowers in
abundance. It wants a warm corner and dry soil.
D. BLAGAYANA.—Styria, 1872. This is still rare in
cultivation, but it is a very desirable species, bearing
ivory-white highly-fragrant flowers. For the alpine garden it is
particularly suitable, and though growing rather slowly thrives
well in good light soil.
D. CHAMPIONI (syn D. Fortunei), from China, is a rare and
pretty species, bearing lilac flowers in winter, and whilst the
shrub is leafless. It does best in a warm situation, such as
planted against a wall facing south.
D. CNEORUM.—Garland Flower. South Europe, 1752. This is a
charming rock shrub, of dwarf, trailing habit, with small
glossy-green leaves, and dense clusters of deep pink,
D. FIONIANA is of neat growth, with small, glossy, dark leaves,
and pale rose-coloured flowers. Its sturdy, dwarf habit, constant
verdure, and pretty sweet-scented flowers, should make this species
a favourite with cultivators. Known also as D. hyemalis.
D. GENKWA.—Japanese Lilac. Japan, 1866. This is a rare and
beautiful species, of recent introduction, with large lilac-tinted,
D. LAUREOLA.—Spurge Laurel. This is not, in so far at
least as flowers are concerned, a showy species, but the ample
foliage and sturdy habit of the plant will always render this
native species of value for the shrubbery. It is of value, too, as
growing and flowering freely in the shade. The flowers are
sweetly-scented and of a greenish-yellow colour, and appear about
D. MEZEREUM.—The Mezereon. Europe (England). One of the
commonest and most popular of hardy garden shrubs. It is of stout,
strict growth, and produces clusters of pinky, rose, or purplish
flowers before winter is past, and while the branches are yet
leafless. Few perfectly hardy flowering shrubs are so popular as
the Mezereon, and rightly so, for a more beautiful plant could not
be mentioned, wreathed as every branch is, and almost back to the
main stem, with the showiest of flowers. It likes good, rich,
dampish soil, and delights to grow in a quiet, shady nook, or even
beneath the spread of our larger forest trees. There are several
very distinct varieties, of which the white-flowered D. Mezereum
flore albo is one of the most valuable. The fruit of this variety
is bright golden-yellow. D. Mezereum autumnale and D. Mezereum
atro-rubrum are likewise interesting and beautiful forms.
D. PETRAEA (syn D. rupestris).—Rock Daphne. Tyrol.
This is quite hardy in the more sheltered corners of the rock
garden, with neat, shining foliage and pretty rosy flowers,
produced so thickly all over the plant as almost to hide the
foliage from view. At Kew it thrives well in peaty loam and
limestone, and although it does not increase very quickly is yet
happy and contented. It is a charming rock shrub.
D. PONTICA.—Pontic Daphne. Asia Minor, 1759. This is much
like D. lauriola, but has shorter and more oval leaves, and the
flowers, instead of being borne in fives like that species, are
produced in pairs. They are also of a richer yellow, and more
D. SERICEA (syn D. collina).—Italy and Asia Minor,
1820. This forms a bush fully 2 feet high, with evergreen, oblong,
shining leaves, and clusters of rose-coloured flowers that are
pleasantly scented. It is quite hardy, and an interesting species
that is well worthy of more extended culture. There is a variety of
this with broader foliage than the species, and named D. sericea
latifolia (syn D. collina latifolia).
DAPHNIPHYLLUM GLAUCESCENS.—East Indies, Java and Corea. A
handsome Japanese shrub that will be valued for its neat
Rhododendron-like foliage, compact habit of growth, and for the
conspicuous bark which is of a warm reddish hue. The leaves are
large and elliptic, six inches long, and are rendered strangely
conspicuous from the foot-stalks and midrib being dull crimson,
this affording a striking contrast to the delicate green of the
leaves. It grows freely in light sandy peat. There are two
well-marked forms, one named D. glaucescens viridis, in which the
red markings of the leaves are absent; and D. glaucescens
jezoensis, a pretty and uncommon variety.
DESFONTAINEA SPINOSA.—Andes from Chili to New Grenada,
1853. This is a desirable shrub, and one that is perfectly hardy in
most parts of the country. It is a charming shrub of bold, bushy
habit, with prickly holly-like foliage, and scarlet and yellow,
trumpet-shaped pendent flowers, borne in quantity. The shelter of a
wall favours the growth and flowering of this handsome shrub, but
it also succeeds well in the open if planted in rich, light soil,
and in positions that are not exposed to cold and cutting
DEUTZIA CRENATA (syn D. scabra and D.
Fortunei).—Japan 1863. This is of stout, bushy growth,
often reaching a height of 8 feet, and lateral spread of nearly as
much. The ovate-lanceolate leaves are rough to the touch, and its
slender, but wiry stems, are wreathed for a considerable distance
along with racemes of pure white flowers. It is a very distinct
shrub, of noble port, and when in full flower is certainly one of
the most ornamental of hardy shrubs. The double-flowered form, D.
crenata flore-pleno, is one of the prettiest flowering shrubs in
cultivation, the wealth of double flowers, not white as in the
species, but tinged with reddish-purple being highly attractive. D.
crenata, Pride of Rochester, is another form with double-white
flowers, and a most distinct and beautiful shrub. Two other very
beautiful varieties are those known as D. crenata Watererii and D.
D. GRACILIS is a somewhat tender shrub of fully 18 inches high,
with smooth leaves and pure-white flowers produced in the greatest
freedom. It does well in warm, sheltered sites, but is most
frequently seen as a greenhouse plant. A native of Japan.
DIERVILLA FLORIBUNDA (syn D. multiflora and Weigelia
floribunda), from Japan, 1864, has narrow, tubular,
purplish-coloured corollas, that are only slightly opened out at
the mouth. The Diervillas are valuable decorative shrubs, of free
growth in good rich loam, and bearing a great abundance of the
showiest of flowers. For shrubbery planting they must ever rank
high, the beautiful flowers and rich green ample leafage rendering
them distinct and attractive.
D. GRANDIFLORA (syn D. amabilis and Weigelia
amabilis).—Japan. This is of larger growth than D. rosea,
with strongly reticulated leaves, that are prominently veined on
the under sides, and much larger, almost white flowers. It is a
distinct and worthy species. There are some beautiful varieties of
this species, named Isolinae, Van Houttei, and Striata.
D. ROSEA (syn Weigelia rosea).—China, 1844. This is
a handsome hardy shrub of small stature, with ovate-lanceolate
leaves, and clusters of showy pink, or sometimes white flowers,
that are produced in April and May. There are many good varieties
of this shrub, of which the following are the most
popular:—D. rosea arborescens grandiflora; D. rosea Lavallii,
with an abundance of crimson-red flowers; D. rosea Stelzneri, with
an abundance of deep red flowers; D. rosea hortensis nivea, large
foliage, and large, pure-white flowers; D. rosea candida, much like
the latter, but bearing pure-white flowers; and D. rosea Looymansii
aurea has beautiful golden leaves.
DISCARIA LONGISPINA.—This is at once a curious and
beautiful shrub, of low, creeping growth, and poorly furnished with
leaves, which, however, are amply made up for by the deep green of
the shoots and stems, and which give to the plant almost the
appearance of an evergreen. The flowers, which are bell-shaped and
white, are almost lavishly produced, and as they last for a very
long time, with only the pure white assuming a pinky tinge when
subjected to excessive sunshine, the value of the shrub is still
further enhanced. For planting against a mound of rock this
scrambling shrub is of value, but the position should not be
exposed to cold winds, for the plant is somewhat tender. From South
America, and allied to the better known Colletias.
D. SERRATIFOLIA (syn Colletia serratifolia), is even a
handsomer plant than the former, with minute serrated foliage, and
sheets of small white flowers in June.
DIOSPYROS KAKI COSTATA.—The Date Plum. China, 1789. Fruit
as big as a small apple; leaves leathery, entire, and broadly
ovate; flowers and fruits in this country when afforded the
protection of a wall. The fruit is superior to that of D.
D. LOTUS, the common Date Plum, is a European species, with
purplish flowers, and oblong leaves that are reddish on the under
sides. Both species want a light, warm soil, and sheltered
D. VIRGINIANA.—The Persimmon, or Virginian Date Plum.
North America, 1629. A small-growing tree, with coriaceous leaves,
and greenish-yellow flowers. In southern situations and by the
seaside it is perfectly hardy, and succeeds well, but in other
districts it is rather tender. The fruit is edible, yellow in
colour, and about an inch in diameter.
DIRCA PALUSTRIS.—Leather Wood. North America, 1750. A
much-branched bush, of quite a tree-like character, but rarely more
than 3 feet high. To the Daphnes it is nearly allied, and is close
in resemblance; but there is a curious yellowish hue pervading the
whole plant. The flowers are produced on the naked shoots in April,
and are rendered conspicuous by reason of the pendent yellow
stamens. They are borne in terminal clusters of three or four
together. It delights to grow in a cool, moist soil, indeed it is
only when so situated that the Leather Wood can be seen in a really
DRIMYS AROMATICA (syn Tasmannia
aromatica).—Tasmanian Pepper Plant. Tasmania, 1843. This
is, if we might say so, a more refined plant than D. Winteri, with
smaller and narrower leaves, and smaller flowers. The plant, too,
has altogether a faint reddish tinge, and is of upright growth. A
native of Tasmania, and called by the natives the Pepper Plant, the
fruit being used as a substitute for that condiment. Like the other
species the present plant is only hardy in warm, maritime places,
and when afforded the protection of a wall.
D. WINTERI (syn Winter a aromatica).—Winter's Bark.
South America, 1827. The fine evergreen character is the chief
attraction of this American shrub, so far at least as garden
ornamentation is concerned. With some persons even the
greenish-white flowers are held in esteem, and it cannot be denied
that a well flowered plant has its own attractions. The long,
narrow leaves are pale green above and glaucous beneath, and make
the shrub of interest, both on account of their evergreen nature
and brightness of tint. Unfortunately it is not very hardy,
requiring even in southern England a sunny wall to do it
ELAEAGNUS ARGENTEA.—Silver Berry. North America, 1813. A
spreading shrub 8 feet or 10 feet high, with lanceolate leaves
clothed with silvery scales. The flowers are axillary and
clustered, and are succeeded by pretty, silvery-ribbed berries.
E. GLABRA (syn E. reflexus).—From Japan. This is
one of the handsomest species, forming bushes of delightful green,
leathery leaves, and with a neat and rather compact habit of
growth. It grows with great freedom when planted in light, sandy
soil, big globose bushes being the result of a few years' growth.
Being perfectly hardy it is to be recommended if only for the ample
leathery, deep green foliage. The flowers are inconspicuous. There
is a form having the leaves margined with pale yellow, and known
under the name of E. glabra variegata.
E. LONGIPES (syn E. edulis and E. crisp
a).—Japan, 1873. This species, is also worthy of culture,
whether for the ornamental flowers or fruit. It is a shrub 6 feet
high, bearing an abundance of spotted, oval red berries on long
footstalks. Quite hardy.
E. MACROPHYLLA.—Japan. This is of robust growth, with
handsome, dark green leaves, and purplish branch tips. The leaves
are thick of texture, often fully 3 inches long, glossy-green
above, and silvery beneath. The latter is all the more remarkable,
as the leaves have the habit of curling up their edges, and thus
revealing the light, silvery tint of the under sides. It thrives
well in light, sandy peat, and may be relied upon as one of the
hardiest of shrubs.
E. ROTUNDIFOLIA.—An interesting and perfectly hardy
species, growing about five feet high, and remarkable for the great
wealth of pretty scarlet and amber-coloured berries. The flowers
are not very showy, but this is made up by the beautiful silvery
leaves, most pronounced on the under sides, and wealth of fruit,
which hangs on long stalks like Cherries.
Other species of less interest are E. pungens, of which there is
a variegated variety; E. Simoni, a neat Chinese shrub; and E.
latifolia, of good habit and with large leaves. The various species
and varieties of Elaeagnus may all be cultivated in light, free
soil, and from experiments that were recently made, they have been
found of great value for planting by the seaside. They are
popularly known as the Wild Olives and Evergreen Oleasters.
EMBOTHRIUM COCCINEUM.—Fire Bush. South America, 1851. This
is a beautiful shrub, of tall growth, with flowers of great
interest and beauty. Except in warm and favoured situations, it is
not very hardy, and should always be grown as a wall plant. The
fiery scarlet, orange-tinted flowers, resembling somewhat those of
the Honeysuckle, are very beautiful by the first weeks of May. It
grows to about 6 feet in height in southern England, and is, when
in full flower, a shrub of unusual beauty.
EPHEDRA VULGARIS (syn Ephedra monastachya), from Siberia,
1772, is a half-hardy shrub of trailing habit, with inconspicuous
flowers. Thriving in very poor soil, or on rocky situations, is the
only reason why it is introduced here.
EPIGAEA REPENS.—Ground Laurel, or New England Mayflower.
Northern United States, 1736. This is, perhaps, in so far as
stature is concerned, hardly worthy of a place in our list, yet it
is such a pretty and useful shrub, though rarely rising more than 6
inches from the ground, that we cannot well pass it over. For
planting beneath Pine or other trees, where it can spread about at
will, this prostrate shrub is most at home. There it enlivens the
spot with its pretty evergreen foliage, and sweet-scented, white or
pinky flowers. It is quite hardy.
ERCILLA SPICATA (syn Bridgesia spicata).—Chili,
1840. A small-growing, half-climbing shrub, with leathery, deep
green leaves, and inconspicuous flowers. Hailing from Chili, it is
not very hardy, but given the protection of a wall, or planted
against a tree-stump, it soon forms a neat mass of evergreen
ERICA CARNEA.—South Europe, 1763. This is one of the most
beautiful and desirable of hardy Heaths, on account of the
richly-coloured flowers and early season at which they are
produced. In the typical species the flowers are pink or
flesh-coloured, and produced in January and February. It is a
dwarf, compact growing species, with bright green foliage. There is
a form with pure white flowers, named E. carnea alba, or E.
herbacea, but although distinct and beautiful, it is not of so
robust growth as the parent.
E. CILIARIS.—A pretty native species, with ciliate
glandular leaves, and racemes of highly-coloured, rosy flowers.
Found in Dorsetshire and Cornwall.
E. CINEREA,—Gray-leaved Heath. In this species, also a
native of Britain, the flowers are of a reddish-purple colour, and
borne in dense terminal racemes. There are numerous varieties,
including a white-flowered E. cinerea alba; E. cinerea
atro-purpurea, bearing dark purple flowers; E. cinerea
atro-sanguinea, dark red flowers; E. cinerea coccinea, scarlet; E.
cinerea purpurea, purple flowers; and E. cinerea rosea, with deep
E. MEDITERRANEA.—Mediterranean Heath. Portugal, 1648. This
is a robust-growing species, of rather erect habit, and often
attaining to fully a yard in height. Flowers abundantly produced,
and of a pretty pinky hue. Of this there are several varieties, the
following being best known: E. mediterranea hibernica, found in
Ireland; E. mediterranea alba, with white flowers; E. mediterranea
nana, of very dwarf growth; and E. mediterranea rubra, with showy,
deep red flowers.
E. SCOPARIA and E. ERECTA are desirable species, the former
bearing greenish flowers, and the latter of decidedly upright
E. TETRALIX.—Cross-leaved Heath. A native species of low,
and bushy growth, with close umbels or terminal clusters of pretty
pinky flowers. The varieties of this most worthy of notice are E.
Tetralix alba, white flowered; E. Tetralix Mackiana, crimson
flowered; E. Tetralix rubra, deep red flowers; and E.
Tetralixbicolor, with parti-coloured flowers.
E. VAGANS..—Cornish Heath. A native species, bearing
pinky-white flowers, but there are forms with white and red
flowers, named E. vagans alba and E. vagans rubra.
The various kinds of Heath succeed best either in peaty soil, or
that composed for the greater part of light, sandy loam, but many
will grow and flower freely if planted in rich yellow loam. They
are very desirable plants, either for bed formation, for rockwork
ornamentation, or for planting around the shrubbery margins.
Propagation is effected either by cuttings or sub-divisions, but
seedlings of several species spring up freely under favourable
ESCALLONIA FLORIBUNDA (syn E. montevideusis).—New
Grenada, 1827. This is one of the handsomest species, bearing long,
arching clusters of white flowers. It is a very desirable shrub for
wall or lattice-work covering, against which it grows rapidly, and
soon forms an object of great beauty by reason of its neat foliage
and graceful habit, as also wealth of pretty flowers.
E. ILLINATA.—Chili, 1830. This should also be included, it
being a handsome and pretty-flowered plant.
E. MACRANTHA.—Chiloe, 1848. This is a general favourite in
English gardens, where it succeeds well, but especially in maritime
parts of the country. It is of stout growth, 6 feet or more in
height, of spreading habit, and with elliptical, serrulated, bright
green leaves, and clusters of crimson-red flowers produced in
summer. For wall-covering this is an almost invaluable shrub,
although it succeeds well as a standard in all but the colder parts
of the country. Any free, open soil suits it well, but thorough
drainage must be attended to. There are several very distinct and
good varieties, such as E. macrantha sanguinea, with flowers deeper
in colour than those of the parent plant; and E. macrantha Ingrami,
a profuse-blooming and very desirable form.
E. PHILLIPIANA.—Valdivia, 1873. When seen as a standard
bush, and loaded with its myriads of tiny white flowers, this must
rank amongst the handsomest members of the family. It is very
hardy, and retains its foliage throughout the winter. The hybrid
forms, E. exoniensis and E. leucantha, deserve recognition, the
latter even as late as November being laden with its small spikes
of pretty white flowers, which contrast nicely with the neat,
E. PTEROCLADON.—Patagonia, 1854. This is remarkable for
the curiously-winged branches, which give to the shrub a rather
peculiar and distinct appearance. The freely-produced flowers are
white or pink.
E. RUBRA.—Chili, 1827. This has less handsome leaves and
flowers than the above, but it is, all the same, a beautiful plant.
The flowers vary a good deal in depth of colouring, and may be seen
of all tints between pure white and red.
The Escallonias are all of very free growth in any light, warm,
sandy, and well-drained soil, and are readily propagated.
EUCRYPHIA PINNATIFOLIA.—Chili, 1880. This shrub, is as yet
rare in cultivation, and is not suited for the colder or more
exposed parts of the country. It is, however, a singularly distinct
and beautiful shrub, with deep glossy-green, pinnate foliage, and
bearing large, pure white flowers, that are rendered all the more
conspicuous by the golden-yellow anthers. As an ornamental shrub it
is well worthy of cultivation. In so far as its hardihood in this
climate has to do, it may be mentioned that in various parts of
England and Ireland it has stood in the open ground unharmed for
several years back. Light, sandy, well drained peat would seem to
meet with its requirements.
EUONYMUS AMERICANA.—American Spindle Tree. North America,
1686. This is a deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub, of about 6 feet
in height, found over a wide area in Canada and the United States.
It is of partially erect growth, with long and lithe branches,
covered with pleasing light green bark. Flowers appearing in June,
and succeeded by rough, warted, brilliant scarlet capsules, which
are particularly showy and attractive. It likes a shady situation,
and rich, rather damp soil.
E. EUROPAEUS.—West Asia, Europe (Britain), &c. An
indigenous species, rarely exceeding 6 feet in height, and rendered
very effective in autumn by reason of the pale scarlet fruit,
which, when fully ripe, and having split open, reveals the
orange-coloured arils of the seeds. It, too, delights to grow in
E. FIMBRIATUS, Japan and India, and its handsome variegated
form, E. fimbriatus foliis variegatus et argenteo maculatus, are
rather too tender for cultivation in this country, even in southern
districts, and where afforded wall protection. E. verrucosus and E.
atropurpureus are also worthy of cultivation.
E. LATIFOLIUS.—Broad-leaved Spindle Tree. A European
species (1730), deciduous, and growing from 10 feet to sometimes
fully 20 feet in height. The leaves are bright, shining green, and
much larger than those of our native species. Flowers,
purplish-white, appearing in June; the capsules large, deep red,
and when open contrasting very effectively with the bright orange
arils in which the seeds are enveloped. It is a very distinct and
beautiful, small-growing lawn tree, and succeeding, as it does,
best in shade is an extra qualification.
FABIANA IMBRICATA.—Chili, 1838. This is, unfortunately,
not hardy in any but the milder maritime parts of England and
Ireland. It is a charming shrub of Heather-like appearance, with
small, crowded leaves, and pure white flowers produced in May.
Planted at the base of a southern wall it does best, and where it
thrives it is certainly one of our handsomest half-hardy
FATSIA JAPONICA (syns Aralia japonica and A.
Sieboldii).—Japan, 1858. This is of no particular value
as a flowering shrub, but being hardy in most districts, and having
large handsome leaves that impart to it a tropical appearance, it
is well worthy of culture. The flowers are ivory-white, and
produced in large umbels towards the end of autumn, but our early
frosts too often mar their beauty. In this country it grows about
10 feet high, and is usually what is termed "leggy" in appearance,
and thrives well in any good loamy soil if fairly dry.
FENDLERA RUPICOLA.—Mexico, 1888. A low-growing shrub,
peculiar to the dry rocky parts of the United States, particularly
the south-western district. It grows about a yard high, and bears a
great profusion of bluish-white flowers, that are rendered very
conspicuous by reason of the bright yellow stamens. It is the only
known species, and is nearly allied to the Saxifrages. Any fairly
good garden soil will suit it well, but it wants to be planted
where superfluous moisture is quickly carried off.
FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA (syn F. Fortunei and F.
Sieboldii).—Japan and China, 1864. A slender-growing
shrub, with variable leaves, and long, trailing shoots. The flowers
are abundantly produced, are of a beautiful golden tint, and
bell-shaped, and being of good substance last for a long time.
Either as a wall plant, or for using in some sheltered corner, and
where the branches can spread about at will, it forms a very
distinct and handsome shrub, and one that is perfectly hardy and
quite indifferent as regards the quality of soil in which it is
planted. There are several forms of this pretty shrub, but as they
do not differ to any great extent from the species, are hardly
worthy of consideration.
F. suspensa intermedia is a garden hybrid, 1891.
F. VIRIDISSIMA.—Japan, 1845. This is another desirable
species, but it is not comparable in point of beauty with the
former. It is usually of strong erect growth, with stout shoots,
wreathed with bright yellow flowers towards the end of winter. It
is a very beautiful shrub, and a valuable addition to the winter or
early spring flowering section.
FOTHERGILLA ALNIFOLIA.—North Eastern America, 1765. This
is an ungainly habited shrub, of dwarf growth, the branches being
somewhat slender and crooked. The flowers are white, sweetly
scented, and produced in dense terminal spikes. It is perfectly
FRAXINUS ORNUS (syn F. argentea, F. rotundifolia, and
Ornus europea).—Manna Ash. South Europe, 1730. This is
a handsome tree, especially when young and vigorous, and by far the
most ornamental species in cultivation. For planting in situations
where large-growing subjects would be out of place this is a
valuable tree, while the wealth of flowers renders it particularly
interesting and effective. It rarely exceeds 30 feet in height,
with leaves not unlike those of the common Ash, and conspicuous
panicles of light, feathery, white petaliferous flowers, produced
usually in great abundance all over the tree. Perfectly hardy.
F. Ornus serotina alba and F. Ornus serotina violacea are
beautiful seedling forms that were raised in France, and on account
of their dwarf habit and profusion of flowers are well worthy of
attention. The flowers of the first-named variety are pure white,
the stamens having at first yellow anthers, which speedily turn to
a rich blackish-brown. The other differs but little, only in the
flowers, which are of a distinct greyish-violet hue, while the
leaves are of a darker shade of green, and the leaflets longer and
F. MARIESII.—Northern China, 1880. This is hardy in most
parts of the country. The whole tree is quite glabrous except the
petioles, which are clothed with a dense pubescence. Flowers pure
white, and arranged in large dense panicles.
FREMONTIA CALIFORNICA.—California, 1851. A handsome and
deciduous Californian shrub, but scarcely hardy enough for the open
air without protection. In Southern England and Ireland, however,
it does well, and all the better if planted within the influence of
the sea. The large yellow flowers are often about 2 inches across,
and produced singly along the branches, while the leaves are large,
lobed, and of an enticing shade of green. Planted against a wall,
in good dampish loam, it succeeds well.
FUCHSIA MACROSTEMA GLOBOSA (syn F. globosa).—Chili.
This is readily recognised by the globose form assumed by the
incurved sepals, while the flowers are smaller and less showy than
those of F. Riccartoni. Hardihood about similar to the
F. RICCARTONI.—This seedling from F. m. globosa is one of
the two hardiest varieties, but even this plant, except in warm,
maritime districts, is by no means satisfactory. Where it does well
it is a shrub of great beauty, and blooms profusely. This species
has red, straight sepals, and a purple corolla. In favoured
districts it may frequently be seen as much as 12 feet high, and is
then during the flowering period an object of great beauty. It
originated at Riccarton, near Edinburgh, about 1830.
GARRYA ELLIPTICA.—California, 1818. This is a handsome
shrub, with dark green coreaceous leaves, resembling very nearly
those of the Evergreen Oak. The long, tassellated catkins, of a
peculiar yellowish-green colour, render the plant one of much
interest and beauty. As a wall plant it thrives well, the slight
protection thus afforded favouring the growth and expansion of the
catkins. For planting in the shrubbery it is also well suited, and
where it oft-times attains to a height of 6 feet, and is bushy in
proportion. It is well to bear in mind that there are male and
female plants of the Garrya, and that the former is the more
ornamental. Good rich, well-drained loam will suit this shrub
GAULTHERIA NUMMULARIOIDES (syn G. nummulariae and G.
repens). —Himalayas. This is a neat Alpine species, with
small and very dark green leaves. It likes a shady situation and
vegetable soil. For planting on the rockwork, amongst tree roots,
or beneath the shade of trees, the Gaultherias are particularly
suitable. Light, but rich vegetable soil suits them best.
G. PROCUMBENS.—Canada Tea, or Creeping Winter-green. North
America, 1762. This is of much smaller growth than the following,
rarely rising to a greater height than about half a foot, with
lanceolate, serrated leaves, and pendulous axillary clusters of
G. SHALLON.—North-west America, 1826. Growing in
favourable situations to fully a yard in height, this distinct
evergreen shrub, which is fairly common in cultivation, is
particularly valuable, as it thrives well under the shade and drip
of trees. It is a rambling plant, with ovate-cordate, almost
sessile leaves, and bears tiny white flowers that are succeeded by
purplish fruit. G. Shallon acutifolia has more sharply pointed
leaves than those of the species.
GENISTA AETNENSIS (syn Spartium aetnensis).—Etna
Broom. Sicily and Sardinia, 1816. This is a large-growing species
of elegant growth, and remarkable for the abundance of yellow
flowers with which it is literally covered in August. Than this
South-European Pea-flower, perhaps not another member of the family
is more worthy of culture, the neat, elegant habit of growth and
profusion of flowers rendering it a plant of particular interest
and beauty. It is quite hardy, thrives in any light soil if well
drained, and is readily propagated from seed, which it ripens in
G. ANXANTICA.—Naples, 1818. This is a nearly allied
species to our native G. tinctoria, and is of dwarf growth with a
rich abundance of golden yellow flowers that are produced towards
the end of summer.
G. CINEREA (syn G. ramosissima), from South Europe, is a
very beautiful and desirable species, a yard high, and bearing in
July slender twigs of the brightest yellow flowers.
G. EPHEDROIDES.—Corsica and Sardinia, 1832. With small and
abundantly-produced flowers, this resembles Ephedra, hence its
G. GERMANICA.—Germany, 1773. This is a handsome rock
garden shrub, of fully 18 inches in height, with arching stems and
a plentiful supply of bright flowers during the summer and autumn
G. HISPANICA.—South-western Europe, 1759. This species
resembles our common Broom, but the branches are not angular. The
large, yellow, fragrant flowers appear in July. There is a charming
double-flowered variety named G. hispanica flore-pleno.
G. LUSITANICA.—Portugal, 1771. This is remarkable for its
opposite branches, is of spiny growth, and one of the earliest to
appear in flower.
G. MONOSPERMA.—South Europe, 1690. This has white flowers,
and is of value as a seaside shrub, and grows well in almost pure
sand. A native of the Mediterranean coast.
G. PILOSA.—Greenweed. Europe (Britain). This is a dense
prostrate native species, with bright yellow blossoms produced
freely during May and June. A delightful rock shrub, and one that
will succeed well almost in pure gravel.
G. PROSTRATA.—Burgundy and Alps of Jura, 1775. A
small-growing species suitable for rock gardening, and of spreading
bushy growth. Flowers small, but ornamental, and produced in May
G. RADIATA (syn Spartium radiatum).—South Europe,
1758. This is a slender-growing shrub, about 18 inches high, with
narrow leaflets, and terminal heads of yellow flowers produced in
G. SAGITTALIS.—South Europe, 1750. With its peculiarly
winged and jointed stems, which are of a deep green colour, this is
one of the most distinct forms. The flowers are few but pretty, and
with the dwarf habit render the plant an excellent subject for
G. TINCTORIA.—Dyers' Greenweed. Europe (Britain), North
and West Asia. This is a spineless species, and bears a profusion
of yellow flowers from July onwards. The double-flowering variety,
G. tinctoria flore-pleno, is, in so far as ornamental qualities are
concerned, superior to the parent form.
G. TINCTORIA ELATIOR (syn G. elatior) grows to 12 feet in
height, is of free, spreading growth, and a very handsome plant.
The flowers, which are individually small and yellow, are so
thickly produced that the shrub, in late summer, has the appearance
of a sheet of gold.
G. TRIANGULARIS (syn G. triquetra).—South Europe,
1815. This is a decidedly good garden plant, and of neat, trailing
habit. The stems are three sided, and the flowers golden yellow and
plentifully produced. A native of South Europe, and perfectly hardy
in almost any position.
The above include most of the hardy Genistas, though G. capitata
and G. daurica, both very ornamental kinds, might be added to the
list. They are all very hardy, free-flowering shrubs, of simple
culture, and succeeding well in any light and rather dry soil.
GLEDITSCHIA TRIACANTHOS.—Honey Locust. United States,
1700. As an ornamental hardy tree this is well worthy the attention
of planters, the pinnate and bipinnate foliage being particularly
elegant, while the flowers, though individually small, are borne in
such quantities of fascicled racemes as to attract notice. The stem
and branches are armed with formidable prickles, but there is a
form in which the prickles are absent. A native of North America,
and readily cultivated in any soil of even fair quality. For town
planting it is a valuable tree. There is a good weeping variety
named G. triacanthos pendula.
G. SINENSIS (syn G. horrida).—China, 1774. This
nearly resembles the latter, and is occasionally to be met with in
cultivation in this country.
GORDONIA LASIANTHUS.—Loblolly Bay. North America, 1739. A
shrub of great beauty, but one that, unfortunately, is rarely to be
seen outside the walls of a botanic garden. It is of Camellia-like
growth, with large, sweetly fragrant flowers and a good habit of
G. PUBESCENS.—North America, 1774. This is of smaller
growth than the latter, rarely exceeding about 6 feet high, with
large white flowers that are rendered all the more conspicuous by
the tuft of golden stamens. Both species are somewhat tender,
although hailing from the coast, swampy grounds of the southern
States of North America. Planted in favoured sites, they usually
grow freely in light, peaty soil, or that containing a large
admixture of decayed leaf soil.
GRABOWSKIA BOERHAAVIAEFOLIA.—Peru, 1780. This is
occasionally to be seen in sheltered and favoured gardens, but it
is not to be relied upon in other than southern and seaside
districts. The plant is of no particular interest to the
cultivator, the outline being ungainly, while the pale blue flowers
are both dull and uninteresting. It belongs to the Solanum family,
and is only worth cultivating as a curiosity. Light, warm soil and
a sunny position are necessities in the cultivation of this
GRISELINIA LITTORALIS.—New Zealand, 1872. This forms a
compact bush of moderate size, and is fairly hardy. The leaves are
of a light, pleasing green shade, coriaceous, and glossy, and
remain on the plant during winter. It is an excellent shrub for the
seaside, and, moreover, will succeed well in stiff soils where many
other plants would refuse to grow.
GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS.—Kentucky Coffee Tree. Canada,
1748. When in full leafage this is a distinct and beautiful tree,
the foliage hanging in well-rounded masses, and presenting a pretty
effect by reason of the loose and tufted appearance of the masses
of finely-divided leaves. Leaves often 3 feet long, bipinnate, and
composed of numerous bluish-green leaflets. Flowers white, borne in
loose spikes in the beginning of summer, and succeeded by flat,
somewhat curved brown pods. It prefers a rich, strong soil or
G. CHINENSIS.—Soap Tree. China, 1889. Readily
distinguished from the American species by its much smaller and
more numerous leaflets, and thicker fruit pod. It is not very hardy
in this country unless in the milder sea-side districts. The leaves
are used by the Chinese women to wash their hair, hence the popular
name of Soap Tree.
HALESIA DIPTERA (syn H. reticulata).—North America,
1758. This is not so suitable for our climate as H. tetraptera,
though in southern parts of the country it forms a neat, healthy
bush, and flowers freely. It is distinguished, as the name
indicates, by having two wings to the seed vessel, H. tetraptera
H. HISPIDA (syn Pterostyrax hispidum).—Japan, 1875.
This is a shrub of perfect hardihood, free growth, and very
floriferous. The flowers, which are pure white, and in long
racemes, resemble much those of the Snowdrop Tree. Leaves broad and
slightly dentated. It is a handsome shrub, of free growth, in
light, sandy loam, and quite hardy even when fully exposed.
H. PARVIFLORA has smaller flowers than those of our
H. TETRAPTERA.—Snowdrop Tree. North America, 1756. This is
a very ornamental tall-growing shrub, of somewhat loose growth, and
bearing flowers which resemble, both in size and appearance, those
of our common Snowdrop. It is one of the most ornamental of all the
small-growing American trees, and richly deserves a place in every
collection, on account of the profusion with which the flowers are
produced in April and May. They are snow-white, drooping, and
produced in lateral fascicles of eight or ten together. It is a
native of river banks in North Carolina, and is well suited for
cultivation in this country. Light, peaty soil will grow it to
HALIMODENDRON ARGENTEUM (syn Robinia
Halimodendron).—Salt tree. A native of Asiatic Russia
(1779), having silvery foliage, and pink or purplish-pink flowers,
axillary or fascicled. It is a neat and pretty shrub, that is
rendered valuable as succeeding well in maritime districts. Quite
hardy and of free growth in sandy soil.
HAMAMELIS JAPONICA.—The Japanese Witch Hazel. Japan, 1862.
This is a small species with lemon-yellow flowers. H. japonica
arborea is a taller growing variety, with primrose-yellow petals,
and a deep claret calyx. The flowers are borne in clusters in early
spring. Rarely in this country do we find this species of greater
height than about 8 feet, but it is of bushy growth, though
somewhat straggling in appearance. As early as the beginning of
January this Witch Hazel may be found in bloom, the bare branches
being studded here and there with the curious-shaped flowers, these
having bright yellow, twisted petals and reddish calyces. H.j.
Zuccarinianais a very desirable free-flowering variety, with pale
yellow petals and a greenish-brown calyx.
H. VIRGINICA.—Virginian Witch Hazel. North America, 1736.
This has smaller flowers than H.j. arborea, and they are
plentifully produced in autumn or early winter. In this country it
assumes the shape of an open bush of about 6 feet in height, but is
usually of untidy appearance from the branches being irregularly
They all delight in cool, rather moist soil, and are of value
for their early-flowering nature.
HEDYSARUM MULTIJUGUM.—South Mongolia. Hardly ten years
have elapsed since this pretty shrub was introduced into England,
so that at present it is rather rare in our gardens. It is a
decided acquisition, if only for the production of flowers at a
time when these are scarce. Usually the flowering time is in
August, but frequently in the first weeks of October the pretty
flowers are still full of beauty. It is of bushy habit, from 4 feet
to 5 feet high, with oblong leaflets, in number from twenty to
thirty-five, which are Pea-green above and downy on the under
sides. Flowers bright red, and produced in axillary racemes. It is
perfectly hardy, and grows freely in porous decomposed
HELIANTHEMUM HALIMIFOLIUM.—Spain, 1656. This species is of
erect habit, 3 feet or 4 feet high, and with leaves reminding one
of those of the Sea Purslane. It is an evergreen, and has large
bright yellow flowers, slightly spotted at the base of the
H. LAEVIPES (syn Cistus laevipes).—South-western
Europe. A dwarf shrub, with Heath-like leaves, and yellow flowers
that are produced in great abundance.
H. LASIANTHUM (syns H. formosum and Cistus
formosus).—Spain and Portugal, 1780. This is a beautiful
species, but not hardy unless in the South and West. It has large,
bright yellow flowers, with a deep reddish-purple blotch at the
base of each petal.
H. LAVENDULAEFOLIUM has lavender-like leaves, with the under
surface hoary, and yellow flowers. A native of the Mediterranean
H. LIBONATES.—This species bears dark green Rosemary-like
leaves, and yellow flowers that are produced very abundantly. South
H. PILOSUM.—South of France, 1831. This bears white
flowers that are of good substance, and about an inch across.
H. POLIFOLIUM (syn H. pulverulentum).—Europe
(Britain), and North Africa. This is a neat-growing shrub, of very
dwarf growth, with hairy leaves and yellow flowers; and H.
polifolium roseum, has pretty rosy-red flowers.
H. UMBELLATUM.—South Europe, 1731. A neat, small-growing
species, with white flowers and glossy-green leaves covered with a
rusty-white tomentum beneath.
H. VULGARE.—Common Rock Rose. Europe (Britain), North
Africa, and West Asia. A widely distributed native plant, of dwarf
growth, with linear-oblong, hairy leaves, and usually yellow
flowers. H. vulgare nummularium differs in having the leaves green
and sub-orbicular, with yellow flowers. H. vulgare barbaturn is of
erect habit, with silky, hairy, oval leaves. H. vulgare mutabile
bears pale rose flowers, marked with yellow at the base. H. vulgare
grandiflorum is remarkable for the large, bright yellow flowers,
and is one of the most beautiful and worthy varieties. H. vulgare
ovalifolium (syn H. serpyllifolium) bears yellow flowers and
ovate leaves, with the margins revolute. H. vulgare hyssopifolium
bears reddish flowers, but the colouring varies considerably, and
saffron is not uncommon.
The Rockroses are very valuable plants, in that they will
succeed on poor, gravelly banks where few other plants could eke
out an existence. They cannot withstand stiff soil, nor that at all
inclined to be damp, their favourite resorts being exposed, rocky
ground, and dry, gravelly banks. Being readily increased from
cuttings, which take root well under a hand glass or in a cool
house, it is advisable, at least with the more tender forms, to
have at hand a stock, so that blanks in the shrubbery may be filled
HIBISCUS SYRIACUS (syn Althaea frutex).—Syrian
Mallow. Syria, 1596. An old occupant of our gardens, and one that
cannot be too freely cultivated. When favourably situated, it often
reaches 6 feet in height, with three-lobed, neatly-toothed leaves,
and with large, showy blossoms that are borne towards the end of
summer. The typical species has purplish flowers, with a crimson
spot at the base of each petal, but others, varying in colour from
snow-white to purple and blue, are common in cultivation. H.
syriacus coelestis bears bright blue flowers, while H. syriacus
variegatus has beautifully variegated foliage. Of the
double-flowered forms, there are several beautiful and worthy
plants, the following list containing some of the best varieties of
this popular shrub:—
- H. syriacus albo-pleno.
- " amaranthus.
- " amplissima.
- " ardens.
- " caerulea plena.
- " carnea plena.
- " De la Veuve.
- " elegantissimum.
- " fastuosa.
- " Lady Stanley.
- " Leopoldii.
- " lilacina plena.
- " paeoniaeflora.
- " puniceus
- " rosea plena.
- " spectabilis
- " violacea.
HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES.—Sea Buckthorn, or Sallow Thorn.
Though generally considered as a sea-side shrub, the Sea Buckthorn
is by no means exclusively so, thriving well, and attaining to
large dimensions, in many inland situations. The flowers are not at
all conspicuous, but this is amply compensated for by the beautiful
silvery-like leaves and wealth of fruit borne by the shrub. In not
a few instances, for fully a foot in length, the branches are
smothered with crowded clusters of bright orange berries, and which
render the shrub during November and December both distinct and
effective. It does best in sandy soil, and is readily increased
from suckers, which are usually plentifully produced by old plants.
For sea-side planting it is one of our most valuable shrubs,
succeeding, as it does, well down even to high water mark, and
where the foliage is lashed with the salt spray.
HOLBOELLIA LATIFOLIA (syn Stauntonia
latifolia).—Himalayas, 1840. An evergreen climbing shrub
that is more often found under glass than out of doors. In the
South of England, however, it is quite hardy against a sunny wall.
It grows 12 feet high, with shining green leathery leaves, and
fragrant purplish-green flowers. H. latifolia angustifolia has
decidedly narrower leaves than the species, but is in no other way
HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS.—North America, 1736. This is a
plant of large growth, but the flowers are greenish-white, and by
no means conspicuous.
H. HORTENSIS (syn Hortensia opuloides).—China,
1790. This is an old-fashioned garden shrub that is only hardy in
the south and west of these islands and in the vicinity of the sea.
In some of the forms nearly all the flowers are sterile, the
calyx-lobes being greatly expanded, and in others the outer flowers
only are sterile. According to the nature of the soil the flowers
vary much in colour, some being pure white, others pink, and others
of varying shades of blue. There are some very beautiful and
distinct varieties, such as H. hortensis japonica; H. hortensis
Otaksa, with large panicles of sterile blue flowers; H. hortensis
rosea-alba, with large rosy flowers; H. hortensis Thomas Hogg, a
very free-flowering and welcome form; H. hortensis mandschurica,
and H. hortensis stellata flore-pleno, with partially double
flowers, are worthy of attention.
H. PANICULATA.—Japan, 1874. This is one of the most
distinct species, in which the flower-heads are elongated, not
flat, as in most other species, and from which the finest form in
cultivation has been obtained. This is H. paniculata grandiflora,
in which the flowers are sterile and pure white, forming large
panicles often a foot in length. It is a magnificent variety, and,
being perfectly hardy, should be extensively planted for ornament.
The flowers are produced in late summer, but remain in good form
for fully two months, dying off a rich reddish hue.
H. QUERCIFOLIA.—Oak-leaved Hydrangea. Florida, 1803. This
species has neatly lobed leaves, and terminal panicles of
pinky-white, but partially barren, flowers.
H. SCANDENS.—Climbing Hydrangea. Japan, 1879. This is not
very hardy, but with the protection of a sunny wall it grows
The Hydrangeas require a rich, loamy soil, and, unless in
maritime districts, a warm and sheltered situation. They are
readily propagated by means of cuttings.
HYMENANTHERA CRASSIFOLIA.—A curious New Zealand shrub with
rigid ashy-coloured branches, and small leathery leaves. The
flowers are violet-like in colour, but by no means conspicuous. The
small white berries which succeed the flowers are, in autumn,
particularly attractive, and very ornamental. It is perfectly hardy
and of free growth in light peaty earth.
HYPERICUM ANDROSAEMUM.—Tutsan, or Sweet Amber. Europe
(Britain). A pretty native species, growing about 2 feet high, with
ovate leaves having glandular dots and terminal clustered cymes of
H. AUREUM.—South Carolina and Georgia, 1882. This soon
forms a neat and handsome plant. The flowers are unusually large,
and remarkable for the tufts of golden-yellow stamens with which
they are furnished.
H. CALYCINUM.—Aaron's Beard, or Rose of Sharon. South-east
Europe. This is a well-known native species of shrubby growth,
bearing large yellow flowers from 3 inches to 4 inches in diameter.
It is a prostrate plant, with coriaceous glossy leaves with small
pellucid dots, and of great value for planting in the shade.
H. ELATUM is a spreading species from North America (1762),
growing to fully 4 feet in height, and bearing terminal corymbs of
large, bright yellow flowers in July and August. Leaves rather
large, oblong-ovate, and revolute. On account of its spreading
rapidly from the root, this species requires to be planted where it
will have plenty of room.
H. HIRCINUM.—Goat-scented St. John's Wort. Mediterranean
region, 1640. A small-growing and slender species, with
oblong-lanceolate leaves 2 inches long, and producing small yellow
flowers in terminal heads. There is a smaller growing form known as
H. hircinum minus. The plant emits a peculiar goat-like odour.
H. MOSERIANUM is a beautiful hybrid form with red anthers.
H. OBLONGIFOLIUM (syns H. Hookerianum and H.
nepalensis).—Nepaul, 1823. An evergreen species, about 4
feet high, with oblong, pellucid, dotted leaves, and deep golden,
somewhat waxy flowers at the end of summer.
H. PROLIFICUM.—North America, 1758. This is a much
branched twiggy shrub, about 4 feet high, with small,
linear-lanceolate leaves, thickly studded with pellucid dots.
Flowers not very large, five-petalled, and of a pleasing bright
yellow colour. The allied if not identical H. Kalmiana is worthy of
being included in a selection of these plants.
H. URALUM.—Nepaul, 1823. A neat but fragile species that
attains to about a yard in height. Leaves rather small, elliptic,
almost stalkless, and perforated with transparent dots. Flowers
small and of a bright golden yellow.
H. fasciculatum, H. pyrimidatum, and H. patulum are all worthy
of attention, where a good representative collection is of
importance. The Hypericums succeed best when planted in a rather
sandy and not too dry loam, and they are readily increased either
from divisions or by means of cuttings.
IDESIA POLYCARPA (syns Flacourtica japonica and
Polycarpa Maximowiczii).—A Japanese tree of small
growth, and only introduced to this country in 1866. It is a
handsome, hardy species, bearing large, bright-green leaves with
conspicuous crimson footstalks, often 4 inches across, and of a
glaucous tint on the under sides. The deliciously fragrant flowers
are greenish-white or yellowish-green, and produced in graceful
drooping racemes. In southern England it does well, and, being a
tree of unusual beauty of both leaves and flowers, is well worthy
of attention. Rich loam, not too stiff, will grow the Idesia
ILEX AQUIFOLIUM.—Common Holly. Europe (Britain) and West
Asia. Though the Hollies are not usually reckoned ornamental for
the sake of their flowers, their berries are highly so. Some of
them are nevertheless deliciously fragrant when in bloom. The
leaves of this, our native species, in their typical form are
oblong-ovate, wavy, and deeply spiny-toothed. The tree flowers in
May and June, while the clusters of bright red berries ripen in
autumn, persist all the winter, and sometimes even hang on tree
till a second crop is matured, provided they are not devoured by
birds during severe weather. The varieties are very numerous, and
differ chiefly in the form and toothing of the leaves, which are
variegated in many cases, their size and form, and in the colour of
the berries in a few instances.
I. Aquifolium albo-marginata has ovate, nearly flat,
spiny-serrate leaves, with a narrow silvery margin, and fruits
freely. I. Aquifolium fructu albo has white berries; in I.
Aquifolium fructu luteo they are yellow and very abundantly
produced; and in I. Aquifolium fructu nigro they are black. I.
Aquifolium handsworthensis has elliptic-oblong spiny leaves, with a
creamy-white margin and marbled with gray. Grafted trees bear
berries in great profusion from the time they are only a foot high,
and are highly ornamental. I. Aquifolium Hodginsii has large,
broadly oblong-ovate, slightly spiny leaves, and large crimson-red
berries that ripen late in autumn. I. Aquifolium Hodginsii aurea is
a sub-variety with a broad golden margin to the leaves, and the
disc splashed with gray. Beautiful and distinct is I. Aquifolium
Lawsoniana, with ovate, flat, almost spineless leaves, heavily and
irregularly blotched with yellow in the centre. The berries are of
a brilliant red. The variety differs from Milkmaid in having flat,
nearly entire leaves. I. Aquifolium pendula has a wide, rounded,
drooping head, but otherwise does not differ from the type. Many
others bear berries, but the above are all very distinct forms.
I. OPACA.—American Holly. United States, 1744. The leaves
of this species are oblong or oval, small, spiny-serrate, and of a
dark opaque green. The berries, which ripen in autumn, are small,
bright red, and very liable to be eaten by birds. In America this
Holly is put to precisely the same purposes as the common Holly is
in Europe. It is perfectly hardy here.
ILLICIUM FLORIDANUM, from Florida (1771), is a beautiful but
uncommon shrub, probably on account of its being tender and
susceptible to injury by frost, unless in the warmer and more
favoured parts of the country. The fragrant flowers are of a
purplish-rose, while the foliage is neat and of a pleasing
I. ANISATUM (syn I. religiosum), from China and Japan
(1842), is too tender for outdoor culture in this country.
INIDGOFERA GERARDIANA (syns I. floribunda and I.
Dosua).—India, 1842. This forms a compact dwarf bush in
the open, but is still better suited for covering a wall, the
growth and floriferousness being then much increased. The foliage
is neat and Pea-green, while the bright pink Pea-like flowers are
produced in long racemes. It is a pretty bush, and grows freely
enough in any good garden soil, but very fine flowering specimens
may be seen in light, sandy soil of a peaty nature. There is a
white flowered variety named I. Gerardiana alba.
ITEA VIRGINICA.—North America, 1744. This is a neat,
deciduous shrub of 3 feet or 4 feet in height. The ovate-lanceolate
leaves are of a light greyish-green, and the small white flowers
are produced in dense racemes or spikes. Planted in a somewhat
shady place, and in rather cool, damp soil, this little shrub does
well and flowers profusely.
JAMESIA AMERICANA.—Rocky Mountains and Colorado, 1865.
Amongst early spring-flowering shrubs this pretty but neglected
plant is one of the best, of perfect hardihood, for it stands the
vigour of our winters with impunity, and of dense thick growth; it
is suitable for using in a variety of ways, as well as for purely
ornamental purposes. The leaves are oval and neatly dentated, and
the flowers individually of large size, pure white, and produced in
terminal bunches. Cool soil and a shady situation would seem to
suit the plant admirably, but for screen purposes in the rock
garden or border it is invaluable on account of the strong and
JASMINUM FRUTICANS.—South Europe, 1570. An evergreen
species, well adapted, from its rather stiff and upright growth,
for planting alone. It has trifoliolate leaves and showy yellow
J. HUMILE.—India, 1656. A hardy species of dwarf growth,
and bearing beautiful golden flowers produced in summer.
J. NUDIFLORUM.—Naked Jasmine. China, 1844. A showy and
well-known species, from China, with numerous, usually solitary
yellow flowers, ternate leaves, and flexible branches. The variety
J. nudiflorum aureo-variegatum has golden-variegated leaves.
J. OFFICINALE.—Northern India to Persia, 1548. The
white-flowered Jasmine of our gardens is a very beautiful and
desirable clambering shrub, either for wall covering, for planting
by tree stumps, rooteries, or rockeries, or for screening and
draping the pergola or garden latticework. From its great
hardihood, vigour of growth, and beauty of flowers, it is certainly
one of the most deservedly popular of wall shrubs. The branches are
deep green, angular, and flexible, the leaves pinnate, and the
flowers pure-white and sweetly-scented. The variety J. officinale
affine has flowers that are individually larger than those of the
species; J. officinale aurea has badly variegated leaves; J.
officinale grandiflorum and J. officinale grandiflorum majus, are
also desirable kinds.
J. PUBIGERUM GLABRUM (syn J. Wallichianum), from
North-west India, is not well-known, being tender in most parts of
J. REVOLUTUM.—India, 1812. This has persistent dark,
glossy-green leaves, and fragrant, bright yellow flowers, produced
in large, terminal clusters. From India, but perfectly hardy as a
wall plant, and for which purpose, with its bright evergreen
leaves, it is well suited.
As regards soil, the Jasmines are very accommodating, and are
propagated by layers or cuttings.
KADSURA JAPONICA.—Japan, 1846. This is a small-growing
shrub, with lanceolate and pointed leaves, that are remotely
dentated. The flowers are not very showy, being of a
yellowish-white colour and about an inch across. They are produced
both terminal and axillary, and in fair abundance. The scarlet
fruits are arranged in clusters, and when fully ripe are both showy
and interesting. Generally speaking this shrub suffers from severe
frost, but as only the branch tips are injured, it shoots freely
from the stock. It produces its flowers in the autumn. There is a
variety with variegated leaves.
KALMIA ANGUSTIFOLIA.—Sheep Laurel. Canada, 1736. This is
at once distinguished from K. latifolia by its much smaller and
narrower leaves and smaller flowers, which latter are, however, of
brighter tint and more plentifully produced. It rarely exceeds 2
feet in height. Of this there are two very distinct forms, that
named K. angustifolia pumila, being of neat and dense small growth;
and K. angustifolia rubra, in which the flowers are of an unusually
K. GLAUCA.—Canada and Sitcha, 1767. This, which has
lilac-purple flowers, produced in early spring, is not a very
desirable species, being rather straggling of growth and with few
K. HIRSUTA.—Hairy-leaved Kalmia. South-east Virginia to
Florida, 1786. This is at once distinguished by the rather rough
and hairy foliage and few rosy-tinted flowers. It is of dwarf, neat
K. LATIFOLIA.—Calico Bush, or Mountain Laurel.
Alleghanies, Canada, and Western Florida, 1734. A favourite shrub
in every garden where the conditions of soil will allow of its
being successfully cultivated. In peaty soil, or light, friable
loam and leaf soil, it forms a dense, round-headed bush, often 8
feet in height, and nearly as much through, with pleasing green
leaves, and dense clusters of beautiful pink, wax-like flowers. The
flowering period commences in May, and usually extends to the end
of July. This is a choice shrub of great hardihood, and one of the
handsomest flowering in cultivation. There is a still more
beautiful form named K. latifolia major splendens, and one with
small Myrtle-like foliage named K. latifolia myrtifolia.
The members of this handsome family are, as a rule, partial to
cool, damp soil, peat of a light, sandy nature being preferred.
They thrive well where Azaleas and Rhododendrons will succeed. In
bold masses they have a fine effect, but a well developed standard
specimen of the commonly cultivated species is highly
KERRIA JAPONICA (syn Corchorus japonicus).—Japan,
1700. A Japanese shrub, the double-flowered variety of which, K.
japonica flore-pleno, is one of our commonest wall plants. The
orange-yellow flowers, produced in great rosettes, are highly
ornamental, and have earned for the shrub a well-known name. It
succeeds well almost anywhere, and, though usually seen as a wall
plant, is perfectly hardy, and forms a neat shrub for the open
border. There is a form in which the leaves are variegated, and
known under the name of K. japonica variegata.
KOELREUTERIA PANICULATA.—Northern China, 1763. Whether for
its foliage or flowers, this small-growing tree is worthy of a
place. Though of rather irregular growth, the beautiful foliage and
large panicles of yellowish flowers, which stand well above the
leaves, make the shrub (for it does not in this country attain to
tree height), one of particular interest, and a valuable aid in
ornamental planting. In a sheltered corner, and planted in rich
soil, it grows and flowers freely.
LABURNUM ADAMI (syn Cytisus Adami).—A graft hybrid
form between the common Laburnum and Cytisus purpureus, the result
being flowers of the Laburnum, the true Cytisus purpureus, and the
graft hybrid between the two. It was raised by Jean Louis Adam in
1825. It is a curious and distinct tree, worthy of culture if only
for the production of three distinct kinds of flowers on the same
L. ALPINUM (syn Cytisus alpinus).—Scotch Laburnum.
Europe, 1596. This very closely resembles the common Laburnum, but
it is of larger growth, and flowers later in the season. The
flowers, too, though in longer racemes, are usually less
plentifully produced. It grows 30 feet high. There is a weeping
form, L. alpinum pendulum, and another with fragrant flowers, named
L. alpinum fragrans, as also a third, with very long racemes of
flowers, named L. alpinum Alschingeri.
L. CARAMANICUM.—Asia Minor, 1879. A bushy shrub of
vigorous habit, with trifoliolate and petiolate leaves of a pale
green colour, thick and tough, and brightly polished on the upper
surface. Flowers bright yellow, the calyx being helmet-shaped and
rusty-red. It is a beautiful but uncommon shrub, and succeeds very
well in chalky or calcareous soil. Flowers in July.
L. VULGARE (syn Cytisus Laburnum).—Common Laburnum.
Southern France to Hungary, 1596. This is one of our commonest
garden and park trees, and at the same time one of the most
beautiful and floriferous. The large, pendulous racemes of bright
yellow flowers are, when at their best in May, surpassed neither in
quantity nor beauty by those of any other hardy tree. There are
several varieties of this Laburnum—a few good, but many
worthless, at least from a garden point of view. L. vulgare
Parkesii is a seedling form, bearing large racemes of deep-coloured
flowers, often 14 inches long; L. vulgare Watereri was raised in
the Knap Hill Nursery, Surrey, and is one of the most distinct and
beautiful of the many forms into which the Laburnum has been
sub-divided. The flower racemes are very long and richly coloured.
L. vulgare quercifolium and L. vulgare sessilifolium are fairly
well described by their names; L. vulgare fragans differs only in
having sweetly-scented flowers; L. vulgare involutum has
curiously-curled leaves; while L. vulgare aureum, where it does
well, is a beautiful and distinct form.
LARDIZABALA BITERNATA.—Chili, 1848. Requires wall
protection, there being few situations in which it will succeed
when planted in the open. It is a tall, climbing shrub, with dark
green persistent leaves, and bearing purplish flowers in drooping
racemes in mid-winter. Planted in rather dry soil, at the base of a
sunny wall, this shrub forms a by no means unattractive covering,
the twice ternate, glossy leaves being fresh and beautiful the
LAPAGERIA ROSEA.—Chili, 1847. This is, unfortunately, not
hardy, unless in favoured maritime districts, but in such
situations it has stood unharmed for many years, and attained to
goodly proportions. It is a beautiful climber, with deep-green
leaves, and large, fleshy, campanulate flowers of a deep rose
colour. There is a white-flowered form called L. alba, introduced
from Chili in 1854. Planted on an east aspect wall, and in roughly
broken up peat and gritty sand, it succeeds well.
LAVANDULA VERA (syn L. Spica).—Common Lavender.
South Europe, 1568. A well-known and useful plant, but of no
particular value for ornamental purposes. It is of shrubby growth,
with narrow-lanceolate, hoary leaves, and terminal spikes of blue
LAVATERA ARBOREA.—Tree Mallow. Coasts of Europe,
(Britain). A stout-growing shrub reaching in favourable situations
a height of fully 6 feet, with broadly orbicular leaves placed on
long stalks. The flowers are plentiful and showy, of a pale
purplish-red colour, and collected into clusters. It is a seaside
shrub succeeding best in sheltered maritime recesses, and when in
full flower is one of the most ornamental of our native plants.
There is also a beautiful variegated garden form, L. a.
LEDUM LATIFOLIUM (syn L. groenlandicum).—Wild
Rosemary, or Labrador Tea. This is a small shrub, reaching to about
3 feet in height, indigenous to swampy ground in Canada, Greenland,
and over a large area of the colder parts of America. Leaves oval
or oblong, and plentifully produced all over the plant. Flowers
pure white, or slightly tinted with pink, produced in terminal
corymbs, and usually at their best in April. A perfectly hardy,
neat-growing, and abundantly-flowered shrub, but one that, somehow,
has gone greatly out of favour in this country. This plant has been
sub-divided into several varieties, that are, perhaps, distinct
enough to render them worthy of attention. They are L. latifolium
globosum, with white flowers, borne in globose heads, on the short,
twiggy, and dark-foliaged branches. L. latifolium angustifolia has
narrower leaves than those of the species, while L. latifolium
intermedium is of neat growth and bears pretty, showy flowers.
L. PALUSTRE.—Marsh Ledum. This is a common European
species, growing from 2 feet to 3 feet high, with much smaller
leaves than the former, and small pinky-white flowers produced in
summer. It is an interesting and pretty plant. The Ledums succeed
best in cool, damp, peaty soil.
LEIOPHYLLUM BUXIFOLIUM (syns L. thymifolia, Ammyrsine
buxifolia and Ledum buxifolium).—Sand Myrtle. New
Jersey and Virginia, 1736. This is a dwarf, compact shrub from New
Jersey, with box-like leaves, and bunches of small white flowers in
early summer. For using as a rock plant, and in sandy peat, it is
an excellent subject, and should find a place in every
LESPEDEZA BICOLOR (syn Desmodium
penduliflorum).—North China and Japan. A little-known but
beautiful small-growing shrub, of slender, elegant growth, and
reaching, under favourable culture, a height of about 6 feet. The
leaves are trifoliolate, small, and neat, and the abundant racemes
of individually small, Pea-shaped flowers are of the richest and
showiest reddish-purple. Being only semi-hardy will account for the
scarcity of this beautiful Japanese shrub, but having stood
uninjured in all but the coldest parts of these islands should
induce lovers of flowering shrubs to give it a fair chance.
LEUCOTHOË AXILLARIS (syn Andromeda
axillaris).—North America, 1765. This is of small growth,
from 2 feet to 3 feet high, with oval-pointed leaves and white
flowers in short racemes produced in May and June. It is not a very
satisfactory species for cultivation in this country.
L. CATESBAEI (syns Andromeda Catesbaei and A.
axillaris).—North America. This has white flowers with an
unpleasant odour like that of Chestnut blossoms, but is worthy of
cultivation, and succeeds best in cool sandy peat or friable yellow
L. DAVISIAE, from California (1853), is a very handsome
evergreen shrub, of small and neat growth, and will be found an
acquisition where compact shrubs are in demand. The leaves are
small, of a deep green colour, and remain throughout the year.
Flowers produced in great abundance at the branch tips, usually in
dense clusters, and individually small and pure white.
L. RECURVA (syn Andromeda recurva).—North America.
A very distinct plant on account of the branch tips being almost of
a scarlet tint, and thus affording a striking contrast to the
grayish-green of the older bark. The flowers are pinky-white and
produced in curving racemes and abundantly over the shrub. Like
other members of the family it delights to grow in cool sandy
LEYCESTERIA FORMOSA, from Nepaul (1824), is an erect-growing,
deciduous shrub, with green, hollow stems, and large ovate, pointed
leaves of a very deep green colour. The flowers are small, and
white or purplish, and produced in long, pendulous, bracteate
racemes from the axils of the upper leaves. It is one of the most
distinct and interesting of hardy shrubs, the deep olive-green of
both stem and leaves, and abundantly-produced and curiously-shaped
racemes, rendering it a conspicuous object wherever planted.
Perfectly hardy, and of free, almost rampant growth in any but the
stiffest soils. Cuttings root freely and grow rapidly.
LIGUSTRUM IBOTA (syn L. amurense).—Japan, 1861. A
compact growing species, about 3 feet in height, with small spikes
of pure white flowers produced freely during the summer months.
L. JAPONICUM (syns L. glabrum, L. Kellennanni, L.
Sieboldii and L. syringaeflorum).—Japan Privet.
This is a dwarf-growing species rarely exceeding 4 feet in height,
with broad, smooth, glossy-green leaves, and large compound racemes
of flowers. There are several varieties, including L. japonicum
microphyllum, with smaller leaves than the parent; and one with
tricoloured foliage and named L. japonicum variegatum.
L. LUCIDUM (syns L. magnoliaefolium and L.
strictum).—Shining-leaved Privet, or Woa Tree. China,
1794. A pretty evergreen species, with oval leaves, and terminal,
thyrsoid panicles of white flowers. It is an old inhabitant of our
gardens, and forms a somewhat erect, twiggy bush, of fully 10 feet
in height. Of this there are two varieties, one with larger bunches
of flowers, and named L. lucidum floribundum, and another with
variegated leaves, L. lucidum variegatum. L. lucidum coriaceum
(Leathery-leaved Privet) is a distinct variety, with thick,
leathery-green leaves, and dense habit of growth.
L. OVALIFOLIUM (syn L. californicum).—Oval-leaved
Privet. Japan, 1877. This is a commonly-cultivated species, with
semi-evergreen leaves, and spikes of yellowish-white flowers. It is
a good hedge plant, and succeeds well as a town shrub. There are
several variegated forms, of which L. ovalifolium variegatum
(Japan, 1865) and L. ovalifolium aureum are the best.
L. QUIHOI.—China, 1868. This is a much valued species, as
it does not flower until most of its relations have finished. Most
of the Privets flower at mid-summer, but this species is often only
at its best by the last week of October and beginning of November.
It forms a straggling freely-branched shrub, of fully 6 feet in
height and nearly as much through, with dark shining-green oblong
leaves, and loose terminal panicles of pure white,
powerfully-scented flowers. It flourishes, like most of the
Privets, on poor soil, and is a little-known species that note
should be made of during the planting season.
L. SINENSE (syns L. villosum and L. Ibota
villosum).—Chinese Privet. China, 1858. This is a tall
deciduous shrub, with oblong and tomentose leaves, and flowers in
loose, terminal panicles and produced freely in August. L. sinense
nanum is one of the prettiest forms in cultivation. It is almost
evergreen, with a horizontal mode of growth, and dense spikes of
crearny-white flowers, so thickly produced as almost to hide the
foliage from view. It is a most distinct and desirable variety.
L. VULGARE.—Common Privet. Although one of our commonest
shrubs, this Privet can hardly be passed unnoticed, for the spikes
of creamy-white flowers, that are deliciously scented, are both
handsome and effective. Of the common Privet there are several
distinct and highly ornamental forms, such as L. vulgare
variegatum, L. vulgare pendulum, having curiously-creeping
branches, and the better-known and valuable L. vulgare sempervirens
(syn L. italicum), the Italian Privet.
LINNAEA BOREALIS.—Twin Flower. A small and elegant,
much-creeping evergreen shrub, with small, ovate crenate leaves,
and pairs of very fragrant, pink flowers. Two conditions are
necessary for its cultivation—a half-shaded aspect where
bottom moisture is always present, and a deep, rich, friable loam.
A native of Scotland and England, flowering in July.
LIPPIA CITRIODORA (syns Aloysia citriodora and Verbena
triphylla).—Lemon-scented Verbena. Chili, 1794. With its
slender branches and pale green, pleasantly-scented, linear leaves,
this little plant is a general favourite that needs no description.
The flowers are not very ornamental, being white or lilac, and
produced in small, terminal panicles. A native of Chili, it is not
very hardy, but grown against a sunny wall, and afforded the
protection of a mat in winter, with a couple of shovelfuls of
cinders heaped around the stem, it passes through the most severe
weather with little or no injury, save, in some instances, the
branch tips being killed back. Propagated readily from cuttings
placed in a cool frame or under a hand-light.
LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA.—Tulip Tree. North America, 1688.
One of the noblest hardy exotic trees in cultivation. The large,
four-lobed, truncate leaves, of a soft and pleasing green, are
highly ornamental, and are alone sufficient to establish the
identity of the tree. Flowers large, yellow, and sweet-scented, and
usually freely produced when the tree has attained to a height of
between 20 feet and 30 feet. When we consider the undoubted
hardihood of the tree and indifference to soil, its noble aspect,
handsome foliage that is so distinct from that of any other tree,
and showy flowers, we feel justified in placing it in the very
first rank of ornamental trees. L. tulipifera integrifolia has
entire leaves, which render it distinct from the type; L.
tulipifera fastigiata, or pyramidalis, is of erect growth; L.
tulipifera aurea, with golden foliage; and L. tulipifera crispa,
with the leaves curiously undulated—a peculiarity which seems
constant, but is more curious than beautiful. Few soils come amiss
to the Tulip Tree, it thriving well in that of very opposite
descriptions—loam, almost pure gravel, and alluvial
LONICERA CAPRIFOLIUM.—Europe. This species resembles L.
Periclymenum, but is readily distinguished by the sessile
flower-heads, and fawny-orange flowers.
L. FLEXUOSA (syn L. brachypoda).—Japan, 1806. This
is a pretty species, and one of the most useful of the climbing
section. By its slender, twining, purplish stems, it may at once be
distinguished, as also by the deep green, purplish-tinted leaves,
and sweetly-scented flowers of various shades of yellow and purple.
A native of China, and perfectly hardy as a wall plant. L. flexuosa
aureo-reticulata is a worthy variety, in which the leaves are
beautifully netted or variegated with yellow.
L. FRAGRANTISSIMA.—China, 1845. This species is often
confounded with L. Standishii, but differs in at least one respect,
that the former is strictly a climber, while the latter is of bushy
growth. The leaves, too, of L. Standishii are hairy, which is not
the case with the other species. It is a very desirable species,
with white fragrant flowers, produced during the winter season.
L. PERICLYMENUM.—Honeysuckle, or Woodbine. An indigenous
climbing shrub, with long, lithe, and twisted cable-like branches,
and bearing heads of sweetly-scented, reddish-yellow flowers. This
is a favourite wild plant, and in the profusion and fragrance of
its flowers it is surpassed by none of the exotic species. There
are several distinct nursery forms of this plant, including those
known as L. Periclymenum Late Dutch, L. Periclymenum Early Cream,
and L. Periclymenum odoratissimum; as also one with variegated
L. SEMPERVIRENS.—Scarlet Trumpet Honeysuckle. A North
American evergreen species (1656), with scarlet, almost inodorous
flowers, produced freely during the summer. For wall covering it is
one of the most useful of the family. The variety L. sempervirens
minor is worthy of attention.
L. STANDISHII, a Chinese species (1860), has deliciously
fragrant while flowers, with a slight purplish tint, and is well
worthy of attention, it soon forming a wall covering of great
L. TATARICA.—-Tartarian Honeysuckle. Tartary, 1752. This
is a very variable species, in so far at least as the colour of
flowers is concerned, and has given rise to several handsome
varieties. The typical plant has rosy flowers, but the variety L.
tatarica albiflora has pure white flowers; and another, L. tatarica
rubriflora has freely produced purplish-red flowers.
L. XYLOSTEUM (syn Xylosteum dumetorum).—Fly
Honeysuckle. Europe (England) to the Caucasus. The small,
creamy-white flowers of this plant are not particularly showy, but
the scarlet berries are more conspicuous in September and October.
The gray bark of the branches has also a distinct effect in winter
when grown in contrast to the red-barked species of Cornus,
Viburnum, and yellow-barked Osier. It is one of the oldest
occupants of British shrubberies. L. Xylosteum leucocarpum has
white berries; those of L. Xylosteum melanocarpum are black; and in
L. Xylosteum xanthocarpum they are yellow.
The Honeysuckles are all of the readiest culture, and succeed
well in very poor soils, and in that of opposite qualities.
Propagated from cuttings or by layering.
LOROPETALON CHINENSE.—Khasia Mountains and China, 1880.
This is a pretty and interesting shrub belonging to the more
familiar Witch Hazel family. Flowers clustered in small heads, the
calyx pale green, and the long linear petals almost pure white.
Being quite hardy, and interesting as well as ornamental, should
insure this Chinese shrub a place in every good collection.
LYCIUM BARBARUM.—Box Thorn, or Tea Tree. North Asia, 1696.
A pretty lax, trailing shrub, with long, slender, flexible twigs,
small linear-lanceolate leaves, and rather sparsely-produced lilac
or violet flowers. Planted against a wall, or beside a
stout-growing, open-habited shrub, where the peculiarly lithe
branches can find support, this plant does best. Probably nowhere
is the Box Thorn so much at home as in seaside places, it then
attaining to sometimes 12 feet in height, and bearing freely its
showy flowers during summer, and the bright scarlet or orange
berries in winter.
L. EUROPAEUM.—European Box Thorn. South Europe, 1730. This
is a spiny, rambling shrub, that may often be seen clambering over
some cottage porch, or used as a fence or wall plant in many parts
of England. It often grows nearly 20 feet long, and is then a plant
of great beauty, with linear-spathulate leaves of the freshest
green, and pretty little pink or reddish flowers. For quickly
covering steep, dry banks and mounds where few other plants could
exist this European Box Thorn is invaluable. Either species will
grow in very poor, dry soil, and is readily propagated by means of
LYONIA PANICULATA (syns L. ligustrina, Andromeda globulifera,
A. pilifera, and Menziesia globularis).—North
America, 1806. This species grows about a yard high, with
clustered, ovate leaves, and pretty, pinky, drooping flowers.
MACLURA AURANTIACA.—Osage Orange, or Bow-wood. North
America, 1818. This is a wide-spreading tree with deciduous
foliage, and armed with spines along the branches. The leaves are
three inches long, ovate and pointed, and of a bright shining
green. Flowers rather inconspicuous, being green with a light tinge
of yellow, and succeeded by fruit bearing a resemblance when ripe
to the Seville orange. It is hardy, and grows freely in rather
sandy or gravelly soil.
MAGNOLIA ACUMINATA.—Cucumber Tree. North America, 1736.
This is a large and handsome species, of often as much as 50 feet
in height, and with a head that is bushy in proportion. The leaves
are 6 inches long, ovate and pointed, and of a refreshing shade of
green. Flowers greenish-yellow, sweetly scented, and produced
abundantly all over the tree. They are succeeded by small, roughish
fruit, resembling an infant cucumber, but they usually fall off
before becoming ripe.
M. CAMPBELII.—Sikkim, 1868. This is a magnificent Indian
species, but, unfortunately, it is not hardy except in the favoured
English and Irish localities. The leaves are large, and silky on
the undersides, while the flowers are crimson and white, and
equally as large as those of the better-known M. grandiflora.
M. CONSPICUA (syn M. Yulan).—Yulan. China, 1789. A
large-growing shrub, with Pea-green, deciduous foliage, and large,
pure white flowers that oft get damaged by the spring frosts. M.
conspicua Soulangeana is a supposed hybrid between M. conspicua and
M. obovata. Whatever may be the origin of this Magnolia, it is
certainly a handsome and showy plant of very vigorous growth,
producing freely its white, purple-tinted flowers, and which last
for a long time in perfection. There are several other varieties,
including M. conspicua Soulangeana nigra, with dark purplish
flowers; M. conspicua Alexandrina, M. conspicua Soulangeana
speciosa, and M. conspicua Norbertii.
M. CORDATA, a native of the Southern Alleghanies (1801), is
still rare in collections. It is a small-growing, deciduous
species, with yellow flowers, that are neither scented nor
M. FRASERI (syn M. auriculata).—Long-leaved
Cucumber Tree. North America, 1786. This species has distinctly
auriculated leaves and large, yellowish-white, fragrant
M. GLAUCA.—Laurel Magnolia. North America, 1688. This is
one of the commonest species in our gardens, and at the same time
one of the hardiest. It is of shrub size, with Laurel-like leaves,
and sweetly-scented, small, pure white flowers, produced about the
end of June.
M. GRANDIFLORA.—North America, 1737. One of the handsomest
species, with very large, glossy, evergreen leaves, and deliciously
odoriferous, creamy-white flowers, that are often fully 6 inches
across. It is usually seen as a wall plant, and the slight
protection thus afforded is almost a necessity in so far as the
development of the foliage and flowers is concerned. M. grandiflora
exoniensis (Exmouth Magnolia) is a very handsome form.
M. LENNEI.—This is a garden hybrid between M. conspicua
and M. obovata discolor, and has flowers as large as a goose's egg,
of a rosy-purple colour, and produced profusely.
M. MACROPHYLLA.—North America, 1800. This species has very
large leaves and flowers, larger, perhaps, than those of any other
species. They are very showy, being white with a purple centre. It
attains a height of 30 feet.
M. OBOVATA DISCOLOR (syn M. purpurea).—Japan, 1790.
This is a small-growing, deciduous shrub, with large, dark green
leaves, and Tulip-shaped flowers, that are purple on the outside
and almost white within.
M. PARVIFLORA, from Japan, with creamy-white, fragrant flowers,
that are globular in shape, is a very distinct and attractive
species, but cannot generally be relied upon as hardy.
M. STELLATA (syn M. Halleana).—Japan, 1878. A neat,
small-growing, Japanese species, of bushy habit, and quite hardy in
this country. The small, white, fragrant flowers are produced
abundantly, even on young plants, and as early as April. One of the
most desirable and handsome of the small-growing species. M.
stellata (pink variety) received an Award of Merit at the meeting
of the Royal Horticultural Society on March 28, 1893. This bids
fair to be really a good thing, and may best be described as a
pink-flowered form of the now well-known and popular species.
M. UMBRELLA (syn M. tripetala).—Umbrella Tree.
North America, 1752. A noble species, with large, deep green
leaves, that are often 16 inches long. It is quite hardy around
London, and produces its large, white, fragrant flowers in
succession during May and June. The fruit is large and showy, and
of a deep purplish-red colour.
MEDICAGO ARBOREA.—South Europe, 1596. This species grows
to the height of 6 feet or 8 feet, and produces its Pea-shaped
flowers from June onwards. The leaves are broadly oval and serrated
at the tips, but they vary in this respect. It is not hardy unless
in warm, sheltered corners of southern England and Ireland,
although it stood unharmed for many years at Kew. It succeeds best,
and is less apt to receive injury, when planted in rather dry and
MENISPERMUM CANADENSE.—Moonseed. North America, 1691. This
shrub is principally remarkable for the large, reniform, peltate
leaves, which are of value for covering pergolas, bowers and walls.
The flowers are of no great account, being rather inconspicuous and
paniculate. It is hardy in most places, and is worthy of culture
for its graceful habit and handsome foliage.
MICROGLOSSA ALBESCENS (syn Aster albescens and A.
cabulicus).—Himalayas, 1842. This member of the
Compositae family is a much-branched shrub, with grayish lanceolate
foliage, and clusters of flowers about 6 inches in diameter, and of
a bluish or mauve colour. It is a native of Nepaul, and, with the
protection of a wall, perfectly hardy around London.
MITCHELLA REPENS.—Partridge Berry. North America, 1761. A
low-growing, creeping plant, having oval, persistent leaves, white
flowers, and brilliant scarlet fruit. It is a neat little bog
plant, resembling Fuchsia procumbens in habit, and with bunches of
the brightest Cotoneaster-like fruit. For rock gardening, or
planting on the margins of beds in light, peaty soil, this is one
of the handsomest and most beautiful of hardy creeping shrubs.
MITRARIA COCCINEA.—Scarlet Mitre Pod. Chiloe, 1848. This
is only hardy in the South of England and Ireland, and even there
it requires wall protection. It is a pretty little shrub, with
long, slender shoots, which, during the early part of the summer,
are studded with the bright red, drooping blossoms, which are
urn-shaped, and often nearly 2 inches long. It delights in damp,
MYRICA ASPLENIFOLIA (syn Comptonia
asplenifolia).—Sweet Fern. North America, 1714. A North
American plant of somewhat straggling growth, growing to about 4
feet high, and with linear, pinnatified, sweet-smelling leaves. The
flowers are of no decorative value, being small and inconspicuous,
but for the fragrant leaves alone the shrub will always be prized.
It grows well in peaty soil, is very hardy, and may be increased by
means of offsets. This shrub is nearly allied to our native Myrica
or Sweet Gale.
M. CALIFORNICA.—Californian Wax Myrtle. California, 1848.
In this we have a valuable evergreen shrub that is hardy beyond a
doubt, and that will thrive in the very poorest classes of soils.
In appearance it somewhat resembles our native plant, but is
preferable to it on account of the deep green, persistent leaves.
The leaves are about 3 inches long, narrow, and produced in tufts
along the branches. Unlike our native species, the Californian Wax
Myrtle has no pleasant aroma to the leaves.
M. CERIFERA.—Common Candle-berry Myrtle. Canada, 1699.
This is a neat little shrub, usually about 4 feet high, with
oblong-lanceolate leaves, and inconspicuous catkins.
M. GALE.—Sweet Gale or Bog Myrtle. This has inconspicuous
flowers, and is included here on account of the deliciously
fragrant foliage, and which makes it a favourite with cultivators
generally. It is a native shrub, growing from 3 feet to 4 feet
high, with deciduous, linear-lanceolate leaves, and clustered
catkins appearing before the leaves. A moor or bog plant, and of
great value for planting by the pond or lake side, or along with
the so-called American plants, for the aroma given off by the
The Myricas are all worthy of cultivation, although the flowers
are inconspicuous—their neat and in most cases fragrant
foliage, and adaptability to poor soil or swampy hollows, being
MYRTUS COMMUNIS.—Common Myrtle. South Europe, 1597. A
well-known shrub, which, unless in very favoured spots and by the
sea-side, cannot survive our winters. Where it does well, and then
only as a wall plant, this and its varieties are charming shrubs
with neat foliage and an abundance of showy flowers. The
double-flowered varieties are very handsome, but they are more
suitable for glass culture than planting in the open.
M. LUMA (syn Eugenia apiculata and E.
Luma).—Chili. Though sometimes seen growing out of doors,
this is not to be recommended for general planting, it being best
suited for greenhouse culture.
M. UGNI (syn Eugenia Ugni).—Valdivia, 1845. A
small-growing, Myrtle-like shrub, that is only hardy in favoured
parts of the country. It is of branching habit, with small, wiry
stems, oval, coriacious leaves, and pretty pinky flowers. The
edible fruit is highly ornamental, being of a pleasing ruddy tinge
tinted with white. This dwarf-growing shrub wants the protection of
a wall, and when so situated in warm seaside parts of the country
soon forms a bush of neat and pleasing appearance.
NEILLIA OPULIFOLIA (syn Spiraea opulifolia).—Nine
Bark. North America, 1690. A hardy shrub, nearly allied to Spiraea.
It produces a profusion of umbel-like corymbs of pretty white
flowers, that are succeeded by curious swollen membraneous purplish
fruit. N. opulifolia aurea is worthy of culture, it being of free
growth and distinct from the parent plant.
N. THYRSIFLORA, Nepaul, 1850, would seem to be quite as hardy as
N. opulifolia, and is of more evergreen habit. The leaves are
doubly serrated and three lobed, and cordate-ovate. Flowers white
in spicate, thyrsoid racemes, and produced rather sparsely.
NESAEA SALICIFOLIA (syn Heimia
salicifolia).—Mexico, 1821. This can only be styled as
half hardy, but with wall protection it forms a pretty bush often
fully a yard in height. The leaves resemble those of some species
of Willow, being long and narrow, while the showy yellow flowers
are freely produced in August and September. It thrives best when
planted in light, dry soil, and in a sheltered position.
NEVIUSA ALABAMENSIS.—Alabama Snow Wreath. Alabama, 1879.
This is a rare American shrub, with leaves reminding one of those
of the Nine Bark, Neillia opulifolia, and the flowers, which are
freely produced along the full length of the shoots, are white or
yellowish-green, with prominent stamens of a tufted brush-like
character. It is usually treated as a green-house plant, but may be
seen growing and flowering freely in the open ground at Kew.
NUTTALLIA CERASIFORMIS.—Osoberry. California, 1848. This
shrub is of great value on account of the flowers being produced in
the early weeks of the year, and when flowers are few and far
between. It grows from 6 feet to 10 feet high, with a thick, twiggy
head, and drooping racemes of white flowers borne thickly all over
the plant. Few soils come amiss to this neglected shrub, it growing
and flowering freely even on poor gravelly clay, and where only a
limited number of shrubs could succeed.
OLEARIA HAASTII.—New Zealand, 1872. This Composite shrub
is only hardy in the milder parts of England and Ireland. It is of
stiff, dwarf growth, rarely growing more than 4 feet high, but of
neat and compact habit. Flowering as it does in late summer it is
rendered of special value, the Daisy-like white blossoms being
produced in large and flat clusters at the branch tips. The leaves
are neat and of leathery texture, and being evergreen lend an
additional charm to the shrub.
O. MACRODONTA (syn O. dentata), from New Zealand, 1886,
is tolerably hardy, and may be seen in good form both at Kew and in
the South of Ireland. The large Holly-like leaves are of a peculiar
silvery-green tint above, and almost white on the under sides.
Flowers white, and produced in dense heads in June and July.
O. Forsterii and O. Gunniana (syn Eurybia Gunniana) are
nearly hardy species, the latter, from New Zealand, bearing a
profusion of white Daisy-like flowers on dense, twiggy
ONONIS ARVENSIS.—Restharrow. A native undershrub of very
variable size, according to the position in which it is found
growing. It creeps along the ground, the shoots sending out roots
as they proceed, and is usually found on dry sandy banks. The
flowers when at their best are very ornamental, being bright pink,
and with the standard streaked with a deeper shade. They are
abundantly produced, and render the plant very conspicuous during
the summer and autumn months. When planted on an old wall, and
allowed to roam at will, the Restharrow is, perhaps, seen to best
OSMANTHUS AQUIFOLIUM ILLICIFOLIUS.—Holly-leaved Osmanthus.
Japan. This is a handsome evergreen shrub, with Holly-like leaves,
and not very conspicuous greenish-white flowers. It is a very
desirable shrub, of which there are varieties named O.A.
ilicifolius argenteo-variegatus, O.A. ilicifolius aureo-variegatus,
and O.A. ilicifolius nanus, the names of which will be sufficient
to define their characters.
O.A. ILICIFOLIUS MYRTIFOLIUS.—Myrtle-leaved Osmanthus. A
very distinct and beautiful shrub, with unarmed leaves. It is of
dwarf, compact growth, with small, sharply-pointed leaves, and
inconspicuous flowers. For the front line of a shrubbery this is an
invaluable shrub, its pretty leaves and neat twiggy habit making it
a favourite with planters. The variety rotundifolius is seldom seen
in cultivation, but being distinct in foliage from any of the
others is to be recommended. They grow freely in any good garden
soil, but all the better if a little peat is added at the time of
OSTRYA CARPINIFOLIA (syn O. vulgaris).—Common Hop
Hornbeam. South Europe, 1724. A much-branched, round-headed tree,
with cordate-ovate, acuminate leaves. Both this and the following
species, by reason of the resemblance between their female catkins
and those of the Hop, and between their leaves and those of the
Hornbeam, have acquired the very descriptive name of Hop Hornbeam.
This is a large-growing tree, specimens in various parts of the
country ranging in height from 50 feet to 60 feet.
O. VIRGINICA.—Virginian Hop Hornbeam. Eastern United
States, 1692. Resembles the latter, but is of smaller growth,
rarely exceeding 40 feet in height. They grow fairly well in almost
any class of soil, and on account of the long and showy catkins are
well worthy of cultivation.
OXYDENDRUM ARBOREUM (syn Andromeda
arborea).—Sorrel-tree. Eastern United States, 1752.
Unfortunately this species is not often found under cultivation,
being unsuitable generally for our climate. In some instances,
however, it has done well, a specimen in the Knap Hill Nursery,
Surrey, being 30 feet high, and with a dense rounded head. The
flowers are very beautiful, being of a waxy white, and produced
abundantly. It wants a free rich soil, and not too exposed
OZOTHAMNUS ROSMARINIFOLIUS.—Australia, 1827. A pretty
little Australian Composite, forming a dense, twiggy shrub, with
narrow, Rosemary-like leaves, and small, whitish, Aster-like
flowers which resemble those of its near relative, the Olearia, and
are produced so thickly that the plant looks like a sheet of white
when the blooms are fully developed. It flowers in June and July.
In most parts of the country it will require protection, but can be
classed as fairly hardy. Cuttings root freely if placed in sandy
soil in a cool frame.
PAEONIA MOUTAN.—Moutan Paeony, or Chinese Tree Paeony.
China and Japan, 1789. A beautiful shrubby species introduced from
China about one hundred years ago. The first of the kind introduced
to England had single flowers, and the plant is figured in Andrews'
Botanists' Repository (tab. 463) under the name of P.
papaveracea. The flowers are white with a dark red centre. In the
Botanical Magazine (tab. 2175), the same plant is figured
under the name of P. Moutan var. papaveracea. This is perfectly
hardy in our gardens, and is the parent of many beautiful and
distinct varieties, including double and single white, pink,
crimson, purple, and striped.
PALIURUS ACULEATUS (syn P. australis).—Christ's
Thorn, or Garden Thorn. Mediterranean region, 1596. A
densely-branched, spiny shrub, with small leaves, and not very
showy, yellowish-green flowers. It grows and flowers freely enough
in light, peaty earth, but is not very hardy, the tips of the
branches being usually killed back should the winter be at all
PARROTIA PERSICA.—Persia, 1848. Well known for the lovely
autumnal tints displayed by the foliage when dying off. But for the
flowers, too, it is well worthy of culture, the crimson-tipped
stamens of the male flowers being singularly beautiful and
uncommon. In February it is no unusual sight to see on
well-established plants whole branches that are profusely furnished
with these showy flowers. For planting in a warm corner of a rather
dry border it seems to be well suited; but it is perfectly hardy
and free of growth when suited with soil and site. It is as yet
rare in cultivation, but is sure, when better known and more widely
disseminated, to become a general favourite with lovers of hardy
PASSIFLORA CAERULEA.—Passion Flower. Brazil and Peru,
1699. Though not perfectly hardy, yet this handsome climbing plant,
if cut down to the ground, usually shoots up freely again in the
spring. The flowers, which are produced very freely, but
particularly in maritime districts, vary from white to blue, and
the prettily-fringed corona and centre of the flower render the
whole peculiarly interesting and beautiful. P. caerulea Constance
Elliott has greenish-white flowers; and P. caerulea Colvillei has
white sepals and a blue fringe. The latter is of more robust
growth, and more floriferous than the species.
PAULOWNIA IMPERIALIS.—Japan, 1840. This is a handsome,
fast-growing tree, and one that is particularly valuable for its
ample foliage, and distinct and showy flowers. Though perfectly
hardy, in other respects it is unfortunate that the season at which
the Paulownia flowers is so early that, unless the conditions are
unusually favourable, the flower buds get destroyed by the frost.
The tree grows to fully 40 feet high in this country, and is a
grandly decorative object in its foliage alone, and for which,
should the flowers never be produced, it is well worthy of
cultivation. They are ovate-cordate, thickly covered with a grayish
woolly tomentum, and often measure, but particularly in young and
healthy trees, as much as 10 inches in length. The Foxglove-like
flowers are purplish-violet and spotted, and borne in terminal
panicles. They are sweetly-scented. When favourably situated, and
in cool, sandy loam or peaty earth, the growth of the tree is very
rapid, and when a tree has been cut over, the shoots sent out often
exceed 6 feet in length in one season, and nearly 2 inches in
diameter. There are many fine old trees throughout the country, and
which testify to the general hardihood of the Paulownia.
PERIPLOCA GRAECA.—Poison Vine. South Eastern Europe, and
Orient, 1597. A tall, climbing shrub, with small, ovate-lanceolate
leaves, and clusters of curious purplish-brown, green-tipped
flowers produced in summer. The long, incurved appendages, in the
shape of a crown, and placed so as to protect the style and
anthers, render the flowers of peculiar interest. Though often used
as a greenhouse plant, it is perfectly hardy, and makes a neat,
deciduous wall or arch covering, thriving to perfection in rich
soil that is well-drained. It is readily propagated from
PERNETTYA MUCRONATA (syn Arbutus
mucronata).—Prickly Heath. Magellan, 1828. This is a
dwarf-growing, wiry shrub, with narrow, stiff leaves, and bears an
abundance of white, bell-shaped flowers. It is a capital wind
screen, and may be used to advantage on the exposed side of
rockwork or flower beds, or as an ornamental shrub by the pond or
lake side. The small dark-green leaves, the tiny white flowers, and
great abundance of deep purple berries in winter, are all points
that are in favour of the shrub for extended cultivation. The
pretty, pinky shoots, too, help to make the plant attractive even
in mid-winter. Propagation by layers or seed is readily brought
about. To grow this shrub to perfection, peaty soil or decayed
vegetable matter will be found most suitable. There is a
narrow-leaved form named P. mucronata angustifolia, and another on
which the name of P. mucronata speciosa has been bestowed.
There are many beautiful-berried forms of the Pernettya, but as
their flowers are small can hardly be included in our list.
PHILADELPHUS CORONARIUS.—Mock Orange, or Syringa. South
Europe, 1596. A well-known and valuable garden shrub, of from 6
feet to 10 feet high, with ovate and serrulated leaves, and pretty
racemes of white or yellowish-white, fragrant flowers. P.
coronarius aureo-variegatus is one of the numerous forms of this
shrub, having brightly-tinted, golden foliage, but the flowers are
in no way superior to those of the parent. It is, if only for the
foliage, an extremely pretty and distinct variety. P. coronarius
argenteo-variegatus has silvery-tinted leaves; P. coronarius
flore-pleno, full double flowers; and P. coronarius Keteleeri
flore-pleno is the best double-flowered form in cultivation.
P. GORDONIANUS, an American species (1839), is a well-known and
beautiful shrub, in which the flowers are usually double the size
of those of the common species, and which are not produced till
July, while those of P. coronarius appear in early May.
P. GRANDIFLORUS (syns P. floribundus, P. latifolius and
P. speciosus).—Southern United States, 1811. This has
rotundate, irregularly-toothed leaves, and large white,
sweetly-scented flowers produced in clusters. This forms a stout
bush 10 feet high, and as much through. There are two varieties, P.
grandiflorus laxus, and P. grandiflorus speciosissimus, both
distinct and pretty kinds.
P. HIRSUTUS.—North America, 1820. Another handsome,
small-flowered species, of dwarf growth, and having hairy
P. INODOROUS, also from North America (1738), differs little in
size and shape of flowers from P. grandiflorus, but the flowers are
without scent. The leaves, too, are quite glabrous and obscurely
P. LEMOINEI BOULE D'ARGENT is a cross, raised in 1888, from P.
Lemoinei and the double-flowered form of P. coronarius. The flowers
are double white and with the pleasant, but not heavy, scent of P.
microphyllus. P. Lemoinei Gerbe de Neige bears pleasantly-scented
flowers that are as large as those of the well-known P.
speciosissimus. There is an erect form of P. Lemoinei named erectus
that is also worthy of note.
P. LEWISI, from North America, is hardly sufficiently distinct
from some of the others to warrant special notice.
P. MICROPHYLLUS, from New Mexico (1883), is of low growth, and
remarkable for its slender branches, small, Myrtle-like leaves, and
abundance of small, white flowers. It is a decidedly pretty shrub,
but is not so hardy as the others.
P. SATZUMI (syn P. chinensis).—Japan, 1851. A
slender-growing species, with long and narrow leaves, and large,
P. TRIFLORUS and P. MEXICANUS are other species that might be
worthy of including in a representative collection of these
This is a valuable genus of shrubs, all being remarkable for the
abundance of white, and usually sweet-scented, flowers which they
produce. They require no special treatment, few soils, if at all
free and rich, coming amiss to them; while even as shrubs for shady
situations they are not to be despised. Propagation is effected by
means of cuttings, which root freely if placed in sandy soil.
P. ANGUSTIFOLIA (narrow-leaved Phillyrea), P. ilicifolia
(Holly-leaved Phillyrea), P. salicifolia (Willow-leaved Phillyrea),
P. buxifolia (Box-leaved Phillyrea), and P. ligustrifolia
(Privet-leaved Phillyrea), are all more or less valuable species,
and their names indicate their peculiarities of leafage. P.
angustifolia rosmarinifolia (syn P. neapolitana) is a
somewhat rare shrub, but one that is well worthy of culture, if
only for its neat habit and tiny little Rosemary-like leaves. It is
from Italy, and known under the synonym of P.
P. LATIFOLIA (syn P. obliqua).—Broad-leaved
Phillyrea. South Europe, 1597. This is a compact-growing and
exceedingly ornamental shrub, with bright and shining,
ovate-serrulated leaves. For its handsome, evergreen foliage and
compact habit of growth it is, perhaps, most to be valued, for the
small flowers are at their best both dull and inconspicuous. Not
very hardy unless in the sea-coast garden.
P. MEDIA (syns P. ligustrifolia and P.
oleaefolia).—South Europe, 1597. This is another
interesting species, but not at all common in cultivation.
P. VILMORINIANA (syns P. laurifolia and P.
decora).—Asia Minor, 1885, This is a grand addition to
these valuable shrubs, of which it is decidedly the best from an
ornamental point of view. It is of compact growth, with large,
Laurel-like leaves, which are of a pleasing shade of green, and
fully 4 inches long. They are of stout, leathery texture, and
plentifully produced. That this shrub is perfectly hardy is now a
The Phillyreas succeed well in light, warm, but not too dry
soil, and they do all the better if a warm and sheltered position
is assigned to them. Being unusually bright of foliage, they are of
great service in planting for shrubbery embellishment, and which
they light up in a very conspicuous manner during the dull winter
months. They get shabby and meagre foliaged if exposed to cold
PHLOMIS FRUTICOSA.—Jerusalem Sage. Mediterranean region,
1596. This is a neat-growing shrubby plant, with ovate acute
leaves, that are covered with a yellowish down. From the axils of
the upper leaves the whorls of yellow flowers are freely produced
during the summer months. It is valued for its neat growth, and as
growing on dry soils where few other plants could eke out an
PHOTINIA JAPONICA (syn Eriobotrya
japonica).—Loquat, Japan Medlar, or Japan Quince. Japan,
1787. This is chiefly remarkable for its handsome foliage, the
leaves being oblong of shape and downy on the under sides. The
white flowers are of no great beauty, but being produced at the
beginning of winter, and when flowers are scarce, are all the more
welcome. It requires protection in all but the warmer parts of
P. ARBUTIFOLIA (syns Crataegus arbutifolia and
Mespilus arbutifolia).—Arbutus-leaved Photinia, or
Californian May-bush. California, 1796. This is a very distinct
shrub, with leaves resembling those of the Strawberry Tree
(Arbutus), the flowers in an elongated panicle, and bright red bark
on the young wood.
P. BENTHAMIANA is only worthy of culture for its neat habit and
freedom of growth when suitably placed.
P. SERRULATA (syn Crataegus glabra).—Chinese
Hawthorn. Japan and China, 1804. This has Laurel-like leaves, 4
inches or 5 inches long, and, especially when young, of a beautiful
rosy-chocolate colour, and clustered at the branch-tips. Flowers
small, white, and produced in flat corymbs. An invaluable seaside
They all grow well either in light, rich loam, or in sandy,
peaty earth, and are usually propagated by grafting.
PHYLODOCE TAXIFOLIA (syns P. caerulea and Menziesia
caerulea).—An almost extinct native species, having
crowded linear leaves, and lilac-blue flowers. It is only of value
for rock gardening.
PIERIS FLORIBUNDA (syns Andromeda floribunda and
Leucothoë floribunda).—United States, 1812. Few
perfectly hardy shrubs are more beautiful than this, with its pure
white Lily-of-the-Valley like flowers, borne in dense racemes and
small, neat, dark green leaves. To cultivate this handsome shrub in
a satisfactory way, fairly rich loam or peat, and a situation
sheltered from cold and cutting winds, are necessities.
P. JAPONICA (syn Andromeda japonica).—Japan, 1882.
A hardy, well-known shrub, that was first brought specially under
notice in "The Garden," and of which a coloured plate and
description were given. It is thickly furnished with neat and small
deep-green, leathery leaves, and pretty, waxy white flowers,
pendulous at the branch tips. Planted in free, sandy peat, it
thrives vigorously, and soon forms a neat specimen of nearly a yard
in height. It is a very desirable hardy species, and one that can
be confidently recommended for ornamental planting. There is a
variegated variety, P. japonica elegantissima, with leaves clearly
edged with creamy-white, and flushed with pink. Amongst variegated,
small-growing shrubs it is a gem.
P. MARIANA (syn Andromeda Mariana ovalis).—North
America, 1736. A neat shrub of about 3 feet in height, with oval
leaves, and pretty white flowers in pendent clusters.
P. OVALIFOLIA (syn Andromeda ovalifolia).—Nepaul,
1825. A fine, tall-growing species, with oval-pointed, leathery
leaves placed on long footstalks. Flowers in lengthened, drooping,
one-sided racemes, and white or pale flesh-coloured. Being
perfectly hardy, and attaining to as much as 20 feet in height, it
is a desirable species for the lawn or shrubbery.
PIPTANTHUS NEPALENSIS (syn Baptisia
nepalensis).—Evergreen Laburnum. Temperate Himalaya,
1821. A handsome, half-hardy shrub, of often fully 10 feet high,
with trifoliolate, evergreen leaves, and terminal racemes of large
yellow flowers. In the south and west of England and Ireland it
does well, and only receives injury during very severe winters.
Planted either as a single specimen, or in clumps of three or five,
the evergreen Laburnum has a pleasing effect, whether with its
bright, glossy-green leaves, or abundance of showy flowers. It is
of somewhat erect growth, with stout branches and plenty of shoots.
Propagated from seed, which it ripens abundantly in this
PITTOSPORUM TOBIRA.—Japan, 1804. This forms a neat,
evergreen shrub, with deep green, leathery leaves, and clusters of
white, fragrant flowers, each about an inch in diameter. It is
hardy in the more favoured parts of the south and west of England,
where it makes a reliable seaside shrub.
P. UNDULATUM, from Australia (1789), is also hardy against a
wall, but cannot be depended upon generally. It is a neat shrub,
with wavy leaves, that are rendered conspicuous by the dark
midribs. They grow well in any good garden soil.
PLAGIANTHUS LYALLI, a native of New Zealand (1871), and a member
of the Mallow family, is a free-flowering and beautiful shrub, but
one that cannot be recommended for general planting in this
country. At Kew it does well and flowers freely on an east wall.
The flowers are snow-white, with golden-yellow anthers, and
produced on the ends of the last season's branchlets during June
and July. The flower-stalks, being fully 2 inches long, give to the
flowers a very graceful appearance. In this country the leaves are
frequently retained till spring.
P. LAMPENI.—Van Dieman's Land, 1833. This is about equally
hardy with the former, and produces a great abundance of
P. PULCHELLUS (syn Sida pulchella).—Australia and
Tasmania. Another half-hardy species, which bears, even in a young
state, an abundance of rather small, whitish flowers.
POLYGALA CHAMAEBUXUS.—Bastard Box. A neat little shrubby
plant, with small ovate, coriaceous leaves, and fragrant yellow and
cream flowers. P. chamaebuxus purpureus differs in bearing rich
reddish-purple flowers, and is one of the most showy and beautiful
of rock plants. They are natives of Europe (1658), and grow best in
POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA.—Northern Hemisphere (Britain). An
indigenous shrub that grows about a yard high, with pinnate leaves
and golden flowers. It is a most persistent blooming plant, as
often for four months, beginning in June, the flowers are produced
freely in succession. It delights to grow in a strong soil, and,
being of low, sturdy growth, does well for the outer line of the
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS (syn Amygdalus communis).—Common
Almond. Barbary, 1548. Whether by a suburban roadside, or even in
the heart of the crowded city, the Almond seems quite at home, and
is at once one of the loveliest and most welcome of early
spring-flowering trees. The flowers are rather small for the
family, pale pink, and produced in great quantity before the
leaves. There are several distinct forms of the Almond, differing
mainly in the colour of the flowers, one being pink, another red,
while a third has double flowers. P. Amygdalus macrocarpa
(Large-fruited Almond) is by far the handsomest variety in
cultivation, the flowers being large, often 3 inches in diameter,
and white tinged with pink, particularly at the base of the petals.
The flowers, too, are produced earlier than those of any other
Almond, while the tree is of stout growth and readily suited with
both soil and site.
P. AMYGDALUS DULCIS (syn A. dulcis), Sweet Almond, of
which there are three distinct varieties, P.A. dulcis purpurea,
P.A. dulcis macrocarpa, and P.A. dulcis pendula, should be included
in every collection of these handsome flowering plants.
P. AVIUM JULIANA (syn Cerasus Juliana).—St.
Julian's Cherry. South Europe. This bears large flowers of a most
beautiful and delicate blush tint. P. Avium multiplex is a double
form of the Wild Cherry, or Gean, with smaller leaves than the
P. BOISSIERII (syn Amygdalus Boissierii).—Asia
Minor, 1879. This is a bushy shrub, with almost erect, long, and
slender branches, and furnished with leaves an inch long, elliptic,
and thick of texture. Flowers pale flesh-coloured, and produced
abundantly. It is a very ornamental and distinct plant, and is
sure, when better known, to attract a considerable amount of
P. CERASIFERA (syn P. Myrobalana).—Cherry, or
Myrobalan Plum. Native Country unknown. A medium-sized tree, with
an abundance of small white flowers, which are particularly
attractive if they escape the early spring frosts. It is of stout,
branching habit, with a well-rounded head, and has of late years
attracted a good deal of notice as a hedge plant. P. cerasifera
Pissardii, the purple-leaved Cherry plum, is a remarkable and
handsome variety, in which the leaves are deep purple, thus
rendering the plant one of the most distinct and
ornamental-foliaged of the family. It produces its white,
blush-tinted flowers in May. It was received by M.A. Chatenay, of
Sceau, from M. Pissard, director of the garden of His Majesty the
Shah of Persia. When it flowered it was figured in the Revue
Horticole, 1881, p. 190.
P. CERASUS (syn Cerasus vulgaris).—Common Cherry. A
favourite medium-sized tree, and one that lends itself readily to
cultivation. As an ornamental park tree this Cherry, though common,
must not be despised, for during summer, when laden with its pure
white flowers, or again in autumn when myriads of the black,
shining fruits hang in clusters from its branches, it will be
readily admitted that few trees have a more beautiful or
conspicuous appearance, P. Cerasus flore-pleno (double-flowered
Cherry) is a distinct and desirable variety. P. Cerasus multiplex
is a very showy double form, more ornamental than P. Avium
muliplex, and also known under the names of Cerasus
ranunculiflora and C. Caproniana multiplex. P. Cerasus
semperflorens (syn Cerasus semperflorens), the All Saints,
Ever Flowering, or Weeping, Cherry, is another valuable variety, of
low growth, and with gracefully drooping branches, particularly
when the tree is old. It is a very desirable lawn tree, and flowers
at intervals during the summer.
P. CHAMAECERASUS (syn Cerasus
Chamaecerasus).—Ground Cherry. Europe, 1597. This is a
dwarf, slender-branched, and gracefully pendent shrub, of free
growth, undoubted hardihood, and well worthy of extended
cultivation. The variety C. Chamaecerasus variegata has the leaves
suffused with greenish lemon. There is also a creeping form named
P. Chamaecerasus pendula.
P. DAVIDIANA.—Abbé David's Almond. China. This is the tree
to which, under the name of Amygdalus Davidiana alba, a First-class
Certificate was awarded in 1892 by the Royal Horticultural Society.
The typical species is a native of China, from whence it was
introduced several years ago, but it is still far from common. It
is the earliest of the Almonds to unfold its white flowers, for in
mild winters some of them expand before the end of January; but
March, about the first week, it is at its best. It is of more
slender growth than the common Almond, and the flowers, which are
individually smaller, are borne in great profusion along the shoots
of the preceding year, so that a specimen, when in full flower, is
quite one mass of bloom. There is a rosy-tinted form known as
Amygdalus Davidiana rubra.
P. DIVARICATA, from the Caucasus (1822), is useful on account of
the pure white flowers being produced early in the year, and before
the leaves. It has a graceful, easy habit of growth, and inclined
to spread, and makes a neat lawn or park specimen.
P. DOMESTICA, Common Garden Plum, and P. domestica insititia,
Bullace Plum, are both very ornamental-flowering species, and some
of the varieties are even more desirable than the parent
P. ILLICIFOLIA (syn Cerasus
ilicifolius).—Holly-leaved Cherry. California. A distinct
evergreen species, with thick leathery leaves, and erect racemes of
small white flowers. A native of dry hilly ground along the coast
from San Francisco to San Diego. Hardy in most situations, but
requiring light warm soil and a dry situation.
P. LAUNESIANA (syn Cerasus Launesiana).—Japan,
1870. This is a valuable addition to the already long list of
ornamental-flowering Cherries. It flowers in the early spring, when
the tree is literally enshrouded in rose-coloured flowers, and
which produce a very striking effect. The tree is quite hardy,
flowers well even in a young state, and will grow in any soil that
suits our common wild species.
P. LAUROCERASUS (syn Cerasus Laurocerasus).—Common,
or Cherry Laurel. Levant, 1629. Although a well-known garden and
park shrub, of which a description is unnecessary, the common or
Cherry Laurel, when in full flower, must be ranked amongst our more
ornamental shrubs. There are several varieties all worthy of
culture for the sake of their evergreen leaves and showy flower
spikes. P. Laurocerasus rotundifolia has leaves that are broader in
proportion to their length than those of the common species; P.
Laurocerasus caucasica is of sturdy growth, with deep green leaves,
and a compact habit of growth; P. Laurocerasus colchica is the
freest-flowering Laurel in cultivation, with horizontally arranged
branches and pale green leaves; P. Laurocerasus latifolia, a rather
tender shrub, with bold handsome foliage; and P. Laurocerasus
parvifolia, of low growth, but never very satisfactory in
appearance. Three other less common forms might also be mentioned.
P. Laurocerasus angustifolia, with narrow leaves; P. Laurocerasus
camelliaefolia, with thick leathery foliage; and P. Laurocerasus
intermedia, halfway between P. Laurocerasus angustifolia and the
P. LUSITANICA (syn Cerasus lusitanica).—Portugal
Laurel. Portugal, 1648. A well-known shrub or small growing tree,
and one of the most valuable of all our hardy evergreens. It is of
neat and compact growth, with a good supply of bright green shining
foliage, and bears long spikes of pleasing creamy white perfumed
flowers. P. lusitanica myrtifolia (Myrtle-leaved Portugal Laurel)
differs from the species in the smaller, longer, and narrower
leaves, which are more thickly arranged, and in its more decided
upright habit. P. lusitanica variegata is hardly sufficiently
constant or distinct to warrant recommendation. P. lusitanica
azorica, from the Azores, is of more robust growth than the common
plant, with larger and richer green leaves, and the bark of the
younger branches is of a very decided reddish tinge.
P. MAHALEB (syn Cerasus Mahaleb).—The Mahaleb, or
Perfumed Cherry. South Europe, 1714. This and its variegated
variety P. Mahaleb variegata are very free-flowering shrubs, and of
neat growth. The variegated variety is well worthy of attention,
having a clear silvery variegation, chiefly confined to the leaf
margin, but in a less degree to the whole of the foliage, and
imparting to it a bright, glaucous tint that is highly ornamental.
There is a partially weeping form named P. Mahaleb pendula.
P. MARITIMA.—Beach or Sand Plum. North America, 1800. A
prostrate, spreading shrub, that is of value for planting in poor
sandy soil, and along the sea coast. The flowers are small, but
P. NANA (syns Amygdalus nana and A.
Besseriana).—Dwarf Almond. From Tartary, 1683. This is of
dwarf, twiggy growth, rarely more than 3 feet high, and bearing an
abundance of rose-coloured flowers in early February. From its
neat, small growth, and rich profusion of flowers, this dwarf
Almond may be reckoned as a most useful and desirable shrub.
Suckers are freely produced in any light free soil.
P. PADUS (syn Cerasus Padus).—Bird Cherry or
Hagberry. An indigenous species, with oblong, doubly-serrated
leaves, and terminal or axillary racemes of pure-white flowers. It
is a handsome and distinct small-growing tree, and bears exposure
at high altitudes in a commendable manner.
P. PANICULATA FLORE-PLENO (syns Cerasus serrulata
flore-pleno and C. Sieboldii).—China, 1822. This
is one of the most desirable of the small-growing and
double-flowered Cherries. It is of neat growth, with short, stout
branches that are sparsely furnished with twigs, and smooth,
obovate, pointed leaves, bristly serrated on the margins. Flowers
double and white at first, but afterwards tinged with pink, freely
produced and of good, lasting substance. P. paniculata Watereri is
a handsome variety that most probably may be linked to the
P. PENNSYLVANIA.—American Wild Red Cherry. North America,
1773. This is an old-fashioned garden tree, and one of the
choicest, producing in May a great abundance of its tiny white
P. PERSICA FLORE-PLENO (syns Amygdalus Persica
flore-pleno and Persica vulgaris), double-flowering
Peach, is likewise well worthy of culture, there being white, rose,
and crimson-flowering forms.
P. PUDDUM (syns P. Pseudo-cerasus and Cerasus
Pseudo-cerasus).—Bastard Cherry. China, 1891. There are
very few more ornamental trees in cultivation in this country than
the double-flowering Cherry. It makes a charming small-growing
tree, is of free growth and perfectly hardy, and one of, if not the
most, floriferous of the tribe. The flowers are individually large,
pinky or purplish-white, and produced with the leaves in April.
P. SINENSIS.—China, 1869. A Chinese Plum of somewhat
slender growth, and with the branches wreathed in small, white
flowers. It is often seen as a pot plant, but it is one of the
hardiest of its family. P. sinensis flore-pleno is a double white
form, and the most ornamental for pot work. There is also a variety
with rose-coloured flowers.
P. SPINOSA.—Sloe, or Blackthorn. An indigenous, spiny
shrub, with tiny white flowers; and P. spinosa flore-pleno has
small, rosette-like flowers that are both showy and effective.
P. TOMENTOSA.—Japan, 1872. This is one of the most
desirable of hardy shrubs, with large, white, flesh-tinted flowers
produced in the first weeks of March, and in such quantities as
almost to hide the branches from view. It forms a well-rounded,
dense bush of 5 feet or 6 feet high.
P. TRILOBA (syns P. virgata, Amygdalopsis Lindleyi and
Prunopsis Lindleyi).—China, 1857. This is a very
handsome early-flowering shrub, that is at once recognised by the
generally three-lobed leaves. It is one of the first to flower, the
blossoms being produced in March and April, and sometimes even
earlier when the plant is grown against a sunny, sheltered wall.
The semi-double flowers are large and of good substance, and of a
rosy-white tint, but deep rose in the bud state. There is a nursery
form of this plant with white flowers, named P. triloba alba. It is
quite hardy, bears pruning well, and grows quickly, soon covering a
large space of a wall or warm, sunny bank. As an ornamental
flowering lawn shrub it has few equals, the blossoms remaining good
for fully a fortnight.
P. VIRGINIANA (syn Cerasus virginiana) and P. SEROTINA
(North American Bird Cherries) are worthy species, with long
clusters of flowers resembling those of our native Bird Cherry.
They are large-growing species, and, particularly the latter, are
finding favour with cultivators in this country on account of their
bold and ornamental appearance.
PTELEA TRIFOLIATA.—Hop Tree, or Swamp Dogwood. North
America, 1704. A small-growing tree, with trifoliolate,
yellowish-green leaves placed on long footstalks, and inconspicuous
greenish flowers. The leaves, when bruised, emit an odour
resembling Hops. P. trifoliata variegata is one of the handsomest
of golden-leaved trees, and is well worthy of extensive planting.
It is preferable in leaf colouring to the golden Elder. Perfectly
PUNICA GRANATUM.—Pomegranate. For planting against a
southern-facing wall this pretty shrub is well suited, but it is
not sufficiently hardy for the colder parts of the country.
Frequently in the more favoured parts of the country it reaches a
height of 14 feet, with a branch-spread of nearly as much, and is
then, when in full flower, an object of general admiration and of
the greatest beauty. The flowers are of a rich, bright scarlet
colour, and well set off by the glossy, dark green leaves. P.
Granatum rubra flore-pleno is a decidedly ornamental shrub, in
which the flowers are of a bright scarlet, and perfectly double.
They grow satisfactorily in light, but rich soil.
PYRUS ARIA.—White Beam Tree. Europe (Britain). A shrub or
small-growing tree, with lobed leaves, covered thickly on the under
sides with a close, flocculent down. The flowers are small and
white, and produced in loose corymbs. It is a handsome small tree,
especially when the leaves are ruffled by the wind and the under
sides revealed to view. The red or scarlet fruit is showy and
P. AUCUPARIA.—Mountain Ash, or Rowan Tree. Too well-known
to need description, but one of our handsomest small-growing trees,
and whether for the sake of its dense corymbs of small white
flowers or large bunches of scarlet fruit it is always welcomed and
admired. P. Aucuparia pendula has the branches inclined to be
pendulous; and P. Aucuparia fructo-luteo differs from the normal
plant in having yellowish instead of scarlet fruit.
P. AMERICANA (syn Sorbus americana).—American
Mountain Ash. This species, a native of the mountains of
Pennsylvania and Virginia (1782), is much like our Rowan Tree in
general appearance, but the bunches of berries are larger, and of a
brighter red colour.
P. ANGUSTIFOLIA.—North America, 1750. A double-flowered
crab is offered under this name, of vigorous growth, bearing
delicate pink, rose-like flowers that are deliciously fragrant, and
borne contemporaneously with the leaves. The merits claimed for the
shrub are perfect hardihood, great beauty of blossom and leaf,
delicious fragrance, and adaptability to various soils. The
single-flowered form extends over large areas in the Atlantic
States of North America. They are very desirable, small-growing
trees, and are described by Professor Sargent as being not
surpassed in beauty by any of the small trees of North America.
P. BACCATA.—Siberian Crab. Siberia and Dahuria, 1784. This
is one of the most variable species in cultivation, and from which
innumerable forms have been developed, that differ either in habit,
foliage, flowers, or fruit. The deciduous calyx would seem to be
the only reliable distinguishing character. It is a
widely-distributed species, being found in North China and Japan,
Siberia and the Himalayas, and has from time immemorial been
cultivated by the Chinese and Japanese, so that it is not at all
surprising that numbers of forms have been developed.
P. CORONARIA.—Sweet Scented Crab. North America, 1724.
This is a handsome species, with ovate, irregularly-toothed leaves,
and pink and white fragrant flowers. The flowers are individually
large and corymbose, and are succeeded by small green fruit.
P. DOMESTICA (syn Sorbus domestica).—True Service.
Britain. This resembles the Mountain Ash somewhat, but the flowers
are panicled, and the berries fewer, larger, and pear-shaped. The
flowers are conspicuous enough to render the tree of value in
P. FLORIBUNDA (syns P. Malus floribunda and Malus
microcarpa floribunda).—China and Japan, 1818. The
Japanese Crabs are wonderfully floriferous, the branches being in
most instances wreathed with flowers that are individually not very
large, and rarely exceeding an inch in diameter when fully
expanded. Generally in the bud state the flowers are of a deep
crimson, but this disappears as they become perfectly developed,
and when a less striking tint of pinky-white is assumed. From the
St. Petersburgh gardens many very ornamental Crabs have been sent
out, these differing considerably in colour of bark, habit, and
tint of flowers. They have all been referred to the above species.
P. floribunda is a worthy form, and one of the most brilliant of
spring-flowering trees. The long, slender shoots are thickly
covered for almost their entire length with flowers that are rich
crimson in the bud state, but paler when fully opened. There are
numerous, very distinct varieties, such as P. floribunda
atrosanguinea, with deep red flowers; P. floribunda Elise Rathe, of
pendulous habit; P. floribunda John Downie, very beautiful in
fruit; P. floribunda pendula, a semi-weeping variety; P. floribunda
praecox, early-flowering; P. floribunda mitis, of small size; P.
floribunda Halleana or Parkmanii, probably the most beautiful of
all the forms; and P. floribunda Fairy Apple and P. floribunda
Transcendant Crab, of interest on account of their showy fruit. P.
floribunda Toringo (Toringo Crab) is a Japanese tree of small
growth, with sharply cut, usually three-lobed, pubescent leaves,
and small flowers. Fruit small, with deciduous calyx lobes.
P. GERMANICA (syn Mespilus germanica).—Common
Medlar. Europe (Britain), Asia Minor, Persia. Early records show
that the Medlar was cultivated for its fruit as early as 1596. Some
varieties are still grown for that purpose, and in that state the
tree is not devoid of ornament. The large, white flowers are
produced singly, but have a fine effect in their setting of long,
lanceolate, finely-serrate leaves during May.
P. JAPONICA (syn Cydonia japonica).—Japanese
Quince. Japan, 1815. This is one of the commonest of our garden
shrubs, and one that is peculiarly well suited for our climate,
whether planted as a standard or as a wall plant. The flowers are
brilliant crimson, and plentifully produced towards the end of
winter and before the leaves. Besides the species there are several
very fine varieties, including P. japonica albo cincta, P. japonica
atropurpurea, P. japonica coccinea, P. japonica flore-pleno, P.
japonica nivalis, a charming species, with snowy-white flowers; P.
japonica rosea, of a delicate rose-pink; and P. japonica princeps.
P. japonica cardinalis is one of the best of the numerous forms of
this beautiful shrub. The flowers are of large size, of full
rounded form, and of a deep cardinal-rose colour. They are produced
in great quantity along the branches. A well-grown specimen is in
April a brilliant picture of vivid colour, and the shrub is sooner
or later destined to a chief place amongst our ornamental flowering
shrubs. P. japonica Maulei (syn Cydonia Maulei), from Japan
(1874), is a rare shrub as yet, small of growth, and with every
twig festooned with the brightest of orange-scarlet flowers. It is
quite hardy, and succeeds well under treatment that will suit the
P. PRUNIFOLIA.—Siberia, 1758. Whether in flower or fruit
this beautiful species is sure to attract attention. It is a tree
of 25 feet in height, with nearly rotundate, glabrous leaves on
long footstalks, and pretty pinky-white flowers. The fruit is very
ornamental, being, when fully ripe, of a deep and glowing scarlet,
but there are forms with yellow, and green, as also striped
P. RIVULARIS.—River-side Wild Service Tree. North-west
America, 1836. A native of North America, with terminal clusters of
white flowers, succeeded by sub-globose red or yellow fruit, is an
attractive and handsome species. The fruit is eaten by the Indians
of the North-west, and the wood, which is very hard and susceptible
of a fine polish, is largely used in the making of wedges. It is a
rare species in this country.
P. SINICA (syn P. sinensis of Lindley).—Chinese
Pear Tree. China and Cochin China, 1820. Another very ornamental
Crab, bearing a great abundance of rosy-pink or nearly white
flowers. It is a shrub-like tree, reaching a height of 20 feet, and
with an upright habit of growth. Bark of a rich, reddish-brown
colour. It is one of the most profuse and persistent bloomers of
the whole family.
P. SINENSIS (syn Cydonia chinensis).—Chinese
Quince. China, 1818. This is rarely seen in cultivation, it having,
comparatively speaking, few special merits of recommendation.
P. SMITHII (syns Mespilis Smithii and M.
grandiflora).—Smith's Medlar. Caucasus, 1800. The habit
of this tree closely resembles that of a Hawthorn, and although the
flowers are only half the size of those of the Common Medlar, they
are produced in greater profusion, so that the round-headed tree
becomes a sheet of white blossom during May and June. The
reddish-brown fruits are small for a Medlar, and ripen in
P. TORMINALIS.—Wild Service Tree. A native species of
small growth, with ovate-cordate leaves, and small white flowers.
P. torminalis pinnatifida, with acutely-lobed leaves, and
oval-oblong fruit may just be mentioned.
P. VESTITA.—Nepaul White Beam. Nepaul, 1820. In this
species the leaves are very large, ovate-acute or elliptic, and
when young thickly coated with a white woolly-like substance, but
which with warm weather gradually gives way until they are of a
smooth and shining green. The flowers are borne in woolly racemose
corymbs, and are white succeeded by greenish-brown berries as large
Other species of less interest are P. varidosa, P. salicifolia,
P. salvaefolia, P. Bollwylleriana, and P. Amygdaliformis. They are
all of free growth, and the readiest culture, and being perfectly
hardy are well worthy of a much larger share of attention than they
have heretofore received.
RHAMNUS ALATERNUS.—Mediterranean region, 1629. This is an
evergreen shrub, with lanceolate shining leaves of a dark
glossy-green colour, and pretty flowers produced from March till
June. There are several well-marked varieties, one with golden and
another with silvery leaves, and named respectively, R. Alaternus
foliis aureis, and R. Alaternus foliis argenteus.
R. ALPINUS.—Europe, 1752. This is a neat-growing species,
with greenish flowers and black fruit.
R. CATHARTICUS, Common Buckthorn, is a native, thorny species,
with ovate and stalked leaves, and small, thickly clustered
greenish flowers, succeeded by black berries about the size of
R. FRANGULA.—The Berry-bearing Alder. Europe and Britain.
A more erect shrub than the former, and destitute of spines. The
leaves too are larger, and the fruit of a dark purple colour when
ripe. More common in Britain than the former.
RHAPHIOLEPIS JAPONICA INTEGERRIMA (syn R. ovata).—A
Japanese shrub (1865), with deep green, ovate, leathery leaves that
are not over abundant, and produced generally at the branch-tips.
The pure white, fragrant flowers are plentifully produced when the
plant is grown in a cosy corner, or on a sunny wall. Though seldom
killed outright, the Raphiolepis becomes badly crippled in severe
winters. It is, however, a bold and handsome shrub, and one that
may be seen doing well in many gardens around London.
RHAPHITHAMNUS CYANOCARPUS (syn Citharexylum cyanocarpum).
Chili. This bears a great resemblance to some of the thorny
Berberis, and is at once a distinct and beautiful shrub. The
flowers are large and conspicuous, and of a taking bluish-lilac
colour. Having stood unharmed in Ireland through the unusually
severe winters of 1879-80, when many more common shrubs were killed
outright, it may be relied upon as at least fairly hardy. The soil
in which this rare and pretty shrub does best is a brown, fibrous
peat, intermingled with sharp sand.
RHODODENDRON ARBORESCENS (syn Azalea arborescens), from
the Carolina Mountains (1818), is a very showy, late-blooming
species. The white, fragrant flowers, and noble port, together with
its undoubted hardihood, should make this shrub a general favourite
R. CALENDULACEUM (syn Azalea calendulacea), from North
America (1806), is another of the deciduous species, having oblong,
hairy leaves, and large orange-coloured flowers. It is of robust
growth, and in favoured situations reaches a height of 6 feet. When
in full flower the slopes of the Southern Alleghany Mountains are
rendered highly attractive by reason of the great flame-coloured
masses of this splendid plant, and are one of the great sights of
the American Continent during the month of June.
R. CALIFORNICUM.—California. A good hardy species with
broadly campanulate rosy-purple flowers, spotted with yellow.
R. CAMPANULATUM (syn R. aeruginosum).—Sikkim, 1825.
A small-growing species, rarely over 6 feet high, with elliptic
leaves that are fawn-coloured on the under sides. The campanulate
flowers are large and showy, rose or white and purple spotted, at
the base of the three upper lobes. In this country it is fairly
hardy, but suffers in very severe weather, unless planted in a
R. CAMPYLOCARPUM.—Sikkim, 1851. This has stood the winter
uninjured in so many districts that it may at least be recommended
for planting in favoured situations and by the seaside. It is a
Sikkim species that was introduced about forty years ago, and is
still rather rare. The leaves are about 4 inches long, 2 inches
wide, and distinctly undulated on the margins. Flowers bell-shaped,
about 2 inches in diameter, and arranged in rather straggling
terminal heads. They are sulphur-yellow, without markings, a tint
distinct from any other known Indian species.
R. CATAWBIENSE.—Mountains from Virginia to Georgia, 1809.
A bushy, free growing species, with broadly oval leaves, and large
campanulate flowers, produced in compact, rounded clusters. They
vary a good deal in colour, but lilac-purple is the typical shade.
This is a very valuable species, and one that has given rise to a
large number of beautiful varieties.
R. CHRYSANTHUM is a Siberian species (1796) of very dwarf,
compact growth, with linear-lanceolate leaves that are ferruginous
on the under side, and beautiful golden-yellow flowers an inch in
diameter. It is a desirable but scarce species.
R. COLLETTIANUM is an Afghanistan species, and one that may be
reckoned upon as being perfectly hardy. It is of very dwarf habit,
and bears an abundance of small white and faintly fragrant flowers.
For planting on rockwork it is a valuable species.
R. DAHURICUM.—Dahuria, 1780. A small-growing,
scraggy-looking species of about a yard high, with oval-oblong
leaves that are rusty-tomentose on the under sides. The flowers,
which are produced in February, are purple or violet, in twos or
threes, and usually appear before the leaves. It is a
sparsely-leaved species, and of greatest value on account of the
flowers being produced so early in the season. One of the hardiest
species in cultivation. R. dahuricum atro-virens is a beautiful and
worthy variety because nearly evergreen.
R. FERRUGINEUM.—Alpine Rose. Europe, 1752. This dwarf
species, rarely exceeding a yard in height, occurs in abundance on
the Swiss Alps, and generally where few other plants are to be
found. It is a neat little compact shrub, with oblong-lanceolate
leaves that are rusty-scaly on the under sides, and has terminal
clusters of rosy-red flowers.
R. FLAVUM (syn Azalea pontica).—Pontic Azalea. A
native of Asia Minor (1793), is probably the commonest of the
recognised species, and may frequently, in this country, be seen
forming good round bushes of 6 feet in height, with hairy
lanceolate leaves, and large yellow flowers, though in this latter
it varies considerably, orange, and orange tinged with red, being
colours often present. It is of free growth in any good light peaty
or sandy soil.
R. HIRSUTUM.—Alpine Rose. South Europe, 1656. Very near R.
ferrugincum, but having ciliated leaves, with glands on both sides.
R. hallense and R. hirsutiforme are intermediate forms of a natural
cross between R. hirsutum and R. ferrugincum. They are handsome,
small-growing, brightly flowered plants, and worthy of culture.
R. INDICUM.—Indian Azalea. A native of China (1808), and
perfectly hardy in the more favoured portions of southern England,
where it looks healthy and happy out of doors, and blooms freely
from year to year. This is the evergreen so-called Azalea that is
so commonly cultivated in greenhouses, with long hirsute leaves,
and large showy flowers. R. indicum amoenum (syn Azalea
amoena), as a greenhouse plant is common enough, but except in
the South of England and Ireland it is not sufficiently hardy to
withstand severe frost. The flowers are, moreover, not very showy,
at least when compared with some of the newer forms, being dull
magenta, and rather lax of habit.
R. LEDIFOLIUM (syns Azalea ledifolia and A.
liliiflora).—Ledum-leaved Azalea. China, 1819. A
perfectly hardy species. The flowers are large and white, but
somewhat flaunting. It is, however, a desirable species for massing
in quantity, beside clumps of the pink and yellow flowered kinds.
Though introduced nearly three-quarters of a century ago, this is
by no means a common plant in our gardens.
R. MAXIMUM.—American Great Laurel. North America, 1756.
This is a very hardy American species, growing in favoured
localities from 10 feet to 15 feet high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate,
slightly ferruginous beneath. Flowers rose and white, in dense
clusters. There are several handsome varieties that vary to a wide
extent in the size and colour of flowers. R. maximum album bears
R. MOLLE (syn Azalea mollis), from Japan (1867), is a
dwarf, deciduous species of neat growth, with flame-coloured
flowers. It is very hardy, and a desirable acquisition to any
collection of small-growing shrubs.
R. OCCIDENTALE (syn Azalea occidentalis), Western Azalea,
is valuable in that the flowers are produced later than those of
almost any other species. These are white, blotched with yellow at
the base of the upper petals; and being produced when the leaves
are almost fully developed, have a very pleasing effect,
particularly as they are borne in great quantity, and show well
above the foliage. This is a Californian species that has been
found further west of the Rocky Mountains than any other member of
R. PARVIFOLIUM.—Baiacul, 1877. This is a pleasing and
interesting species, with small deep-green ovate leaves, and
clusters of white flowers, margined with rose. It is of dwarf and
neat growth, and well suited for planting on the rock garden.
R. PONTICUM.—Pontic Rhododendron, or Rose Bay. Asia Minor,
1763. This is the commonest species in cultivation, and although
originally a native of the district by the Black or Pontic Sea, is
now naturalised in many parts of Europe. It is the hardiest and
least exacting of the large flowered species, and is generally
employed as a stock on which to graft the less hardy kinds.
Flowers, in the typical species, pale purplish-violet and spotted.
There is a great number of varieties, including white, pink,
scarlet, and double-flowering.
R. PONTICUM AZALEOIDES (syn R. ponticum deciduum), a
hybrid between R. ponticum and a hardy Azalea, is a sub-evergreen
form, with a compact habit of growth, and bearing loose heads of
fragrant lavender-and-white flowers. It is quite hardy at Kew.
R. RACEMOSUM.—Central China, 1880. A neat little species,
of dwarf, compact growth, from the Yunnan district of China. The
flowers are pale pink edged with a deeper tint, about an inch
across, and borne in terminal and axillary clusters. It has stood
unharmed for several years in southern England, so may be regarded
as at least fairly hardy. Its neat dwarf growth, and flowering as
it does when hardly a foot high, renders it a choice subject for
the Alpine garden.
R. RHODORA (syn Rhodora canadensis).—North America,
1767. In general aspect this shrub resembles an Azalea, but it
comes into flower long even before R. molle. Being deciduous, and
producing its pretty purplish sweet-scented flowers in early
spring, gives to the plant a particular value for gardening
purposes, clumps of the shrub being most effective at the very time
when flowers are at their scarcest. It thrives well in any peaty
soil, and is quite hardy.
R. VISCOSUM (syn Azalea viscosa).—Clammy Azalea, or
Swamp Honeysuckle. North America, 1734. This is one of the
hardiest, most floriferous, and easily managed of the family. The
white or rose and deliciously fragrant flowers are produced in
great abundance, and impart when at their best quite a charm to the
shrub. It delights in rather moist, peaty soil, and grows all the
stronger and flowers all the more freely when surrounded by rising
ground or tall trees at considerable distance away. The variety R.
viscosum glaucum has leaves paler than those of the species; and R.
viscosum nitidum, of dwarf, compact growth, has leaves deep green
on both sides.
R. WILSONI, a cross between R. ciliatum and R. glaucum, is of
remarkably neat growth, and worthy of cultivation where small-sized
kinds are a desideratum.
The following Himalayan species have been found to thrive well
in the warmer parts of England, and in close proximity to the
sea;—R. argenteum, R. arboreum, R. Aucklandii, R. barbatum,
R. ciliatum, R. campanulatum, R. cinnabarinum, R. Campbelli, R.
compylocarpum, R. eximium, R. Fortunei, R. Falconeri, R. glaucum,
R. Hodgsoni, R. lanatum, R. niveum, R. Roylei, R. Thompsoni, and R.
R. Ungernii and R. Smirnowii, from the Armenian frontier, are
also worthy of culture, but they are at present rare in cultivation
in this country.
Few hardy shrubs, it must be admitted, are more beautiful than
these Rhododendrons, none flowering more freely or lasting longer
in bloom. Their requirements are by no means hard to meet, light,
peaty soil, or even good sandy loam, with a small admixture of
decayed vegetable matter, suiting them well. Lime in any form must,
however, be kept away both from Azaleas and Rhododendrons. They
like a quiet, still place, where a fair amount of moisture is
present in the air and soil.
HARDY HYBRID RHODODENDRONS.
GHENT AZALEAS, as generally known, from having been raised in
Belgium, are a race of hybrids that have been produced by crossing
the Asiatic R. pontica with the various American species noted
above, but particularly R. calendulaceum, R. nudiflorum, and R.
viscosum, and these latter with one another. These have produced
hybrids of almost indescribable beauty, the flowers of which range
in colour from crimson and pink, through orange and yellow, to
Within the last few years quite an interesting race of
Rhododendrons has been brought out, with double or hose-in-hose
flowers, and very appropriately termed the Narcissiflora group.
They include fully a dozen highly ornamental kinds, with flowers of
varying shades of colour.
The following list includes some of the best and most beautiful
of these varieties:—
|Baron G. Pyke.
|Bijou des Amateurs.
||Ne Plus Ultra.
|Comte de Flanders.
||Reine des Belges.
|Due de Provence.
|Emperor Napoleon III.
||Roi des Belges.
||Roi des Feux.
|Glorie de Belgique.
|Honneur de Flandre.
|Bijou de Gendbrugge.
|Louis Aimée Van Houtte.
|Graf Von Meran.
|Mina Van Houtte.
RHODOTHAMNUS CHAMAECISTUS (syn Rhododendron
Chamaecistus).—Ground Cistus. Alps of Austria and
Bavaria, 1786. A very handsome shrub, of small growth, and widely
distributed in Bavaria, Switzerland, and elsewhere. Planted in
peaty soil and in a rather damp, shady situation it thrives best,
the oval-serrate leaves, covered with white, villous hairs, and
pretty rosy flowers, giving it an almost unique appearance. It is a
charming rock shrub and perfectly hardy.
RHODOTYPOS KERRIOIDES.—White Kerria. Japan, 1866. A
handsome deciduous shrub, and one that is readily propagated, and
comparatively cheap. It is distinct and pretty when in flower, and
one of the hardiest and most accommodating of shrubs. The leaves
are handsome, being deeply serrated and silky on the under sides,
while the pure white flowers are often about 2 inches across. It
grows about 4 feet in height, and is a very distinct and desirable
RHUS COTINUS.—Smoke Plant, Wig Tree, or Venetian Sumach.
Spain to Caucasus, 1656. On account of its singular appearance this
shrub always attracts the attention of even the most unobservant in
such matters. It is a spreading shrub, about 6 feet high, with
rotundate, glaucous leaves, on long petioles. The flowers are small
and inconspicuous, but the feathery nature of the flower clusters,
occasioned by the transformation of the pedicels and hairs into
fluffy awns, renders this Sumach one of the most curious and
attractive of hardy shrubs. Spreading about freely, this south
European shrub should be allowed plenty of room so that it may
become perfectly developed.
R. GLABRA (syns R. caroliniana, R. coccinea, R. elegans,
and R. sanguinea).—Smooth or Scarlet Sumach. North
America, 1726. A smaller tree than the last, with leaves that are
deep glossy-green above and whitish beneath. The male tree bears
greenish-yellow flowers, and the female those of a reddish-scarlet,
but otherwise no difference between the trees can be detected. R.
glabra laciniata (Fern Sumach) is a distinct and handsome variety,
with finely cut elegant leaves, and a dwarf and compact habit of
growth. The leaves are very beautiful, and resemble those of the
Grevillea robusta. It is a worthy variety.
R. SUCCEDANEA.—Red Lac Sumach. Japan, 1768. This is not
often seen planted out, though in not a few places it succeeds
perfectly well. It has elegant foliage, each leaf being 15 inches
long, and divided into several pairs of leaflets.
R. TOXICODENDRON.—Poison Oak or Poison Ivy. North America,
1640. This species is of half-scandent habit, with large,
trifoliolate leaves, which turn of various tints of red and crimson
in the autumn. It is quite hardy, and seen to best advantage when
allowed to run over large rockwork and tree stumps in partial
shade. The variety R. toxicodendron radicans has ample foliage, and
is suited for similar places to the last. The leaves turn bright
yellow in the autumn.
R. TYPHINA.—Stag's Horn Sumach, or Vinegar Tree. A native
of North America (1629), and a very common shrub in our gardens,
probably on account of its spreading rapidly by suckers. It is,
when well grown, a handsome and distinct shrub or small tree, with
large, pinnate, hairy leaves, and shoots that are rendered very
peculiar by reason of the dense hairs with which they are covered
for some distance back. The dense clusters of greenish-yellow
flowers are sure to attract attention, although they are by no
means pretty. R. typhina viridiflora is the male-flowered form of
this species, with green flowers.
R. VENENATA (syn R. vernix).—Poison Elder, Sumach,
or Dogwood. North America, 1713. This is remarkable for its
handsome foliage, and is the most poisonous species of the
All the Sumachs grow and flower freely in any good garden soil,
indeed, in that respect they are not at all particular. They throw
up shoots freely, so that increasing the stock is by no means
RIBES ALPINUM PUMILUM AUREUM.—Golden Mountain Currant. The
ordinary green form is a native of Britain, of which the plant
named above is a dwarf golden-leaved variety.
R. AUREUM.—Buffalo Currant. North-west America, 1812. In
this species the leaves are lobed and irregularly toothed, while
the flowers are yellow, or slightly reddish-tinted. It is of rather
slender and straggling growth. R. aureum praecox is an
early-flowering variety; and R. aureum serotinum is valued on
account of the flowers being produced much later than are those of
the parent plant.
R. CEREUM (syn R. inebrians).—North America, 1827.
One of the dwarfer-growing species of Flowering Currant, forming a
low, dense bush of Gooseberry-like appearance, but destitute of
spines. By May it is in full flower, and the blooms, borne in large
clusters, have a pretty pinkish tinge. The foliage is small, neat,
and of a tender green that helps to set off the pretty flowers to
perfection. It is a native of North-west America, and perfectly
hardy in every part of the country. Though not equal in point of
floral beauty with our common flowering Currant, still the
miniature habit, pretty and freely-produced pink-tinted flowers,
and fresh green foliage will all help to make it an acquisition
wherever planted. Like the other species of Ribes the present plant
grows and flowers very freely in any soil, and almost however
R. FLORIDUM (syns R. missouriense and R.
pennsylvanicum).—American Wild Black Currant. North
America, 1729. This should be included in all collections for its
pretty autumnal foliage, which is of a bright purplish bronze.
R. GORDONIANUM (syns R. Beatonii and R. Loudonii)
is a hybrid between R. aureum and R. sanguineum, and has reddish,
yellow tinged flowers, and partakes generally of the characters of
R. MULTIFLORUM, Eastern Europe (1822), is another desirable
species, with long drooping racemes of greenish-yellow flowers, and
small red berries.
R. SANGUINEUM.—Flowering Currant. North-west America,
1826. An old inhabitant of our gardens, and well deserving of all
that can be said in its favour as a beautiful spring-flowering
shrub. It is of North American origin, with deep red and
abundantly-produced flowers. There are several distinct varieties
as follows:—R. sanguineum flore-pleno (Burning Bush), with
perfectly double flowers, which are produced later and last longer
than those of the species; R. sanguineum album, with pale pink, or
almost white flowers; R. sanguineum atro-rubens, with
deeply-coloured flowers; R. sanguineum glutinosum and R. sanguineum
grandiflorum, bearing compact clusters of flowers that are
rosy-flesh coloured on the outside and white or pinky-white
R. SPECIOSUM.—Fuchsia-flowered Gooseberry. California,
1829. A Californian species, remarkable for being more or less
spiny, and with flowers resembling some of the Fuchsias. They are
crimson, and with long, protruding stamens. As a wall plant, where
it often rises to 6 feet in height, this pretty and taking species
is most often seen.
The flowering Currants are of unusually free growth, and are not
at all particular about soil, often thriving well in that of a very
poor description. They are increased readily from cuttings and by
ROBINIA DUBIA (syns R. echiuata and R.
ambigua).—A very pretty garden hybrid form, said to have
for its parentage R. Pseud-Acacia and R. viscosa. It is of quite
tree-like growth and habit, with unusually short spines, and
Pea-green foliage. The flowers are produced pretty freely, and are
of a pale rose colour, and well set off by the light-green leaves,
over which they hang in neat and compact spikes.
R. HISPIDA.—Rose Acacia. North America, 1743. Amongst
large-growing shrubs this is certainly one of the most distinct and
handsome, and at the same time one of the hardiest and readiest of
culture. Under favourable conditions it grows about 16 feet high,
with large oval or oblong leaflets, and having the young branches
densely clothed with bristles. The flowers, which are individually
larger than those of the False Acacia, are of a beautiful
rosy-pink, and produced in June and July. It is a very ornamental,
small growing species, and one that is peculiarly suitable for
planting where space is limited. R. hispida macrophylla
(Large-leaved Rose Acacia) is rendered distinct by its generally
more robust growth, and by its larger foliage and flowers. The
species, however, varies a good deal in respect of the size of
leaves and flowers.
R. PSEUD-ACACIA.—Common Locust, Bastard Acacia, or False
Acacia. North America, 1640. A noble-growing and handsome tree,
with smooth shoots, and stipules that become transformed into
sharp, stiff spines. The flowers are in long racemes, pure-white or
slightly tinged with pink, and with a faint pleasing odour. This
species has been sub-divided into a great number of varieties, some
of which are very distinct, but the majority are not sufficiently
so to warrant special attention. The following include the best and
most popular kinds:—R. Pseud-Acacia Decaisneana, a distinct
form bearing light pinky flowers; R. Pseud-Acacia Bessoniana, with
thornless branches and a dense head of refreshing Pea-green
foliage; R. Pseud-Acacia angustifolia, with narrow leaves; R.
Pseud-Acacia aurea, a conspicuous but not very constant golden
leaved form; R. Pseud-Acacia inermis, of which there are weeping,
upright, and broad-leaved forms, has narrow leaves that are
glaucous beneath, and the characteristic spines of the species are
wanting or rarely well developed. R. Pseud-Acacia monophylla is
very distinct, the leaves being entire instead of pinnate; while R.
Pseud-Acacia crispa has curiously-curled foliage. Then there is the
peculiar R. Pseud-Acacia tortuosa, of ungainly habit; R.
Pseud-Acacia umbraculifera, with a spreading head; R. Pseud-Acacia
sophoraefolia, the leaves of which resemble those of Sophora
japonica; and R. Pseud-Acacia amorphaefolia, with very large
foliage when compared with the parent tree. The above may be taken
as the most distinct and desirable forms of the False Acacia, but
there are many others, such as R. Pseud-Acacia colutoides, R.
Pseud-Acacia semperflorens, and R. Pseud-Acacia Rhederi, all more
or less distinct from the typical tree.
R. VISCOSA (syn R. glutinosa).—Clammy Locust. North
America, 1797. This is a small-growing tree, and readily
distinguished by the clammy bark of the younger shoots. Flowers in
short racemes, and of a beautiful rose-pink, but varying a good
deal in depth of tint. It is a valuable species for ornamental
planting, and flowers well even in a young state.
Few soils would seem to come amiss to the Acacias, but
observations made in many parts of the country conclusively prove
that the finest specimens are growing on light, rich loam overlying
a bed of gravel. They are propagated from seed, by layers, or by
ROSA ALBA.—This is a supposed garden hybrid between R.
canina and R. gallica (1597). It has very glaucous foliage, and
large flowers, which vary according to the variety from pure white
R. REPENS (syn R. arvensis).—Field Rose. Europe
(Britain). This species bears white flowers that are produced in
threes or fours, rarely solitary. The whole plant is usually of
weak and straggling growth, with shining leaves.
R. BRACTEATA (Macartney Rose), R. PALUSTRIS (Marsh Rose), and R.
MICROPHYLLA (small-leaved Rose), belong to that section supplied
with floral leaves or bracts, and shaggy fruit. They are of compact
growth, with neat, shining leaves, the flowers of the
first-mentioned being rose or carmine, and those of the other two
R. CANINA.—Dog Rose. Our native Roses have now been
reduced to five species, of which the present is one of the number.
It is a straggling shrub, 6 feet or 8 feet high, and armed with
curved spines. Flowers sweet-scented, pink or white, and solitary,
or in twos or threes at the branch tips.
R. CENTIFOLIA.—Hundred-leaved, or Cabbage Rose. Orient,
1596. A beautiful, sweetly-scented species, growing to 6 feet in
height, and having leaves that are composed of from three to five
broadly ovate, toothed leaflets. The flowers are solitary, or two
or three together, drooping, and of a rosy hue, but differing in
tint to a considerable extent. This species has varied very much,
principally through the influences of culture and crossing, the
three principal and marked variations being size, colour, and
clothing of the calyx tube. There are the common Provence Roses,
the miniature Provence or Pompon Roses, and the Moss Rose—all
of which are merely races of R. centifolia.
R. DAMASCENA.—Damask Rose. Orient, 1573. A bushy shrub
varying from 2 feet to 8 feet in height according to cultural
treatment and age. The flowers are white or red, large, borne in
corymbose clusters, and produced in great profusion during June and
July. The varieties that have arisen under cultivation by seminal
variation, hybridisation, or otherwise are exceedingly numerous.
Those now grown are mostly double, and a large proportion of them
are light in colour. They include the quatre saisons and the true
York and Lancaster. The flowers are highly fragrant, and, like
those of R. centifolia and other species, are used indiscriminately
for the purpose of making rose water. The species is distinguished
from R. centifolia by its larger prickles, elongated fruit, and
long, reflexed sepals.
R. FEROX.—North Asia. This species bears flowers in
clusters of two and three together, terminating the branches. The
petals are white with a yellow base. The branches are erect, and
thickly crowded with prickles of unequal size.
R. GALLICA.—The French, or Gallic Rose. Europe and Western
Asia. This Rose forms a bushy shrub 2 feet to 3 feet high, and has
been so long grown in British gardens that the date of its
introduction has been lost in obscurity. It is doubtless the red
Rose of ancient writers, but at present the flowers may be red,
crimson, or white, and there are varieties of all intermediate
shades. Several variegated or striped Roses belong here, including
Gloria Mundi, a popular favourite often but erroneously grown under
the name of York and Lancaster. They all flower in June and July,
and, together with other kinds that flower about the same time, are
generally known as summer or old-fashioned garden Roses.
R. HEMISPHAERICA (syn R. sulphurea).—Orient, 1629.
A bushy plant growing from 4 feet to 6 feet high, and bearing large
double yellow flowers.
R. INDICA.—Common China, or Monthly Rose. Introduced from
China, near Canton, in 1789, but the native country is not known
with certainty. The flowers of the plant when first introduced were
red and generally semi-double, but the varieties now vary through
all shades of blush, rose, and crimson, and the plant varies
exceedingly in height, in its different forms 1 foot to 20 feet in
height. The Monthly Roses form bushes generally about 2 feet high
or a little over. The Noisette and Tea Roses, with several other
more or less distinct types, belong here, but as most of them are
well known and otherwise well cared for, it is unnecessary to dwell
upon them in detail beyond the two varieties here given, and which
should not be overlooked.
R. INDICA MINIMA (syn R. semperflorens minima, R.
Lawrenceana, and R. minima).—Fairy, or Miniature
Rose. China, 1810. A beautiful little Rose that rarely exceeds a
height of 4 inches or 5 inches. The flowers are about the size of a
half-crown, and somewhat after the York and Lancaster as regards
colouring, though not, perhaps, so distinctly marked, and are
produced in abundance. For the rock garden it is one of the most
desirable, and being perfectly hardy still further adds to its
R. INDICA SEMPERFLORENS (syns R. bengalensis and R.
diversifolia).—The Ever-flowering China Rose. China,
1789. A somewhat spreading bush, with slender branches, armed with
curved prickles. Leaves composed of three or five leaflets, and
tinted with purple. Flowers almost scentless, solitary,
semi-double, and of a bright and showy crimson.
R. LUTEA (syn R. Eglanteria).—The Austrian Brier,
or Yellow Eglantine. South Europe, 1596. This belongs to the Sweet
Brier section, and is a bush of from 3 feet to 6 feet high, with
shining dark-green leaves, and large, cup-shaped flowers that are
yellow or sometimes tinged with reddish-brown within. The Scarlet
Austrian Brier (R. lutea punicea) is a handsome variety, with the
upper surface of the petals scarlet and the under surface
R. RUBIGINOSA (syn R. Eglanteria).—Eglantine, or
Sweet Brier. This species has pink flowers and clammy leaves, which
are glandular on the under surface, and give out a fragrant smell
by which it may be recognised.
R. RUGOSA (syn R. ferox of Bot. Reg.), a Japanese
species, and its variety R. rugosa alba, are beautiful shrubs that
have proved themselves perfectly hardy and well suited for
extensive culture in this country. They are of stiff, shrubby
habit, about 4 feet high, and with branches thickly clothed with
spines becoming brown with age. Leaflets oval in shape, deep green,
with the upper surface rough to the touch, the under sides densely
tomentose. Flowers single, fully 3 inches in diameter, the petals
of good substance, and white or rose-coloured. The fruit is large,
larger than that of perhaps any other rose, and of a bright red
when fully ripe. In so far as beauty of fruit is concerned, this
Rose has certainly no rival, and whether for the rockwork or open
border it must be classed amongst the most useful and beautiful of
hardy shrubs. R. rugosa is a capital hedge plant, and being a true
species it is readily propagated from seed. R. rugosa Kamtschatika
is a deep-red flowered form with deciduous spines.
R. SEMPERVIRENS.—Evergreen Rose. South Europe and India,
1529. A climbing species, with long, slender branches, armed with
hooked prickles. Leaves evergreen, shining, and composed of from
five to seven leaflets. The clustered flowers are white and
R. SPINOSISSIMA (syn R. pimpinellifolia).—Burnet,
or Scotch Rose. A small bush about 2 feet high, of neat growth,
with small leaves, and pink or white flowers that are solitary at
the branch ends.
R. VILLOSA.—Downy Rose. Europe (Britain). This species is
of erect bushy growth, with the leaflets softly downy on both
sides. Flowers white or pale pink, succeeded by globular fruits,
that are more or less covered with fine hair or prickles.
ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS.—Common Rosemary. Mediterranean
region, 1848. A familiar garden shrub, of dense growth, with
dusky-gray green linear leaves, and pale blue or white flowers.
There is a golden and a silver leaved variety, named respectively
R. officinalis foliis-aureis, and R. officinalis foliis-argenteis;
as also one distinguished by having broader foliage than the
species, and named R. officinalis latifolius.
RUBUS ARCTICUS.—Arctic Regions of both hemispheres. An
interesting species about 6 inches high, with trifoliolate leaves,
and deep-red flowers. For Alpine gardening it is a valuable species
of dwarf growth.
R. AUSTRALIS, from New Zealand, is a very prickly species, with
the leaves reduced to their stalks and the midribs of three
leaflets. Not being very hardy it is usually seen as a wall
R. BIFLORUS.—Himalayas, 1818. A tall-growing species with
whitish, spiny stems, and simple three-lobed leaves that are
tomentose on the under sides. The flowers are thickly produced,
pure white, and render the plant highly attractive, and of great
R. DELICIOSUS.—This Rocky Mountain Bramble (1870) is a
very worthy species, with three or five-lobed (not pinnate) leaves,
and large, pure white flowers that are each about 2 inches in
diameter, and produced in profusion from the leaf-axils. For
ornamental planting this may be placed in the first rank of the
family to which it belongs.
R. FRUTICOSUS.—Common Bramble, or Blackberry. Of this
well-known native species there are several worthy varieties, of
which the double-flowered are especially worth notice, blooming as
they do in the latter part of summer. R. fruticosus flore
albo-pleno (Double white-flowered Bramble), and R. fruticosus flore
roseo-pleno (Double red-flowered Bramble) are very pretty and showy
varieties, and well worth including in any collection. There is a
pretty variegated-leaved form of the common Bramble, known as R.
R. LACINIATUS, Cut-leaved Bramble, might also be included on
account of its profusion of white flowers, and neatly divided
R. NUTKANUS.—North America, 1826. This has white flowers,
but otherwise it resembles R. odoratus.
R. ODORATUS.—Purple flowering Raspberry. North America,
1700. The sweet-scented Virginian Raspberry forms a rather dense,
upright growing bush, fully 4 feet high, with large broadly
five-lobed and toothed leaves, that are more or less viscid,
sweet-scented, and deciduous. The leaves are placed on long, hairy,
viscid foot-stalks. Flowers in terminal corymbs, large and nearly
circular, purplish-red in colour, and composed of five broad, round
petals. The fruit, which is rarely produced in this country, is
velvety and amber-coloured. It is a very ornamental species, the
ample Maple-like leaves and large flowers rendering it particularly
attractive in summer. The leaves, and not the flowers as is
generally supposed, are sweetly scented.
R. ROSAEFOLIUS.—Rose-leaved Raspberry. Himalayas, 1811.
Another half-hardy species, and only suited for planting against
sunny walls. Leaves pinnate, finer than those of the Raspberry. R.
r. coronarius, with semi-double white flowers, is better than the
R. SPECTABILIS.—The Salmon Berry. North America, 1827.
Grows about 6 feet high, with ternate or tri-lobate leaves that are
very thickly produced. Flowers usually bright red or
purplish-coloured, and placed on long pendulous footstalks. It is
of very dense growth, occasioned by the number of suckers sent up
from the roots.
There are also some of the so-called American Brambles well
worthy of attention, two of the best being Kittatiny and
The brambles are particularly valuable shrubs, as owing to their
dense growth they may be used for a variety of purposes, but
especially for covering unsightly objects or banks. They are all
wonderfully floriferous, and succeed admirably even in very poor
and stony soils. Increase is readily obtained either from root
suckers or by layering.
RUSCUS ACULEATUS.—Butcher's Broom, Pettigree and
Pettigrue. Europe (Britain), and North Africa. This is a native
evergreen shrub, with rigid cladodes which take the place of
leaves, and not very showy greenish flowers appearing about May.
For the bright red berries, which are as large as small marbles, it
is alone worth cultivating, while it is one of the few shrubs that
grow at all satisfactorily beneath the shade of our larger
R. HYPOPHYLLUM.—Double Tongue. Mediterranean region, 1640.
This species has the flowers on the undersides of the leaf-like
branches; and its variety R.H. Hypoglossum has them on the upper
side. Both are of value for planting in the shade.
SAMBUCUS CALIFORNICA.—Californian Elder. A rare species as
yet, but one that from its elegant growth and duration of flowers
is sure, when better known, to become widely distributed.
S. GLAUCA has its herbaceous parts covered with a thick
pubescence; leaves pubescent on both sides, and with yellow flowers
produced in umbels.
S. NIGRA.—Common Elder. Bourtry, or Bour tree. Although
one of our commonest native trees, the Elder must rank amongst the
most ornamental if only for its large compound cymes of white or
yellowish-white flowers, and ample bunches of shining black
berries. There are, however, several varieties that should be
largely cultivated, such as S. nigra foliis aureis (Golden Elder),
S. nigra fructu albo (White Fruited), S. nigra laciniata
(Cut-leaved Elder), S. nigra argentea (Silver-leaved Elder), S.
nigra rotundifolia (Round-leaved Elder), the names of which will be
sufficient for the purposes of recognition.
S. RACEMOSA.—Scarlet-berried Elder. South Europe and
Siberia, 1596. This is almost a counterpart of our native species,
but instead of black the berries are brilliant scarlet. It is a
highly ornamental species, but it is rather exacting, requiring for
its perfect growth a cool and moist situation. Of this there is a
cut-leaved, form, named S. racemosa serratifolia.
S. ROSAEFLORA is said to be a seedling from S. glauca, but
differs in many important points from the parent. It has smooth
shoots and branches, ovate-acuminate leaves that are downy beneath,
and flowers rose-coloured without and white within. They are
produced in short, spike-like clusters, and are almost destitute of
smell. The reddish rings at the insertion of the leaves is another
For freedom of growth in almost every class of soil, and
readiness with which they may be increased, the more showy kinds of
Elder are well worthy of attention.
SCHIZANDRA CHINENSIS.—Northern China, 1860. This is a
climbing shrub, with oval, bright green leaves, and showy carmine
flowers. For clothing arbors and walls it may prove of use, but it
is as yet rare in cultivation.
S. COCCINEA, from North America (1806), is another uncommon
species in which the leaves are oblong and petiolate, and the
flowers red or scarlet. For purposes similar to the last this
species may be employed.
SCHIZOPHRAGMA HYDRANGEOIDES.—Climbing Hydrangea. Japan,
1879. As yet this is an uncommon shrub, and allied to the
Hydrangea. It is of slender growth, the stems rooting into the
support, and with pinky-white flowers. As an ornamental climber it
is of no great value, and requires a favoured spot to grow it at
SHEPHERDIA ARGENTEA.—Beef Suet Tree, or Rabbit Berry.
North America, 1820. This shrub is rendered of particular interest
on account of the intense silvery hue of the foliage. The leaves
are narrow and lanceolate, silvery on both sides, and dotted over
with rusty-brown scales beneath. The flowers, which are produced in
April, are small and yellow, unisexual, or each sex on a distinct
plant. Berries scarlet, about the size of red Currants, and ripe
S. CANADENSIS.—North America, 1759. This is a
small-growing, straggling species, fully 4 feet high, and clothed
with rusty scales. The leaves are ovate or elliptic, and green
above, and the flowers of an inconspicuous yellow, succeeded by
SKIMMIA FORTUNEI.—Japan, 1845. This is a neat-growing
shrub, with glossy, laurel-like leaves, white or greenish-white
flowers, and an abundance of scarlet berries in autumn. It succeeds
best in a somewhat shady situation, and when planted in not too
heavy peaty soil, but where abundance of not stagnant moisture is
S. JAPONICA (of Thunberg) (syn S. oblata).—Japan,
1864. A neat-growing, evergreen shrub, with rather larger and more
showy leaves than the former, and spikes of pretty whitish, sweetly
scented flowers. The female form of this is usually known as S.
fragrans. What is usually known as S. oblata ovata, and S. oblata
Veitchii, are only forms of the true S. japonica; while S.
fragrantissima is the male of the same species. The beautiful,
berried plant that has been exhibited under the name of S.
Foremanii, and which is of very vigorous growth, and produces
pyramidal spikes of sweetly scented flowers, is probably S.
japonica, or a seminal variety. Another variety sent out under the
name of S. macrophylla has unusually large leaves; and another
named S. Rogersi produces fruit very abundantly.
S. LAUREOLA (syn Limonia Laureola), from the Himalayas,
is an uncommon species, with very fragrant and pale yellow
S. RUBELLA (China, 1874) is another member of the family that
has greenish-white, sweet-scented flowers, and which when better
known will be largely planted.
SMILAX ASPERA.—The Prickly Ivy. South Europe, 1648. A
trailing-habited shrub, with prickly stems, ovate, spiny-toothed,
evergreen leaves, and rather unattractive flowers. There are other
hardy species from North America, including S. Bona-nox (better
known as S. tamnoides), S. rotundifolia, and S. herbacea, the first
being the most desirable. S. aspera mauritanica is a hardy variety,
but one that is rare in cultivation, with long, wiry shoots, and
well adapted for wall or trellis covering. They all require
favoured situations, else the growth is short, and the plants
stunted and meagre in appearance.
SOLANUM CRISPUM.—Potato-tree. A native of Chili, 1824, and
not very hardy, except in the coast regions of England and Ireland.
It grows stout and bushy, often in favoured places rising to the
height of 12 feet, and has large clusters of purple-blue flowers
that are succeeded by small, white berries. This is a decidedly
ornamental shrub, that should be cultivated wherever a suitable
place can be spared. It bears hard pruning back with impunity, and
succeeds in any light, rich, loamy soil.
S. DULCAMARA.—Bitter Sweet, and Woody Nightshade. This is
a native plant, and one of great beauty when seen clambering over a
fence, or bank. It has long, flexuous stems, and large clusters of
purple flowers, which are made all the more conspicuous by the
showy yellow anthers. The scarlet fruit is very effective.
SOPHORA JAPONICA (syn Styphnolobium
japonicum).—Chinese or Japanese Pagoda-tree. China and
Japan, 1763. A large deciduous tree, with elegant pinnate foliage,
and clusters of greenish-white flowers produced in September.
Leaves dark-green, and composed of about eleven leaflets. S.
japonica pendula is one of the most constant of weeping trees, and
valuable for planting in certain well-chosen spots on the lawn or
in the park.
S. TETRAPTERA.—New Zealand, 1772. This requires protection
in this country. It is a valuable species, having numerous
leaflets, and bearing racemes of very showy yellow flowers. S.
tetraptera microphylla is a smaller-leaved variety, with ten to
forty pairs of leaflets, and is known in gardens under the names of
Edwardsia Macnabiana, and E. tatraptera microphylla.
SPARTIUM JUNCEUM (syn S. acutifolium).—Spanish, or
Rush Broom. Mediterranean region and Canary Isles, 1548. This
resembles our common Broom, but the slender Rush-like branches are
not angular, and usually destitute of leaves. The fragrant yellow
flowers are produced abundantly in racemes, and when at their best
impart to the shrub a very striking and beautiful appearance. For
planting in poor, sandy or gravelly soils, or amongst stones and
shingle, and where only a very limited number of shrubs could be
got to grow, the Spanish Broom will be found an excellent and
valuable plant. It is a native of Southern Europe, and is quite
hardy all over the country. Propagated from seed.
SPIRAEA BELLA.—Pretty-flowered Spiraea. Himalayas, 1820.
The reddish stems of this rather tall-growing species are of
interest, and render the plant distinct. Leaves ovate, acute, and
serrated, and tomentose beneath. Flowers in spreading corymbs of a
very beautiful rose colour, and at their best from the middle of
May till the middle of June. S. bella alba has white flowers.
S. BLUMEI.—Blume's Spiraea. Japan. This is a Japanese
species, growing 4 feet or 5 feet high, with small, ovate,
bluntly-pointed leaves, and white flowers arranged in compact
terminal cymes. It is a good and worthy species for ornamental
S. BULLATA (syn S. crispifolia.)—Japan. This will
ever be accounted valuable for the rock garden, owing to its very
dwarf habit and extreme floriferousness. It bears tiny bunches of
bright rose-coloured flowers, and these look all the more charming
owing to the miniature size of the shrub, its average height being
about 12 inches. A very interesting and valuable rock shrub, and
one that no doubt about its perfect hardihood need be
S. CANA.—Hoary-leaved Spiraea. Croatia, 1825. This is a
small spreading shrub that rarely rises to more than 18 inches in
height, with small, ovate, hoary leaves, and pretty white flowers
arranged in corymbs. For rockwork planting it is one of the most
valuable species, growing freely and producing its showy flowers in
abundance. Quite hardy.
S. CANTONIENSIS (syn S. Reevesiana).—Reeve's
Spiraea. Japan, 1843. An evergreen or sub-evergreen species,
growing 3 feet high, with lanceolate leaves on long footstalks, and
large, pure white flowers arranged in terminal corymbs, and placed
on long peduncles.
S. CHAMAEDRIFOLIA (syn S.
ceanothifolia).—Germander-leaved Spiraea. South-eastern
Europe to Japan, 1789. Grows about a yard high, with ovate,
pubescent leaves, and white flowers. It varies widely in the shape
and size of leaves. S. chamaedrifolia ulmifolia (Elm-leaved
Spiraea) a twiggy shrub, 3 feet high, with broad leaves and white
flowers, is from Siberia. S. chamaedrifolia crataegifolia
(Hawthorn-leaved Spiraea) is of stout, half-erect growth, with
rather stiff glaucous leaves that are oval in shape, and bright red
or pink flowers in fastigiate panicles. From Siberia 1790, and
flowering at mid-summer.
S. DECUMBENS (syn S. nana).—Decumbent Spiraea.
Tyrol. This is the smallest-growing of the shrubby Spiraeas, rarely
attaining to a greater height than 12 inches. It is a neat growing
plant, with small oval leaves, and white pedunculate flowers. For
planting on the rockwork or in the front line of the shrubbery,
this is an invaluable shrub, and soon forms a neat and pretty
specimen. It is perfectly hardy.
S. DISCOLOR ARIAEFOLIA (syn S. ariaefolia).—White
Beam-leaved Spiraea. North-west America, 1827. This forms a dense,
erect shrub about 6 feet high, with elliptic-oblong leaves, and
clothed beneath with a whitish tomentum. The flowers are in large,
terminal, slender-stalked panicles, and white or yellowish-white.
It is one of the handsomest species in cultivation, the neat and
yet not stiff habit, and pretty, plume-like tufts of flowers making
it a general favourite with the cultivators of hardy shrubs.
Flowers about mid-summer. In rich soils, and where partially shaded
from cold winds, it thrives best.
S. DOUGLASII.—Douglas's Spiraea. North-west America. This
has long, obovate-lanceolate leaves, that are white with down on
the under surface, and bears dense, oblong, terminal panicles of
rosy flowers. S. Douglasii Nobleana (Noble's Spiraea) is a variety
of great beauty, growing about a yard high, with large leaves often
4 inches long, and looser panicles of purple-red flowers. Flowering
in July. The variety was introduced from California in 1859.
S. FISSA.—Split-leaved Spiraea. Mexico, 1839. A stout,
erect-growing shrub, about 8 feet high, with rather small leaves,
angular, downy branches, and long, loose, terminal panicles of
small and greenish-white flowers. The leaves are wedge-shaped at
the base, and when young have the lateral incisions split into a
pair of unequal and very sharp teeth. Flowering in May and June. In
the south and west of England it thrives best.
S. HYPERICIFOLIA (syn S. flagellata).—Asia Minor,
1640. A wiry twiggy shrub, fully 4 feet high, with entire leaves,
and small, white flowers produced in umbels at the tips of the last
year's shoots. It is a pretty and desirable species.
S. JAPONICA (syns S. callosa and S.
Fortunei).—Japanese Spiraea. China and Japan, 1859. This
is a robust species about a yard high, with large lanceolate
leaves, and small, rosy-red flowers arranged in corymbose heads.
Flowering at mid-summer. There are several fine varieties of this
species, including S. japonica alba, a compact bush about a foot
high with white flowers; S. japonica rubra differs from the type in
having dark red flowers; S. japonica splendens, is a free-flowering
dwarf plant, with peach-coloured flowers and suitable for forcing;
and S. japonica superba, has dark rose-red flowers. S. Bumalda is a
closely allied form, if not a mere variety of S. japonica. It is of
dwarf habit, with dark reddish-purple flowers.
S. LAEVIGATA (syns S. altaicensis and S.
altaica).—Smooth Spiraea. Siberia, 1774. A stout,
spreading shrub about a yard high, with large, oblong-lanceolate,
smooth, and stalkless leaves. The white flowers are arranged in
racemose panicles, and produced in May.
S. LINDLEYANA.—Lindley's Spiraea. Himalayas. A handsome,
tall-growing species, growing from 6 feet to 8 feet high, with very
large pinnate leaves, and pretty white flowers in large terminal
panicles. It is the largest-leaved Spiraea in cultivation, and
forms a stately, handsome specimen, and produces its showy flowers
in great quantities. Flowering at the end of summer.
S. MEDIA (syns S. confusa and S.
oblongifolia).—Northern Asia, etc. The pure white flowers
of this species are very freely produced in corymbs along the
shoots of the previous season during the months of June and July.
The lanceolate-elliptic leaves are serrate, or the smaller ones
toothed near the apex only. Within the past few years the species
has been brought into prominence for forcing purposes, for which it
is admirably suited. It forms an upright, branching bush usually
about 3 ft. high, and is best known under the name of S.
S. PRUNIFOLIA.—China and Japan, 1845. A twiggy-branched
shrub growing 4 feet or 5 feet high, with oval, Plum-like leaves,
and white flowers. There is a double-flowering variety named S.
prunifolia flore-pleno, which is both distinct and beautiful.
S. ROTUNDIFOLIA.—Round-leaved Spiraea. Cashmere, 1839. A
slender-branched shrub, having downy shoots, and round, blunt
leaves, flowering in July.
S. SALICIFOLIA.—Willow-leaved Spiraea. Europe, and
naturalised in Britain. An erect-growing, densely-branched shrub,
with smooth shoots, which spring usually directly from the ground.
Leaves large, lanceolate, smooth, doubly serrated, and produced
plentifully. Flowers red or rose-coloured, and arranged in short,
thyrsoid panicles. It flowers in July and August. S. salicifolia
carnea has flesh-coloured flowers; S. salicifolia paniculata has
white flowers; and S. salicifolia grandiflora has pink flowers as
large again as the type. S. salicifolia alpestris (Mountain
Spiraea) grows fully 2 feet high, with lanceolate, finely-toothed
leaves, and loose, terminal panicles of pink or red flowers. From
Siberia, and flowering in autumn. S. salicifolia latifolia (syn
S. carpinifolia), the Hornbeam-leaved Spiraea, is a
white-flowered variety, with leaves resembling those of the
Hornbeam. From North America.
S. SORBIFOLIA.—Sorbus-leaved Spiraea. Siberia, 1759. A
handsome, stout species, 4 feet high, with large, pinnate, bright
green leaves, and small, white, sweetly-scented flowers produced in
S. THUNBERGII.—Thunberg's Spiraea. Japan. The white
flowers of this species smell somewhat like those of the Hawthorn,
and are freely produced on the leafless, twiggy stems, in March or
early in April, according to the state of the weather. They are
borne in axillary clusters from buds developed in the previous
autumn, and are very welcome in spring, long before the others come
into bloom. The bush varies from one to three feet high, and is
clothed with linear-lanceolate, sharply serrated leaves.
S. TOMENTOSA.—Tomentose Spiraea. North America, 1736. This
species grows 2 feet or 3 feet high, has rusty tomentose shoots and
leaves, and large, dense, compound spikes of showy red flowers.
Flowering in summer.
S. TRILOBATA (syn S. triloba).—Three-lobed Spiraea.
Altaian Alps, 1801. This is a distinct species with horizontally
arranged branches, small, roundish, three-lobed leaves, and white
flowers arranged in umbel-like corymbs. It flowers in May, and is
S. UMBROSA (Shady Spiraea) and S. EXPANSA (Expanded-flowered
Spiraea), the former from Northern India and the latter from
Nepaul, are well suited for planting in somewhat shady situations,
and are very ornamental species. The first mentioned grows about a
foot high, with rather large leaves, and cymes of white flowers on
long slender footstalks; while S. expansa has pink flowers, and
lanceolate and coarsely serrated leaves.
There are other valuable-flowering kinds, such as S. capitata,
with ovate leaves and white flowers; S. pikowiensis, a rare species
with white flowers; S. cuneifolia, with wedge-shaped leaves and
panicles of pretty white flowers; and S. vacciniaefolia, a
dwarf-growing species, with small ovate, serrulated leaves, and
showy, pure white flowers. S. betulifolia and S. chamaedrifolia
flexuosa are worthy forms of free growth and bearing white
STAPHYLEA COLCHICA.—Colchican Bladder Nut. Caucasus. This
is a very distinct shrub, about 6 feet high, with large clusters of
showy white flowers. Being quite hardy, and very ornamental, this
species is worthy the attention of planters.
S. PINNATA.—Job's Tears, or St. Anthony's Nut. South
Europe. This is a straggling shrub, from 6 feet to 8 feet high,
with white, racemose flowers, succeeded by bladder-like
S. TRIFOLIA.—North America, 1640. This is distinguished by
its larger white flowers and trifoliolate leaves. It is the
American Bladder Nut, but, like the latter, can hardly be included
amongst ornamental plants.
All the Bladder Nuts grow freely in good light dampish loam.
STAUNTONIA HEXAPHYLLA.—China and Japan, 1876. This
evergreen twining shrub is not to be generally recommended, it
requiring wall protection even in southern England. The leaves are
deep green and pinnate, while the greenish-white flowers are
fragrant, and produced in the beginning of summer.
STUARTIA PENTAGYNA (syn Malachodendron
ovatum).—North America, 1785. This differs only from the
S. virginica in having five distinct styles, hence the name. Under
very favourable circumstances this is the taller growing species,
and the leaves and flowers are larger.
S. PSEUDO-CAMELLIA (syn S. grandiflora).—Japan,
1879. This is of recent introduction, and differs from the others
in the flowers being rather larger, and of a purer white, and
supplied with yellow instead of red stamens. It is quite hardy in
Southern England and Ireland at least.
S. VIRGINICA (syn S. marylandica).—North America,
1743. This is a handsome free-growing shrub, of often 10 feet in
height, with large, creamy-white flowers, that are rendered all the
more conspicuous by the crimson-red stamens. The flowers—like
those of a single Rose, and fully 2-1/2 inches across—are
produced in May. Quite hardy, as many fine specimens in some of our
old English gardens will point out.
Though, perhaps, rather exacting in their requirements, the
Stuartias may be very successfully grown if planted in light,
moist, peaty earth, and where they will be screened from cold,
STYRAX AMERICANA and S. PULVERULENTA are not commonly
cultivated, being far less showy than the Japanese species. They
bear white flowers.
S. OFFICINALIS.—Storax. Levant, 1597. This is a small
deciduous shrub, with ovate leaves, and short racemes of pretty
pure white flowers. A not very hardy species, and only second-rate
as an ornamental flowering shrub.
S. SERRULATA VIRGATA (syn S. japonica).—Japanese
Storax. Japan. A neat-habited and dense-growing shrub, with pretty
white flowers that are neatly set off by the showy yellow stamens.
It is an extremely pretty shrub, with long, slender, much-branched
shoots, furnished with ovate leaves, and deliciously-scented,
snow-white bell-shaped flowers, produced for nearly the full length
of the shoots. So far, this shrub of recent introduction has proved
quite hardy. S. serrulata variegata is a well-marked and constant
SYMPHORICARPUS OCCIDENTALIS.—Wolf Berry. North America.
This species has larger and more freely-produced flowers, and
smaller fruit than the commonly-cultivated plant.
S. RACEMOSUS (syn Symphoria racemosus).—Snowberry.
North America, 1817. One of the commonest shrubs in English
gardens, with small, oval, entire leaves, and neat little racemes
of pretty pink flowers, succeeded by the familiar snow-white
berries, and for which the shrub is so remarkable.
S. VULGARIS.—Coral Berry, Common St. Peter's Wort. North
America, 1730. This is readily distinguished by its showy and
freely-produced coral berries. There is a very neat and much sought
after variety, having conspicuous green and yellow leaves, and
named S. vulgaris foliis variegatis.
The Snowberries are of no great value as ornamental shrubs, but
owing to their succeeding well in the very poorest and stoniest of
soils, and beneath the shade and drip of trees, it is to be
recommended that they are not lost sight of. They grow and spread
freely, and are therefore useful where unchecked and rampant shrub
growth is desirable.
SYMPLOCOS JAPONICA (syn S. lucida).—A small growing
and not very desirable species from Japan (1850).
S. TINCTORIA.—Sweet-leaf, or Horse Sugar. South United
States, 1780. This is a small-growing shrub, with clusters of
fragrant yellow flowers, but it is not very hardy unless planted
against a sheltered and sunny wall.
SYRINGA CHINENSIS (syns. S. dubia and S.
rothomagensis).—Rouen, or Chinese Lilac. A plant of small
growth, with narrow leaves, and reddish-violet flowers. It is said
to have been raised by M. Varin, of the Botanic Garden, Rouen, as a
hybrid between S. vulgaris and S. persica, 1795.
S. EMODI.—Himalayas, 1840. This is a desirable species,
that forms a stout bush or small tree, with oblong,
reticulately-veined leaves, and erect, dense panicles of white
flowers, that are sometimes lilac tinged. The flowers are strongly
scented, and borne in great profusion late in the season. There is
a variegated form, S. Emodi variegata, and another named S. Emodi
villosa, both good varieties.
S. JAPONICA (syns S. amurensis and Ligustrina
amurensis).—Japan. This is of recent introduction, and is
a decided acquisition, producing in summer large and dense clusters
of creamy-white flowers. It is a very desirable species, and though
coming from Japan seems to be perfectly hardy.
S. JOSIKAEA, Josika's Lilac, is of Hungarian origin (1835), and
is so totally different from the others as to be well worthy of
special attention. It rarely exceeds 6 feet in height, with
dark-green, wrinkled leaves, and erect spikes of pale mauve
S. PERSICA (Persian Lilac).—Persia, 1640. This is a
distinct small-growing species, with slender, straight branches,
and lilac or white flowers produced in small clusters. The form
bearing white flowers is named S. persica alba; and there is one
with neatly divided foliage called S. persica laciniata.
S. VULGARIS.—Common Lilac, or Pipe Tree. Persia and
Hungary, 1597. This is one of the commonest and most highly praised
of English garden shrubs, and one that has given rise, either by
natural variation or by crossing with other species, to a great
number of superior forms. The following include the best and most
ornamental of the numerous varieties:—alba, pure white
flowers; alba-grandiflora, very large clusters of white flowers;
alba-magna, and alba virginalis, both good white-flowering forms;
Dr. Lindley, large clusters of reddish-lilac flowers; Charles X.,
purplish-lilac flowers, but white when forced; Souvenir De Ludwig
Spath, with massive clusters of richly coloured flowers; Glorie de
Moulins, Marie Legrange, Noisetteana, Duchesse de Nemours, and
Vallettiana, all beautiful flowering forms that are well worthy of
cultivation, and that are of the simplest growth.
The double-flowered varieties, for which we are much indebted to
M. Victor Lemoine, of Nancy, are fast gaining favour with
cultivators in this country, and rightly, too, for they include
several very handsome, full flowered forms. The following are best
- S. vulgaris Alphonse Lavallee, with full double red flowers,
changing to mauve.
- " Emile Lemoine,
mauve-pink, suffused with white; very handsome.
- " La Tour d'Auvergne,
mauve shaded with rose. A beautiful and very dark coloured
- " Lemoinei, nearly
resembling our common species, but with full double flowers.
- " Leon Simon, light
pink, mauve shaded.
- " Madame Lemoine, the
finest form, bearing very large pure white double flowers.
- " Michael Buchner,
- " Virginité, whitish
pink, nearly white when fully expanded.
President Grevy is one of the same beautiful group. The blooms
are large, double, and produced in very massive clusters, and of a
light bluish-lilac tint, when forced almost white. The first of
this group, S. vulgaris Lemoinei, was sent out about 1884, and was
then awarded a certificate by the R.H.S. The range in colouring of
these Lilacs is rather confined, so that the various forms resemble
one another in no small degree, particularly when the flowers are
opened under glass. From the large size of the flower bunches, and
the individual flowers being double, they are all of great beauty,
and being quite hardy still further enhances their value for
outdoor gardening purposes.
The Lilacs grow freely in any soil of fair quality, but a free,
rich, and not too dry loam, would seem to suit the majority of
these plants best.
TAMARIX GALLICA.—Common Tamarisk. India to Europe. This
shrub often in favoured maritime places reaches to a height of
fully 10 feet, with long and slender branches, and spikes of
pretty, rosy-pink flowers produced at the end of summer. For
sea-side planting, it is an invaluable shrub, and on account of its
feathery appearance and wealth of showy flowers is well worthy of
being included in our list of ornamental and useful shrubs.
T. PARVIFLORA (syns T. africana and T. tetrandra),
South-eastern Europe and Levant, is a nearly allied species, with
white, pinky-tinged flowers.
TECOMA GRANDIFLORA (syn Bignonia grandiflora), from China
and Japan (1800), is not so hardy as T. radicans, although in
certain maritime districts it succeeds fairly well. The flowers are
very attractive, being of a rich orange-scarlet, and produced in
drooping clusters. Both foliage and flowers are larger than those
of T. radicans. It wants a warm, sunny wall, and light, rich, and
well-drained soil, and if only for its lovely flowers, it is well
worthy of coddling and good treatment.
T. RADICANS (syn Bignonia radicans).—Trumpet
Flower. North America, 1640. An old occupant of our gardens and one
of the most beautiful wall plants in cultivation. It is a tall
climber, of sometimes fully 20 feet in height, with graceful
pinnate leaves, and handsome trumpet-shaped scarlet-red flowers,
that are at their best about mid-summer, though the period of
flowering extends over a considerable length of time. The stems are
long, twisted, and wiry, and like those of the Ivy send out roots
at the joints and so fasten the plant in position. Few climbing
plants are more attractive than the Trumpet Flower, and being hardy
in most parts of the country, and free of growth, is to be
recommended for covering walls, and arches, or similar structures.
T. radicans major is of more robust growth than the species, with
larger foliage and paler flowers. The orange-scarlet flowers are
produced in terminal corymbs.
TILIA VULGARIS (syns T. europea and T.
intermedia).—Lime, or Linden Tree. Europe, Caucasus, and
naturalised in Britain. Probably none of the Limes would be
included in a list of ornamental-flowering trees and shrubs, still
that they are of great interest and beauty even in that state
cannot be denied. The common species as well as its numerous
varieties have sweetly scented, yellowish-white flowers in terminal
cymes, and are, though individually small, highly ornamental when
fully developed. Other species of great interest when in flower are
T. alba (syn T. argentea), Silver Lime; T. petiolaris, a
curious and beautiful species; and T. euchlora.
The various species and varieties of Lime succeed well in almost
any class of soil, but rich loam on sand is considered the most
suitable for their perfect development.
ULEX EUROPAEUS.—Furze, Gorse, or Whin. This pretty native
shrub needs no description, suffice it to say that it is one of the
handsomest-flowering shrubs in cultivation. U. europaeus
flore-pleno (Double-flowered Gorse) is even more beautiful than the
species, the wealth of golden flowers almost hiding the plant from
view. U. europaeus strictus (Irish Furze) is of more erect and
slender growth, and less rigid than the common species.
U. NANUS.—-Dwarf Gorse, Cat Whin, and Tam Furze. This
differs considerably from the common plant, not only in stature,
but in the time of flowering. In this species the bracts at the
calyx base are small compared with those of U. europaeus, while the
smaller flowers are produced during summer, and when not a bloom is
to be found on its supposed parent. It is of dense growth, the
tallest stems rarely rising from the ground to a greater height
than about 15 inches.
All the Furze family succeed admirably in the poorest of soil;
indeed, a dry gravelly bank would seem to be their favourite
VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM.—Canada to Carolina and Georgia,
1765. This is one of the most beautiful and showy species, with
dense clusters of small, pinky flowers.
V. MYRTILLUS.—Whortleberry, Bilberry, Blackberry, and
Blueberry. A native plant, with angular stems, ovate-toothed
leaves, and pinky-white flowers, succeeded by bright, bluish-black
V. PENNSYLVANICUM.—New England to Virginia, 1772. This has
rather inconspicuous flowers, and is of greatest value for the
autumnal foliage tints.
V. VITIS-IDEA (Cowberry, Flowering Box, or Brawlins) a native
species, has racemose flowers, and red berries.
Other species that might be included are V. canadense, V.
stamineum, V. frondosum, and V. ligustrifolium.
The various species of Vaccinium are of dwarf or procumbent
growth, and only suitable for planting in beds, or on rockwork,
where they will not be lost sight of. They thrive best in soil of a
VERONICA PINQUIFOLIA.—New Zealand, 1870. This is one of
the hardiest species, but it is of low growth, and only suitable
for alpine gardening. It is a dwarf spreading shrub, with intensely
glaucous leaves and white flowers.
V. TRAVERSII.—New Zealand, 1873. This may be considered as
one of the few species of hardy Veronicas. It grows about 4 feet
high, with deep green leaves arranged in rows, and white flowers,
produced late in summer. It is a very free-growing shrub, of
perfect hardihood, and one of, if not the best for general
The above two species are, so far as is at present known, the
hardiest in cultivation, although there are many kinds that will
succeed well under very favourable conditions, and particularly
when planted by the sea-side. Other half-hardy species might
include V. salicifolia (Willow-leaved Veronica), with long, narrow
leaves, and white or purplish flowers; V. ligustrifolia
(Privet-leaved Veronica), with spikes of feathery-white flowers; V.
speciosa, with erect spikes of purplish-blue flowers; and V.
Andersoni, a hybrid form, with spikes of bluish-violet flowers.
The dwarf or alpine species might include V. cupressoides, with
Cypress-like foliage, V. Lyallii, V. carnosula, and others, but
such hardly come within our scope.
VIBURNUM ACERIFOLIUM.—Dockmackie. New England to Carolina,
1736. This is one of the handsomest members of the family, being of
slender growth and compact and neat in habit. It grows to fully 4
feet in height, and is well supplied with neatly three-lobed
leaves, these in the autumn turning to a deep crimson. The flowers,
too, are highly ornamental, being borne in fair sized clusters, and
white or yellowish-white. It is a very desirable and beautiful
plant, quite hardy, and of free growth in any fairly rich soil.
V. AWAFUKII.—Japan, 1842. This is another rare and
beautiful plant, of neat habit, and producing an abundance of showy
white flowers, that are, however, seldom produced in this
V. DAHURICUM.—Dahuria, 1785. This is a charming hardy
species, which in May and June is covered with numerous umbels of
showy white flowers. It forms a rather spreading bush of 6 feet or
8 feet high, with gray downy branches, and neat foliage. The
berries are oval-oblong, red at first, but becoming black and
faintly scented when fully ripe.
V. DENTATUM.—Arrowwood. A native of the United States,
1763. This can be recommended as a distinct and beautiful shrub,
with cymes of white flowers that are produced in plenty. The leaves
are dark green, smooth, and shining, and strongly veined, while the
bark is ash-coloured, and the berries bright blue.
V. LANTANA.—Wayfaring Tree. Europe (Britain). This is a
native species of large bush, or almost tree growth, with rugose,
oblong, serrulated leaves, and large, flat cymes of white flowers
appearing in May and June. The whole tree is usually covered with a
scaly tomentum, while the fruit is a black flattened drupe.
V. LENTAGO.—Sheepberry and Sweet Viburnum. North America,
1761. This resembles our native V. Lantana, with dense clusters of
white blossoms succeeded by black berries.
V. MACROCEPHALUM (syn V. Fortunei).—China, 1844.
This is a Chinese species, but one that cannot be depended on as
hardy enough to withstand our most severe winters. It has very
large heads or panicles of white neutral flowers. Against a sunny
wall and in a cosy nook it may occasionally be found doing fairly
well, but it is not to be generally recommended.
V. NUDUM.—American Withe Rod. Canada to Georgia, 1752.
This is also worthy of being included in a selection of these
V. OPULUS.—Guelder Rose. A native shrub of great beauty,
whether in foliage, flower, or fruit. The leaves are variously
lobed or deeply toothed, large and handsome, and the flower heads
of good size, flat, and composed of a number of small flowers, the
outer only being sterile. Individually the flowers are dull and
inconspicuous, but being produced in amazing quantity, they have a
very pleasing and effective appearance. The great bunches of clear
pinky berries render a fair-sized plant particularly handsome and
attractive, and for which alone, as also beauty of autumnal
foliage, the shrub is well worthy of extensive culture. It grows
fully 15 feet high, and may frequently be seen as much through. V.
Opulus sterilis (Snowball Tree) is one of the commonest occupants
of our shrubberies, and a decidedly ornamental-flowering shrub. The
large, almost globular flower heads hanging from every branch tip,
are too well-known to require description, and have made the shrub
one of the most popular in ornamental planting.
V. PAUCIFLORUM is a native of cold, moist woods from Labrador to
Alaska, and may best be described as a miniature V. Opulus. It
rarely grows more than 4 feet high, with small cymes of flowers,
that are devoid of the neutral flowers of that species.
V. PLICATUM, from Japan 1846, is another very beautiful and
desirable shrub, of rather dwarf, spreading growth, and having the
leaves deeply wrinkled, plaited, and serrated on the margins. The
flowers resemble those of the commonly cultivated species, but they
are rather larger, and of a purer white. It is a decidedly
ornamental species of easy growth in any good soil, and where not
exposed to cold winds.
V. PRUNIFOLIUM, New England to Carolina, 1731, with Plum-like
leaves, and pretty white flowers, is another free-growing and
beautiful North American species.
V. PYRIFOLIUM.—Pear-leaved Viburnum. Pennsylvania to New
Jersey, 1812. This is a rarely-seen, but very ornamental species,
with oval-shaped, finely-toothed leaves, that are borne on short,
slightly-winged stalks about half-an-inch long. Flowers sweetly
scented, white, and in broad corymbs, the feathery appearance of
the long, projecting stamens, each tipped with a golden anther,
adding considerably to the beauty of the flowers.
V. RETICULATUM and V. LAEVIGATUM are rarely seen species, but of
interest botanically, if not for floral beauty.
V. TINUS.—Laurustinus. South Europe, 1596. So commonly
cultivated a shrub needs no description here, sufficient to say
that the handsome evergreen foliage and pretty pinky-white flowers
assign to it a first position amongst hardy ornamental flowering
shrubs, V. Tinus strictum has darker foliage than the species, is
more upright, rather more hardy, but not so profuse in the bearing
of flowers. V. Tinus lucidum (Glossy-leaved Laurustinus), of the
several varieties of Laurustinus has the largest foliage, finest
flowers, and altogether is of the most robust growth. It is,
unfortunately, not very hardy, probably in that respect not even
equalling the parent plant. Usually it does not flower freely,
neither are the flowers produced so early as in the species, but
individually they are much larger. It is of tall growth, and rarely
forms the neat, dense bush, for which the common shrub is so
admired. V. Tinus rotundifolium has rounded leaves; and V. Tinus
rotundifolium variegatum has irregularly variegated leaves.
VINCA MAJOR.—Band-plant, Cut-finger, and Larger
Periwinkle. Europe (Britain). For trailing over tree-stumps or
rockwork this pretty evergreen shrub has a distinctive value, the
bright green leaves and showy deep blue flowers rendering it both
conspicuous and ornamental. V. major elegantissima is a decided
variety, the leaves being neatly and evenly variegated, and making
the plant of great value for bank or rock-work decoration.
V. MINOR.—Lesser Periwinkle. This is of much smaller
growth than the preceding, and differs, too, in not having the
leaf-margins ciliated. The variety V. minor flore-albo has white
flowers, those of the normal plant being pale blue; V. minor
flore-pleno differs in having double blue flowers; V. minor foliis
aureis has golden-tinted leaves; and V. minor foliis argenteis
bears silvery mottled and very attractive foliage.
They are all of simple growth, succeeding well in somewhat shady
situations, and in by no means the richest of soil. As they run
about freely and soon cover an extent of ground they are rendered
of great value for a variety of purposes.
VITEX AGNUS-CASTUS.—Chaste Tree, Hemp Tree, and Monk's
Pepper-tree. A South European shrub (1670), growing from 6 feet to
10 feet high, with digitate leaves that are almost hoary beneath,
and spikes of small violet flowers. It is not very hardy, although
in some of the warmer parts of southern England and Ireland,
fair-sized, healthy-looking specimens are now and then to be met
with. As a wall plant, however, it succeeds best, and for which
purpose, with its neat foliage and pretty flowers, it is peculiarly
VITIS HETEROPHYLLA HUMILIFOLIA.—Turquoise-berried Vine.
North China and Japan, 1868. The leaves of this Vine are three to
five lobed, and the small flowers freely produced in slightly
branching cymes. The latter are succeeded by their most interesting
and attractive berries, that ripen in September and October. They
are pale china-blue, marked all over with very dark specks. The
stems grow to a height of 4 feet to 8 feet, and should be trained
against a wall in a sunny position to ripen the berries. The plant
is perfectly hardy. The variety V. heterophylla variegata is a
dwarf, low-growing plant with variegated leaves, and is used for
pot work, for covering the ground in sub-tropical bedding designs,
and might be used to great advantage for rambling over large stones
in the rock garden.
WISTARIA CHINENSIS (syns W. sinensis, Glycine chinensis,
and G. sinensis).—Chinese Wistaria. China, 1816. This
is the only species at all common in gardens, and by far the
handsomest in cultivation. It justly ranks amongst the most
beautiful of hardy climbing shrubs, and is invaluable as a wall
plant, or for clothing the bare stems of sparsely foliaged trees.
The purplish-lilac flowers are produced in long, drooping racemes
in early summer. W. chinensis alba has pretty white flowers; W.
chinensis flore-pleno has not proved very satisfactory, but when
seen at its best, which is, however, but rarely, the double flowers
are both beautiful and showy; W. chinensis variegata has badly
variegated foliage; and W. chinensis macrobotrys is a plant of
great beauty with very long racemes of pale lavender flowers, but
they vary a good deal in colour, those of some plants being almost
white. It is a very desirable variety, and one that when better
known is sure to attract attention.
W. FRUTESCENS (syns Glycine frutescens and Thyrsanthus
frutescens).—North America, 1724. This is a very handsome
deciduous climbing species from North America. The flowers, which
appear towards autumn, are bluish purple and fragrant, and borne in
erect racemes. It is quite hardy and equally suitable with the
Chinese species for using as a wall covering. W. frutescens
magnifica is an improved form of the species.
W. JAPONICA.—Japan. A bush-like species bearing white
flowers, but it is rarely seen in cultivation. It is, however,
quite hardy, and succeeds well in the bush state at Kew.
W. MULTIJUGA.—Japan, 1874. Resembles somewhat our
commonly-cultivated species, and has pale purple flowers arranged
in long racemes. It is a very ornamental and desirable species, but
the flowers are not borne in great quantity.
The Wistarias are of simple culture, but succeed best in rather
rich alluvial soil, and where protection from cold winds is
XANTHOCERAS SORBIFOLIA.—China, 1870. An extremely pretty
flowered and handsome leaved shrub, but owing to its late
introduction is not yet well known. So far it has proved itself
perfectly hardy in this country, there being specimens at wide
distances apart that have stood uninjured through our past severe
The leaves are pale green, and pinnate, somewhat resembling
those of the Rowan Tree. Flowers five petalled, creamy white,
sometimes very slightly tinged with flesh colour, with a coppery
red or violet-purple centre, and disposed in racemes. When fully
expanded they are an inch across, and somewhat reflexed. It flowers
early in April, with the appearance of the leaves, the blooms being
produced in great abundance, in spike-like clusters fully seven
inches long, and succeeded by a small green Pear-like fruit. This
is one of the most distinct and handsome of recently introduced
shrubs, and will, when more widely disseminated, be largely planted
for purely ornamental purposes. It grows from 10 feet to about 15
XANTHORHIZA APIIFOLIA.—Yellow-root. Pennsylvania, 1776. A
small growing shrub, with yellow creeping roots, from which suckers
are thrown up profusely. The leaves are irregularly pinnate, and
the minute flowers, which are borne in large, branching spikes, are
of a peculiar dark purple colour. It prefers a cool, moist
YUCCA FILAMENTOSA.—Silk Grass. North America, 1675. A
well-known and beautiful plant, with numerous leaves arranged in a
dense rosette, and from 1 foot to 2 feet long by 2 inches broad.
Flower scape rising to 5 feet or 6 feet in height, and bearing
numerous flowers that are each about 2 inches deep. There is a
beautiful variegated form of this species named Y. filamentosa
variegata, and one with much narrower leaves than the typical
species, and known as Y. filamentosa angustifolia.
Y. GLORIOSA.—The Mound Lily. United States, 1596. This is
another well-known hardy species, with long, sharp-pointed leaves,
and a handsome, much branched scape, of flowers that are each about
2 inches deep. There are several varieties, differing in colour of
foliage, including Y. gloriosa glaucescens, with decidedly glaucous
foliage; Y. gloriosa superba, with rigid leaves and a shorter and
denser flower scape; and another with variegated leaves. Y.
gloriosa recurvifolia is usually dwarfer in the stem than the type,
and more inclined to branch than the other species, and less rigid,
with recurving leaves that are not so sharp-pointed, The flower
panicle is large and very much branched.
The Yuccas all do well if planted in light loam of good
ZELKOVA ACUMINATA (syns Z. japonica and Planera
acuminata).—Japan. This resembles very nearly our common
Elm in appearance, and being perfectly hardy is to be recommended
for planting in this country.
Z. CRENATA (syns Planera crenata and P.
Richardi).—Zelkova Tree. Western Asia to Mount Caucasus,
1760. This is a handsome, large growing tree, with oblong
deeply-crenated leaves, and small and inconspicuous flowers. For
avenue planting or as a standard specimen this is a valuable tree,
being quite hardy, and of free and quick growth. P. crenata pendula
is a good weeping form, and worthy of culture.
Z. CRETICA.—Crete. A pretty small growing bush or tree of
about 20 feet in height, with crenate, leathery, dark green leaves,
which are usually fully an inch in length. The leaves are hairy,
and the twigs, too, are thickly covered with short grey hairs.
ZAUSCHNERIA CALIFORNICA.—Californian Fuchsia, or Humming
Birds' Trumpet. California and Mexico, 1847. A small-growing,
densely-branched shrub, with linear-lanceolate silvery pubescent
leaves, and bright red or scarlet tubular flowers, with a long,
slender style resembling some of the Fuchsias. It is a pretty and
distinct Alpine shrub, and not being perfectly hardy should be
assigned a rather warm and sheltered position.
ZENOBIA SPECIOSA (syn Andromeda speciosa and A.
cassinaefolia).—South United States, 1800. This is a
distinct and pretty hardy species, a native of swampy low-lying
districts. It grows about four feet high, and bears pure white,
bell-shaped, Lily-of-the-Valley like flowers in great abundance
during the summer. In too dry situations it becomes sparse of
foliage and unhappy, but grows and flowers freely in light, peaty
soil. Z. speciosa pulverulenta is a very desirable variety, the
whole plant, stems, foliage, and flowers, being of a pleasing light
gray or white colour. Individually the flowers are larger than
those of the species.
A D D E N D A.
EXOCHORDA GRANDIFLORA (syn Spiraea
grandiflora).—North China. This handsome shrub forms a
much branched, spreading bush, about 4 feet to 6 feet high, and
flowers abundantly in May. The habit is similar to that of a
shrubby Spiraea, but the pure white flowers are as large as those
of some of the species of Cherry, and quite unlike those of any
known species of Spiraea. The flowers are liable to injury
sometimes from late spring frosts, but the plant itself is quite
hardy. As a bush on the lawn it is nevertheless highly ornamental
MYRICARIA GERMANICA.—Europe, Asia, 1582. A tall, somewhat
straggling shrub, very similar to the Tamarisk, with terminal
spikes of pink or rosy flowers, produced freely nearly all the
summer. It succeeds well in this country in sea-side situations,
and is often described as a Tamarisk by gardeners.
TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING IN TOWNS.
- Acer macrophylla
- Ailanthus glandulosa
- Crataegus Oxyacantha
- Catalpa bignonioides
- Gleditschia triacanthos
- Liriodendron tulipiiera
- Magnolia acuminata
- Pyrus of sorts
- Robinia Pseud-acacia and its varieties
- Sophora japonica
- Tilia, in variet.
SHRUBS FOR TOWN PLANTING.
- Amelanchier, in variety
- Arbutus Unedo
- Berberis Aquifolium
- Cistus ladaniferus
- Colutea arborescens
- Daphne Laureola
- Deutzia crenata
- Forsythia suspensa
- Griselinia littoralis
- Hibiscus syriacus
- Hypericum calycinum
- Hypericum nepalense
- Koelrenteria paniculata
- Leycesteria formosa
- Philadelphus Gordonianus
- Prunus nana
- Pyrus japonica
- Rhus Cotinus
- Ribes aureum
- Skimmia japonica
- Syringa (nearly all)
- Ulex europaeus fl.-pl.
- Viburnum Opulus
- Weigelia rosea
- Yucca gloriosa
TREES FOR THE SEASIDE.
- Acer campestre
- Arbutus Unedo
- Ailanthus glandulosa
- Aesculus Hippocastanum
- Catalpa bignonioides
- Fraxinus Ornus
SHRUBS FOR THE SEASIDE.
THE FLOWERING SEASONS OF TREES AND SHRUBS.
The asterisk * after the name denotes that the species
continues in flower for a longer period than the month under which
it is placed.
- Erica carnea*
- Chimonanthus fragrans*
- Crataegus Oxyacantha praecox*
- Jasminum nudiflorum*
- Ulex europaeus*
- Viburnum Tinus*
- Cornus Mas*
- Daphne Laureola*
- Hamamelis japonica
- Lonicera fragrantissima*
- Magnolia conspicua*
- Parrotia persica*
- Pittosporum Tobira*
- Prunus nana*
- Rosmarinus officinalis*
- Arbutus Andrachne*
- Berberis japonica*
- Erica mediterranea*
- Forsythia viridissima*
- Garrya elliptica
- Magnolia stellata*
- Nuttallia cerasiformis*
- Prunus Amygdalus*
- Rhododendron dahuricum
- Skimmia Fortunei
- Spiraea Thunbergi*
- Xanthoriza apiifolia*
- Akebia quinata*
- Amelanchier alnifolia
- Berberis Aquifolium*
- Caesalpinia sepiaria
- Caragana frutescens
- Ceanothus cuneatus*
- Clematis cirrhosa*
- Cornus florida
- Cytisus scoparius*
- Daphne altaica
- Deutzia gracilis*
- Diervilla rosea*
- Drimys aromatica
- Fothergilla alnifolia*
- Fremontia californica
- Halesia diptera
- Kalmia glauca*
- Laburnum vulgare*
- Ledum latifolium
- Lonicera Caprifolium*
- Magnolia cordata*
- obovata discolor
- Pieris floribunda*
- Prunus Avium Juliana
- cerasifera Pissardii
- paniculata flore-pleno
- Pyrus angustifolia
- japonica Maulei
- Pyrus prunifolia*
- Rhododendron campanulatum
- Rhodotypos kerrioides
- Ribes aureum*
- Rosa indica*
- Sambucus racemosa*
- Skimmia japonica
- Spiraea prunifolia
- Stuartia virginica*
- Syringa Emodi
- Xanthoceras sorbifolia
- Abelia triflora*
- Aesculus glabra
- Arbutus Menziesii
- Berberis aristata*
- Calycanthus floridus*
- Caragana arborescens
- Ceanothus dentatus*
- Cercis canadensis
- Chionanthus retusa
- Citrus trifoliata
- Cladrastis tinctoria
- Clematis alpina*
- Cornus canadensis
- Coronilla Emerus*
- Crataegus Azarolus
- Azarolus Aronia
- Cytisus albus*
- albus incarnate*
- Daphne alpina*
- Deutzia crenata*
- Epigaea repens
- Fabiana imbricata
- Fraxinus Ornus*
- Gaultheria Shallon
- Genista lusitanica
- Halesia parviflora
- Halimodendron argenteum*
- Laburnum Adami*
- Leiophyllum buxifolium*
- Leucothoë axillaris
- Magnolia acuminata*
- Ostrya carpinifolia
- Paeonia Moutan
- Pernettya mucronata*
- Philadelphus coronarius
- Pieris Mariana*
- Piptanthus nepalensis
- Polygala Chamaebuxus*
- Prunus Chamaecerasus
- Pyrus Aria*
- Rhododendron arborescens
- Ribes speciosum
- Robinia hispida
- Rosa spinosissima*
- Rubus biflorus
- Sophora tetraptera
- Spiraea cantoniensis
- Staphylea pinnata*
- Stuartia pentagyna*
- Syringa chinensis*
- Vaccinium corymbosum*
- Viburnum acerifolium*
- Wistaria chinensis*
- Exochorda grandiflora
- Adenocarpus decorticans*
- Aesculus californica*
- Andromeda polifolia
- Bryanthus erectus
- Buddleia globosa*
- Calophaca wolgarica*
- Calycanthus occidentalis*
- Carpenteria californica
- Castanea saliva
- Catalpa speciosa
- Ceanothus azureus*
- Choisya ternata*
- Cistus crispus*
- Clematis lanuginosa*
- Colutea arborescens*
- Cornus circinata
- Crataegus nigra*
- Cytisus decumbens
- Daboëcia polifolia
- Diervilla floribunda*
- Escallonia macrantha*
- Fuchsia Riccartoni*
- Genista aetnensis*
- Helianthemum halimifolium*
- Helianthemum pilosum*
- Hypericum calycinum*
- Itea virginica
- Jamesia americana
- Jasminum revolutum*
- Kalmia angustifolia
- Kerria japonica*
- Laburnum alpinum
- Ligustrum japonicum
- Liriodendron tulipifera*
- Lyonia paniculata
- Magnolia macrophylla
- Myricaria germanica*
- Myrtus communis*
- Neillia opulifolia
- Olearia macrodonta
- Oxydendrum arboreum*
- Philadelphus grandiflorus
- Phlomis fruticosa
- Plagianthus pulchellus*
- Potentilla fruticosa
- Prunus lusitanica
- Rhododendron californicum
- Rhus Cotinus*
- Robinia dubia*
- Rosa alba*
- Rubus arcticus
- Sambucus nigra
- Spiraea bullata*
- Staphylea colchica
- Stuartia Pseudo-Camellia*
- Syringa japonica*
- Tecoma radicans*
- Tilia vulgaris*
- Veronica pinquifolia
- Viburnum dahuricum*
- Yucca filamentosa
- Zenobia speciosa*
- Aesculus parviflora*
- Berberis Fortunei
- Ceanothus americanus*
- Clematis Flammula*
- Cornus alba
- Escallonia floribunda
- Eucryphia pinnatifolia*
- Fuchsia macrostema globosa*
- Genista anxanctica*
- Gordonia lasianthus*
- Hydrangea hortensis*
- Hypericum elatum
- Jasminum fruticans*
- Kalmia hirsuta*
- Ligustrum Ibota*
- Lonicera Xylosteum*
- Periploca graeca*
- Philadelphus Gordonianus
- Photinia arbutifolia
- Plagianthus Lyalli
- Philadelphus Lemoinei
- Rhododendron catawbiense
- Rosa bracteata
- Spartium junceum*
- Spiraea bella*
- discolor ariaefolia
- Spiraea salicifolia*
- Tamarix gallica*
- Tilia petiolaris*
- Wistaria japonica*
- Yucca gloriosa
- Zauschneria californica
- Abelia chinensis*
- Calluna vulgaris*
- Catalpa bignonioides
- Clerodendron foetidum
- Erica cinerea*
- Escallonia illinita
- Gordonia pubescens
- Hedysarum multijugum
- Hibiscus syriacus*
- Hypericum oblongifolium
- Leycesteria formosa*
- Loropetalum chinense*
- Magnolia grandiflora*
- Nesaea salicifolia*
- Passiflora caerulea*
- Rubus nutkanus
- Sophora japonica*
- Spiraea Douglasii
- Vitex Agnus-castus
- Arbutus Unedo*
- Baccharis halimifolia
- Clerodendron trichotomum
- Clethra acuminata*
- Daphne Cneorum*
- Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora*
- Olearia Haastii
- Photinia japonica
- Microglossa albescens*
- Tecoma grandiflora*
- Berberidopsis corallina
- Berberris nervosa*
- Caryopteris Mastacanthus
- Hamamelis virginica*
- Lespedeza bicolor
- Azara microphylla
- Cassinia fulvida
- Chimonanthus fragrans*
- Jasminum nudiflorum*
- Chimonanthus fragrans*
- Lardizabala biternata
- Viburnum Tinus*
I N D E X.
Synonymous names are printed in
|| Ibota villosum,
| flava discolor,
| Pavia atrosanguinea,
| Pavia humilis,
| Pavia macrocarpa,
| Pavia Whitleyana,
||Lily, the Mound,
||Ling, the common,
|Alabama Snow Wreath,
|Alder, the berry bearing
|Almond, Abbé David's
|Aloysia. See Lippia
|American Great Laurel,
|American Withe Rod,
|Amoor Yellow Wood,
||Mahaleb, or Perfumed Cherry,
| persica flore-pleno,
|Amygdalus. See Prunus,
| Mariana ovalis,
|| conspicua Alexandrina,
|| conspicua Soulangeana,
|| conspicua Soulangeana nigra,
|| conspicua Soulangeana
|| conspicua Soulangeana
|Aralia. See Fatsia,
|| obovata discolor,
| Unedo Croomei,
||Malus microcarpa floribunda,
||Mayflower, New England,
||Menziesia. See Daboëcia; Phylodoce;
|| and Lyonia,
|Azalea. See Rhododendron,
||Mexican Orange Flower,
||Mitre pod, scarlet,
|Beach or Sand Plum,
|Beef Suet tree,
|Benthamia. See Cornus,
| Aquifolium repens,
|| Californian Wax,
|| Common Candle-berry,
||Nepaul White Beam,
||New Jersey Tea,
||Old Man's beard,
||Orange Ball tree,
|Bignonia. See Tecoma,
||Osmanthus Aquifolium ilicifolius,
|| Aquifolium illicifolius
|Blue Apple berry,
||Papaw, the Virginian,
|Bridgesia. See Ercilla,
||Pavia, See Aesculus,
|Californian or Western Allspice,
|Cerasus Caproniana multiplex,
|| crenata, 134
||Planera, See Zelkova,
| serrulata flore-pleno,
|Cerasus. See Prunus,
| St. Julian's,
|| Amygdalus dulcis,
|Chinese Pear tree,
|| Avium Juliana,
|| cerasifera Pissardii,
|Citharexylum. See Rhapithamnus,
|| paniculata flore-pleno,
|| Persica flore-pleno,
| azurea grandiflora,
|Colchican Bladder Nut,
|| Malus floribunda,
|| sinensis of Lindley,
|Comptonia. See Myrica,
||Red Osier Dogwood,
||Rhaphiolepis japonica integerrima,
|Corylus Avellana purpurea,
| Azarolus Aronia,
| coccinea macrantha,
|| ponticum azaleoides,
|| ponticum deciduum,
||Rhododendrons, hardy hybrid,
| albus incarnatus,
||Ribes alpinum pumilum aureum,
|Date Plum, the,
|Desmodium. See Lespedeza,
||Rock Rose, the,
|Dimorphanthus. See Aralia,
|Diospyros Kaki costata,
|Diplopappus. See Cassinia,
|| indica minima,
|| indica semperflorens,
|| semperflorens minima,
||Rose of Sharon,
| Scarlet berried,
||St. Anthony's Nut,
|Eriobotrya. See Photinia,
||St. Dabeoc's Heath,
||St. Peter's Wort,
||Service tree, true,
||Shrubs for seaside planting,
|| for town planting,
||Siberian Pea tree,
| Ornus serotina alba,
| Ornus serotina violacea,
| macrostemma globosa,
||Spanish Broom; White,
||Spanish Chestnut, Sweet,
| tinctoria elatior,
|| discolor ariaefolia,
| triacanthos pendula,
||Stag's Horn Sumach,
| japonica arborea,
| japonica Zuccariniana,
|Heather, the Common,
|Heimia. See Nesaea,
|| serrulata virgata,
| vulgare nummularium,
| vulgare barbatum,
| vulgare mutabile,
| vulgare grandiflorum,
| vulgare ovalifolium,
| vulgare hysopifolium,
|Humming Bird's Trumpet,
| syriacus vars.,
| hortensis vars.,
| paniculata grandiflora,
||Tree of Heaven,
||Trees for seaside planting,
|| for town planting,
| Aquifolium vars.,
|Japan Medlar, or Quince,
| pubigerum glabrum,
|June Berry, the,
||Virgilia. See Cladrastis,
| latifolia vars.,
|Kentucky Coffee Tree,
||Vitis heterophylla humulifolia,
||Weigelia. See Diervilla,
||White Bean tree,
| American Great,
||Witch Hazel, the,
|Lemon Scented Verbena,