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The Art of Living in Australia by Philip E. Muskett (?-1909)

Together with three hundred Australian cookery recipes and accessory
kitchen information by Mrs. H. Wicken, Lecturer on cookery to the
Technical College, Sydney.




DEDICATION


AUSTRALIA--ONE AND UNITED. AS AN AUSTRALIAN I DEDICATE THIS VOLUME TO
THE PEOPLE OF AUSTRALIA WITH ONE ABIDING HOPE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
ALL THE: GREAT NATURAL FOOD INDUSTRIES OF OUR COUNTRY.




PREFACE.


Although this work fully deals with all the many matters connected with
the art of living in Australia, its principal object is the attempt to
bring about some improvement in the extraordinary food-habits at
present in vogue. For years past the fact that our people live in
direct opposition to their semi-tropical environment has been
constantly before me. As it will be found in the opening portion of the
chapter on School Cookery, the consumption of butcher's meat and of tea
is enormously in excess of any common sense requirements, and is
paralleled nowhere else in the world. On the other hand, there has been
no real attempt to develop our deep-sea fisheries; market gardening is
deplorably neglected, only a few of the more ordinary varieties being
cultivated; salads, which are easily within the daily reach of every
home, are conspicuous by their absence; and Australian wine, which
should be the national beverage of every-day life, is at table--almost
a curiosity.

Nearly three years have been occupied in the preparation of this
volume, as several of the subjects it treats of have hitherto remained
practically unexplored. This statement is not intended to excuse
any shortcomings, but simply to explain the impediments which had to be
overcome. There has been some little difficulty, therefore, in
obtaining information in many instances. At the same time, it must be
cheerfully recorded that assistance was freely forthcoming on the part
of those from whom it was sought. Quite a number have been interviewed
on the topics with which they were familiar; and on several occasions
this has necessitated journeys out of Sydney on the writer's part. With
the object of making inquiries into the fish supply of Melbourne, also,
a special visit was paid to that city. And further, in order to gain an
insight into vineyard work and cellar management, an instructive time
was passed at Dr. T. Fiaschi's magnificent Tizzana vineyard on the
Hawkesbury River.

It may seem to savour somewhat of boldness, yet I hazard the opinion
that the real development of Australia will never actually begin till
this wilful violation of her people's food-life ceases. For let us
suppose that the semi-tropical character of our Australian life was
duly appreciated by one and all. If such were the case--and I would it
were so--there would be a wonderful change from the present state of
affairs. But as it is, the manners and customs of the Australians are a
perpetual challenge to the range of temperature in which they live.
Indeed, the form of food they indulge in proves incontestably
that they have never yet realized their semi-tropical environment. With
a proper recognition of existing climatic surroundings there would be
an overwhelming demand for more fish food; for something better than
the present Liliputian supply; and for the creation of extensive deep-sea
fisheries. Fish in Australia is nothing more than a high-priced
luxury, although projects for the development of the deep-sea fisheries
have been repeatedly suggested. Somehow or other we never get beyond
this stage, and as a consequence the yield from our fisheries is simply
pitiable. A widespread use of fish and an adequate fish supply would
give employment to hundreds and to thousands. As I have pointed out in
the chapter relating to this subject, the want of enterprise shown in
starting our deep-sea fisheries is an inexplicable anomaly. If the
Australian people had sprung from an inland race, this would not,
perhaps, have been so difficult to understand. But coming, as we do,
from a stock the most maritime the world has ever seen, such a defect
is not to our credit as inheritors of the old traditions.

Nor can it be pretended that market gardening has ever been taken up
seriously, if we apply the statement to Australia as a whole. It is
true that Sydney and Melbourne, and possibly Adelaide and Brisbane,
have made an attempt in this direction. But even with this
admission there is not much reason for congratulation from an olitory
point of view. Few--only very few--of the more commonly known
varieties are grown. For if the potato and the cabbage were taken away,
Australia would be almost bereft of vegetables. There are, however,
many others, which are delicious and wholesome, which are easily grown,
and which would make a pleasing addition to the present monotonously
restricted choice. And there is something even more than all this. It
is, that market gardening is a healthy and profitable calling; that it
settles the people on the land; and that it creates a class of small
landed proprietors--the very bone and sinew of any population.

In the chapter relating to Australian Food Habits it will be found that
many of these desirable vegetables are enumerated. Their good qualities
are highly appreciated on the Continent and elsewhere, and there is no
earthly reason why they should not be grown here. The history of the
introduction of the tomato into Australia is instructive in this
connection. For years and years it struggled desperately, but
unsuccessfully, for a place, and the attempt to bring it into use was
on the point of being abandoned in consequence. But at last its
undeniable merits were acknowledged, and to-day it is in universal
request. Now, it is perfectly safe to assume that the same recognition
would be awarded to many other vegetables vegetables at present
practically unknown in Australia. For instance, sweet corn--which,
however, must not be confused with Indian corn--is of exquisite
flavour, almost melting in the mouth, while it possesses also eminently
nourishing properties. It is a great favourite with Americans, and
hundreds of acres are required annually for the New York markets alone.

But if there is one desirable form of food which we should expect to
find in daily use by the whole Community, it is surely the salad. More
than this, it deserves to meet with favour as a national dish. It takes
pre-eminent rank in Southern Europe, and is certainly entitled to
occupy a similar high position in the Australian food list.
Unfortunately there is just the same story to tell, and the strange
neglect of salads can only be expressed by the term incomprehensible.
It is a waste-saving dish; it is wholesome, in that it is purifying to
the blood; it is full of infinite variety; and its low price brings it
within easy every-day reach even of the humblest dwelling. But, as
things are, even the salad plants themselves are represented by a
meagre list, and are confined to only few varieties. And as far as
salad herbs are concerned, they are literally unknown.

Now, although I am strongly of opinion that a more widespread use of
fish, vegetables, and salads in Australia would be attended by the
happiest results (both by benefiting the national health and by
developing Australia's food-industries), yet it must not be understood
that I countenance vegetarianism. So far from being a vegetarian, I am
one of those who firmly believe in the advantages derived from a mixed
diet. But my assertion is that we in Australia habitually consume an
injurious amount of meat to the exclusion of far more needed
nourishment. The golden rule as far as the Australian dietary is
concerned is a minimum of meat, and a relatively maximum amount of the
other classes of food. The influence which food exercises upon health
is a matter of far-reaching importance, in that it affects the daily
life of the whole population. Amongst others, the following medical
writers--Sir James Risdon Bennett, Dr. J. Milner Fothergill, Dr. T.
King Chambers, and Dr. J.H. Bennett--have in the past contributed much
to this subject. In the present day, Sir Henry Thompson, Sir William
Roberts, Dr. T. Lauder Brunton, Dr. F.W. Pavy, Dr. Burney Yeo, and many
more have given their advocacy to the same purpose. It is urged by all
these authorities that there is a needless consumption of animal food
even in the old country, and they all agree that an exaggerated value
is attached to butcher's meat on the part of the public. If
representative medical opinion thus protests against the use of an
unnecessary amount of animal diet in the climatic conditions obtaining
in the United Kingdom, how much more would the misuse of the
same food in a semi-tropical climate like Australia be disapproved of!
Indeed, I am perfectly certain, that were those who have given
attention to food and dietetics in possession of the facts, they would
unhesitatingly condemn the grotesque inversion of food-habits at
present in vogue throughout Australia. There is one very important
matter which unquestionably requires to have special attention drawn to
it. I refer to the customary Australian mid-day meal. Strange to say,
all through the hot season, as well as the rest of the year, this
consists in most cases of a heavy repast always comprising meat. Why,
even in the cooler months, a ponderous meal of this kind is not
required! My own views are that meat in the middle of the day is quite
unnecessary, and, indeed, during the hot months actually prejudicial.
Most people in Australia, after a fair trial, will find that a lunch of
some warm soup, with a course perhaps of some fish, and vegetables, or
salad, or whatever it may be to follow, will not only be ample, but
will give them a sensation of buoyancy in the afternoon they never
before experienced. Among the recipes will be found many which may help
to bring about a reform in this respect. The heavier meal should
certainly be towards the evening after the sun-heat of the day is over,
at which time it is more enjoyed and better digested.

Having thus far referred to our totally inadequate supply of
fish food, of vegetables, and of salad plants and herbs, there is still
the great Australian wine industry to consider. At present only in its
swaddling clothes, it is destined before very long to enter upon its
vigorous life. There was an eminent French naturalist, M.F. Peron, sent
out to Australia by the Emperor Napoleon during the years 1801 to 1804
inclusive. A shrewd observer, he saw even at that early period of
Australian history that there were unequalled possibilities for her
wine. In the course of his interesting narrations he remarks:--"By one
of those chances which are inconceivable, Great Britain is the only one
of the great maritime powers which does not cultivate the vine, either
in its own territories or its colonies; notwithstanding, the
consumption of wine on board its fleets and throughout its vast regions
is immense."

In the whole of Australia the annual production of wine is only a
little over three million gallons; but in France, as well as in Italy,
it is nearly 800 million gallons. These two countries together,
therefore, every year produce about 1,596 million gallons more wine
than Australia. These stupendous figures reveal very plainly what an
enormous expansion awaits our wine industry.

The colossal growth of the wool trade is in striking contrast to the
puny dimensions of the wine industry. In 1805 the exportation of wool
from Australia was "nil." In 1811 it reached to the modest amount of
167 lbs., while Spain exported 6,895,525 lbs. In 1861 the exportation
of wool from Australia increased to 68,428,000 lbs., whilst from Spain
it fell to 1,268,617 lbs. And lastly, in 1891 the amount of wool
exported from Australia reached the majestic figures of 593,830,153
lbs., representing a value of 20,569,093 pounds. If New Zealand be
included, the total export attains to 710,392,909 lbs., having a value of
24,698,779 pounds. It must be borne in mind that these figures represent
only the wool actually exported, and do not include that kept back for
Australian requirements. As I have pointed out in the beginning of the
chapter on Australian wine, if the latter industry had increased in
similar proportion, Australia's prosperity would be second to none in
the world.

There are some other striking figures which are well worth referring
to. The city of Paris alone requires nearly 300,000 gallons of wine
daily. Now, the total yearly wine production of the whole of Australia
is but a little over three million gallons. It will follow from the
preceding, then, that the single city of Paris itself would consume in
12 days all the wine which the whole of Australia takes 12 MONTHS to
make.

The future prosperity of Australia, at least to a very great extent, is
wrapped up in her wine industry; for its development means much more
than a large export trade to other countries. It means, in
fact, the use of Australian wine as a national and every-day wholesome
beverage; it means the covering of the land with smiling vineyards; it
means employment and a healthy calling literally to thousands upon
thousands; and, lastly, it means settlement upon the land, and a more
diffused distribution of the population throughout Australia.

It must be remembered that the nervous system is far more susceptible
to the effects of alcohol in a warm than in a cooler climate. It is
said that in Southern Europe there are very few water drinkers, but
that, on the other hand, there are very few who indulge in strong
drink. The system does not feel to want the strong alcohol, so to
speak. A weaker wine in a warm climate produces the same feeling of
exhilaration that one of greater alcoholic strength does in colder
countries. We shall not go far wrong in Australia if we stick to our
own natural wines. As it will be found in the chapter on Australian
wine, the every-day wine for Australian use is a wine of low alcoholic
strength; a wine of which a tumblerful may be taken with benefit; a
wine, indeed, which is beneficial, cheering, hygienic, restorative, and
wholesome.

By reason of his semi-tropical climate the Australian is bathed in an
atmosphere of sunshine. This has a distinct effect upon the blood, for
the action of sunlight upon this fluid is to redden it--a fact which
has for ages been dwelt upon by the poets. But for a scientific
explanation of this effect of sunlight in reddening the blood we must
turn to the spectrum analysis. The visible solar spectrum as shown
through a prism by the ordinary sunbeam is made up of the seven
different colours, namely, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo,
and violet. Instead of consisting simply of white light as a whole, it
is now universally accepted that in this spectrum different properties
belong to different parts. Light or luminous power to one portion; heat
or calorific power to another; and chemical power or actinism to a
third.

The visible solar or Newtonian luminous spectrum, resulting from the
decomposition of white light by a prism, is only the middle portion of
the whole solar spectrum. Beyond the red end there are rays possessing
still greater-heating effect; and beyond the violet extremity there are
rays endowed with far more powerful chemical action. The violet, and
especially these latter ultra-violet rays, redden the life stream by
increasing the haemoglobin--that crystallizable body which forms so
large a portion of the coloured corpuscles of the blood. Sunlight,
moreover, has not only this action upon the animal kingdom, but also
upon the vegetable world as well Plants, like celery, which are
subjected to blanching, become whitened under the process of
etiolation. This is due to the absence of chlorophyll, the
green colouring matter of plants, which can only be developed by the
presence of light. The tops of celery, being unearthed, retain their
green colour, while the stem embedded in the soil acquires its familiar
whiteness.

Many philosophical writers, notably David Hume and Charles Comte, C.
Montesquieu in his L'Esprit des Lois, and Henry Thomas Buckle in his
HISTORY OF CIVILISATION IN ENGLAND, have dilated upon the influence
which climate exerts over race, and all their forceful opinions are to
the effect that the character of a people is moulded by climatic
conditions. More than this, the same new was entertained by the classic
writers; for we find the philosopher and orator Cicero recording his
belief that "Athens has a light atmosphere, whence the Athenians are
thought to be more keenly intelligent; Thebes a dense one, and the
Thebans fat-witted accordingly." Again, Horace, the poet and satirist,
has given us the famous passage:--" You would swear he (Alexander the
Great) was born in the dense atmosphere of the Boeotians."

But the influence of climate is not confined to ordinary conditions
alone, because without the shadow of a doubt it controls disease as
well. As it is well known, certain diseases are peculiar to, and
confined to, certain regions. And, moreover, a malady will vary in its
type in different zones. Thus the disease known as rickets is
in the old country marked in many cases by bending of the bones, giving
rise to deformities of the limbs, &c. The Australian type of the
disorder, however, is milder altogether, and is of a different
character. The Australian child is straight-limbed almost without
exception, yet the Australian type of rickety disease, as I pointed out
in 1891, is quite a definite affection.

At the Congress of Naturalists and Physicians at Strasburg in 1885 the
great German pathologist, Professor Virchow, called attention to a
sphere of research in which, he alleged, neither the French nor the
English had hitherto accomplished anything of importance, namely, the
modifications of the organism, and particularly of the special
alterations of each organ, connected with the phenomena of
acclimatization. This reproach cannot be denied. We have not yet
reached the stage in Australia of noting the effect which climate has
upon the system in general, much less of inquiring into the changes
which occur in such organs as the liver, spleen, &c. But apart from
investigating the phenomena of acclimatization, it is very plain that
the people of Australia have never given any heed to their semitropical
climate, or else the food-faults now universally practised would have
been rectified long before this.

It has always been a matter of interesting speculation as to what the
characteristic type of the future Australian will be. But reflections
of this kind can only be in the right direction by bearing in mind the
ever-present climatic conditions. Climate is of all forces the most
irresistible; for, on the one hand, the Great Desert of Sahara could
not be crossed in an Arctic costume and on Esquimaux diet; nor, on the
other, could the Polar regions be explored in a Hindoo garb and on
Oriental fare. And though blood is thicker than water, yet the
resistless influence of a semi-tropical range of temperature will be to
imprint on the descendants of the present inhabitants of Australia some
marked peculiarities of skin-colour, of facial expression, of lingual
accent, and perhaps even of bodily conformation.

Quite recently an observing writer, in a keenly analytical if somewhat
facetious article, gave it as his opinion that the coming Australians
will be as follows:--"They will not be so entirely agricultural as the
Americans were; they will be horsemen, not gig-drivers. Descended from
adventurers, not from Puritans, and eager, as men of their climate must
be, for pleasant lives, they will thirst for dependent possessions, for
gardens where fortunes grow. The early Americans were men of austere
temper, who led, on an ungrateful soil, lives of permanent hardship.
They had to fight the sea, the snow, the forest, the Indians, and their
own hearts. The Australians, with a warmer climate, without Puritan
traditions, with wealth among them from the first, will be a
softer, though not a weaker people; fonder of luxury, and better fitted
to enjoy Art, with an appreciation of beauty which the Americans have
never shown. They will be a people growing and drinking wine, caring
much for easy society, addicted to conversation, and never happy
without servants. The note of discontent which penetrates the whole
American character will be absent."

From the climatic standpoint alone it is safe to predict that the
future Australian will be more nearly akin to the inhabitants of
Southern Europe than to his progenitors in the old country; though,
naturally, there will be considerable diversity between the native born
of the various regions, covering as they do such a vast extent of
territory. The ample opportunities for outdoor life will do much
towards ensuring physical development. And, finally, the imaginative
faculties will be very active, and it is quite permissible to hope that
in time there will be a long roll of artists, musicians, and poets.

As it will be seen, a considerable portion of this work is taken up
with the practical side of living, as exemplified by the Australian
Cookery Recipes. From the very first it was recognised that it was
imperative to include them within its compass. It occurred to me,
however, that this important department would better be undertaken by
someone thoroughly conversant with the subject. With this object
in view, therefore, I submitted to Mrs. H. Wicken what I required. I
knew Mrs. Wicken to be well qualified for the task from the following
facts, namely, that she had previously been successful in her culinary
writings; that she was a Diplomee of the National Training School for
Cookery, South Kensington; and that she occupied the responsible post
of lecturer to the Technical College, Sydney. My propositions were that
the recipes were to be written purely for Australian use, and that they
were to be of the strictly economical order. Mrs. Wicken accepted the
task, and it can only be hoped that her efforts will meet with the
approbation they deserve.

In their original form the three chapters on Australian Food Habits,
Australian Fish and Oysters, and on Salads, appeared in THE DAILY
TELEGRAPH, Sydney. I take this opportunity, therefore, of expressing my
sense of obligation to the Proprietors thereof for their courtesy in
permitting me to make complete use of these three contributions. As
they now appear in chapters they have been revised, considerably
altered, and materially added to, for the purposes of reproduction in
book form.

143, Elizabeth Street
Hyde Park, Sydney
September 1893




EPIGRAPH


A farmer being on the point of death, and wishing to show his sons the
way to success in farming, called them to him and said--"My children I
am now departing this life, but all that I have to leave you, you will
find in the vineyard." The sons, supposing that he referred to some
hidden treasure, as soon as the old man was dead, set to work with
their spades and ploughs and every implement that was at hand, and
turned up the soil over and over again. They found indeed no treasure;
but the vines, strengthened and improved by this thorough tillage,
yielded a finer vintage than they had ever yielded before, and more
than repaid the young husbandmen for all their trouble. So truly is
industry in itself a treasure.--THE FABLES OF AESOP.




CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I. THE CLIMATE OF AUSTRALIA. Their semi-tropical climate
hitherto unrecognised by the people of Australia--Reasons advanced for
this statement; early gold-mining era influences still at work, and
Anglo-Saxon heredities--Hot months and cooler months; temperatures of
the Australian capital cities--Fluctuations of temperature and
barometric pressure not extreme--Equability of Australian climate a
marked feature--Not many successive days of great heat--Humidity of
atmosphere in different colonies--A dry heat always preferable to a
moist heat--Duration of the different seasons, and months apportioned
to each season--Prevailing winds, and ROLE of hot winds

CHAPTER II. THE ALPHABETICAL PENTAGON OF HEALTH FOR AUSTRALIA. The
Alphabetical Pentagon a convenient form of remembering that the FIVE
essentials of health--namely, Ablution: the Skin and the Bath; Bedroom
Ventilation; Clothing; Diet; and Exercise--occur in alphabetical order

CHAPTER III. ABLUTION--THE SKIN AND THE BATH. Important and numerous
functions of the skin--The skin itself and its different parts--The
use of the scarf skin--The structure of the true skin--The
perspiration tubes--The tubes of the oil-glands--Great value of the
cold bath--Importance of the rubbing down after the cold bath--The
cold bath as a preventive of disease--The cold bath in the maintenance
of health--The warm cleansing bath--The beneficial effect of adding
salt at the end of a warm bath--Other interesting hints

Loss of hair in Australia--Structure of the hair, and its blood supply
--The hair is not a tube--Management of the hair--Singeing the hair--
Washing the hair--Description of brushes and combs recommended--Hard
rim of the hat a factor in thinning the hair--Excellent applications
for promoting the growth of the hair

Formation of the nail--Different parts of the nail--Growth of the
nail--The care of the nails

Disorders arising from loss of teeth--The preservation of the teeth--
An admirable recipe for a tooth-powder--Management of the teeth--Use
of floss silk

CHAPTER IV. BEDROOM VENTILATION. The bedroom the most important room in
the house--necessity for proper ventilation--Extra allowance of sleep
in hot climates--Crowding of articles in bedrooms condemned--Results
of breathing vitiated air--Injuriously affects the heart as well as
the lungs--The proper dimensions of a bedroom--Regulation of the
ventilation--Mosquito nettings for summer months--Fresh air equally
required in the cooler months

CHAPTER V. CLOTHING, AND WHAT TO WEAR. No clothing actually creates
warmth of itself--The varying powers of clothing to detain air in its
meshes--Two or three layers of clothing always warmer than a single
garment equal to their combined thickness--The transmission of the
body-heat to the clothes--The different fabrics are either good or bad
conductors of heat--Permeability of clothing to air--The vegetable
kingdom; the properties of cotton and of linen--The animal products;
the properties of silk and of wool--Wool one of the best materials to
wear next the skin--Recommendations for wearing woollen under-garments
--The way to prevent them from shrinking--The modern pyjamas immensely
superior to the old-fashioned bed-gown--The clothing would be modified
according to the season of the year.

CHAPTER VI. DIET--IMPORTANCE OF BREAKFAST, FRUIT, TEA, COFFEE, ICED
DRINKS, TOBACCO. Breakfast usually scampered through--Monotony of the
ordinary breakfast--A plea for something better--Butter during
Australian summer months--The ice-chest an absolute necessity--
Breakfast should be a substantial meal

Fruit fortunately abundant in Australia--The agreeable qualities of
fruits reside in three factors--Fruit must neither be over-ripe nor
under-ripe--The anti-scorbutic properties of fruit--Changes in the
blood in scurvy--Mild forms of scurvy not uncommon--Symptoms of an
excess of uric acid in the stem--A word for olives

Abuse of tea by the gentler sex--Protest against lunch of tea and
broad and butter--An admirable opportunity for philanthropic efforts--
Tea to be enjoyed, and not misused--The making of tea--The anti-tannic
teapot

The three active principles of coffee--Coffee stimulates the brain--
Coffee relieves fatigue and exhaustion, whether mental or manual--The
virtues of coffee--Coffee as a remedy in different diseases--The
details of coffee roasting--The art of making coffee--The cafetiere,
or French coffee-pot--Proportions of coffee and of chicory in "cafe
noir" and "cafe au lait" respectively--Minute instructions for making
coffee

Universal use of ice in America--Ice indispensable in hot climates--
Expert opinions upon the value of ice in India--Medical authorities
practically unanimous in favour of ice when used with discretion--
Purity of the ice must be ensured

Proportion of smokers to non-smokers--Five out of every six men smoke
--Amount of tobacco used in Australia and in other countries--The
effect of tobacco on the system provisionally divided into three
classes--The principles contained in tobacco--Different results of
combustion from a cigar and from a pipe--Effect of tobacco when it is
unsuitable--Symptoms following excessive smoking--The smokers heart--
Men of middle age often compelled to give up tobacco--Effect of
tobacco upon the palate--Power to appreciate good wine lost after the
first whiff of cigarette, cigar, or pipe

CHAPTER VII. EXERCISE. Effect of exercise upon the muscles--Exercise
removes debris from the system--Bodily health the great desideratum of
the present day--Will power increased by exercise--Exercise improves
the quality of the blood--Exercise strengthens the heart and lungs,
and benefits the nervous system--Every one must perform his own
exercise; no carrying it out by proxy--Walking six miles a day the
orthodox amount of exercise--Early morning exercise not beneficial to
everybody--It is only by exercise, and by exercise alone, that the
different organs are brought to the perfection of health

CHAPTER VIII. ON SCHOOL COOKERY, AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE AUSTRALIAN
DAILY LIFE. Enormous consumption of meat and of tea in Australia--A
contest between a semi-tropical climate and Anglo-Saxon heredities--
Progressive changes in the theories of education--The purpose of
education--School cookery instruction in England and in Australia--
Cookery in its relation to health--Cookery as a preventive of
drunkenness--Cookery in the formation of character--A national plea
on behalf of Australian school cookery

CHAPTER IX. AUSTRALIAN FOOD HABITS, AND THEIR FAULTS--A PLEA FOR THEIR
IMPROVEMENT. Food usually in harmony with climate, except in Australia
--Isothermal lines of Australian cities, Southern Europe, and southern
portion of United States--Australian food habits diametrically opposed
to climate--Lamentable state of Australian cookery--Restricted choice
of vegetables in Australia--Many other desirable vegetables never seen
here, but in great request elsewhere--No possible excuse, as they
would all do well--Extraordinary trouble in popularising the tomato in
Australia--A protest against "boiling," and nothing but "boiling," in
the cookery of vegetables--Cookery must be taught in Australian
schools--No national Australian dish, a reproach to Australia

CHAPTER X. AUSTRALIAN FISH AND OYSTERS--AND THEIR FOOD VALUE. No deep-sea
fisheries in Australia, although her people come from a maritime
stock--The defectiveness of our Australian fish supply--Our primitive
methods of fish capture--The beam-trawl in deep-sea fishing--Drift-net
and other deep-sea fishing--Benefits from the development of our
deep-sea fisheries--Fish markets--The "middleman" controversy--The
distribution of fish to the public--Fishmongers and the sale of fish--
The development of the oyster--The failure in the New South Wales and
Victorian oyster supplies--The recreation of our oyster fisheries--
The food value of the oyster--The food value of fish

CHAPTER XI. ON SALADS; SALAD PLANTS AND HERBS; AND SALAD MAKING. Salads
plainly intended for Australian use--Many people miss the present in
looking for the future--Cookery of the highest excellence amongst all
classes in France--A contrast between the English and the French
methods of making a salad--Detailed instructions for the preparation
of a French salad--Importance of a roomy and properly shaped salad
bowl--Poor display of greengrocery in Australia as compared with the
show of meat--Salad plants in great request elsewhere which might
readily be cultivated in Australia--Salad herbs indispensable to a
proper salad, but entirely unknown in Australia--A complete recipe for
the famous Mayonnaise sauce--An excellent recipe for a herring salad

CHAPTER XII. ON AUSTRALIAN WINE, AND ITS PLACE IN THE AUSTRALIAN DAILY
DIETARY. "With time and care Australia ought to be the vineyard of the
world"--Interesting facts in the early history of the vine in
Australia--Figures showing the possibilities of Australian viticulture
--The climate--The soil--"Cepage," or variety--The preparation of
the soil--Laying-out the vineyard--Whether to plant cuttings or
rooted vines--The height of the vine above the ground--On pruning--
The cellar--The gathering of she grape--Varying additions to the must
--The must itself--Fermentation--THE TASTING AND JUDGING OF WINES--
uniformity required in Australian wines--The future success of the
Australian wine industry, and upon what it depends






PART I.





THE ART OF LIVING IN AUSTRALIA




CHAPTER I. THE CLIMATE OF AUSTRALIA.



Australia, forming as it does a vast island continent in the Southern
world, lies to some extent within the tropical range, for the Tropic of
Capricorn traverses its northern part. At present, however, its most
densely populated portion lies just outside the tropics, and it is this
semi-tropical part of Australia with which we have mostly to do. And
apart, too, from the mere fact of Australia being between certain
parallels of latitude, which makes its climate tropical or semi-tropical,
as the case may be, its position is peculiar in that it forms
this enormous ocean-girt continent already described.


One of the most extraordinary circumstances in connection with the
Australian people is, that they have never yet realized their
semi-tropical environment. It would naturally be supposed that a
dominating influence of this kind would have, from the very first,
exercised an irresistible effect on their mode of living. But, on the
contrary, the type of the Australian dwelling-house, the clothing of the
Australian people, and, what is more significant than anything else, their
food habits, prove incontestably that they have never recognised the
semi-tropical character of their climate all over the rest of the world it
will be found that the inhabitants of different regions adapt
themselves to their surroundings. For instance, the Laplander and the
Hindoo live in such a widely different manner, that one can scarcely
believe they belong to the same human family.

It has, however, been reserved for Australia, strange even from the
first, to prove an exception to this universal law. Yes, strange even
from the first! For did not the earliest arrivals find that the seasons
came at the wrong time of the year; that Christmas-tide came with
sunshine, and that the middle of the year was its coolest part? Were
there not found in it curious animals, partly quadruped, partly bird,
and partly reptile? Were there not discovered, also, other animals who
carried their young in a pouch? Moreover, did Dot these first settlers
see that the trees shed their bark, and not their leaves; and that the
stones were on the outside, not the inside, of the cherries?

But even admitting these peculiarities of season, of FAUNA and of flora
it may be asked, How is it that the people of Australia have never
adapted themselves to their climatic surroundings? The answer, or
rather answers, to such an interrogation must largely consist of
matters of opinion. This being the case, therefore, I call do no more
than attempt to give my own explanation of this singular anomaly. It
must be remembered that the one great impetus to colonisation in
Australia was the discovery of gold in 1851. Up till that time
settlement had been proceeding steadily, it is true. Indeed, one may go
80 far as to say that the development of the country was progressing,
although slowly, on safe and natural lines. But the announcement of the
finding of gold, which was continually being corroborated by successive
reports, acted as an electric stimulus throughout the whole civilized
world. As a consequence shipload after shipload of new comers flocked
to Australia, all aflame with the same ardent desire--gold. Amongst
them were certainly many of the picked men of the earth, whose spirit
will leaven the whole of Australasia for all time to come. Yet even at
the present day we still see the influence of this gold period at work,
in the readiness with which men are caught by any plausible mining
prospectus. They have only to be told that a company is being formed to
extract gold out of road metal, and they are ready to believe it, and,
what is more, prepared to put money into it.

But far better than all this eagerness to amass wealth by some
fortunate COUP, would be the natural development of the country.
Agriculture and market-gardening, vine-growing and wine-making, the
deep-sea fisheries and all the other comparatively neglected
opportunities, only await their expansion into vast sources of wealth.
What wonder, then, that a continent with so much that is wanting in
connection with its food life should be living in a manner distinctly
opposed to its climatological necessities! In the case of America there
is a far different history. Settlement began there in a small way at
first, to gradually expand as time went on. There was no sudden event,
with the exception of the short-lived Californian gold rush of 1849-50,
to set men flocking to its shores in countless legions. No, in America
the inland territory has been peopled, steadily and slowly at first,
but in after years by leaps and bounds, so that its development has
been on a perfectly natural basis.

But there must be something even more than this to explain the want of
adaptation to climate shown in Australia, and it is, I think, to be
found in the following. It must be remembered that Australia has been
peopled chiefly by the Anglo-Saxon race. In such a stock the
traditional tendencies are almost ineradicable, and hence it is that
the descendants of the new comers believe as their fathers, did before
them. It's in the blood. For there can be no doubt but that the
Anglo-Saxon thinks there is only one way of living in every part of the
world--no matter whether the climate be tropical, semi-tropical, or
frigid. Those in the old country live in a certain manner, and all the
rest of the globe have every right to follow their example.

These two facts that Australia was peopled in part by the influx which
followed the discovery of gold, and that its inhabitants belong
essentially to the Anglo-Saxon race, have unquestionably exercised a
great influence over our Australian food-habits. But notwithstanding
these powerful underlying factors, there still remains that most
extraordinary circumstance, to which I at first referred, namely, that
the Australian people have never realized their semi-tropical
environment. In order to assign to this latter the prominence it
deserves, it seems desirable to make special inquiry into the
peculiarities of the climate in its different parts. With that object
in view, therefore, I wrote for certain information to the
observatories of the four principal Australian metropolitan centres,
namely, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Brisbane. As has always been
the case, I received the fullest answers to my requests from Mr. H.C.
Russell, Government Astronomer of New South Wales; from Mr. R.L.J.
Ellery, Government Astronomer of Victoria; from Sir Charles Todd,
Government Observer of South Australia; and from Mr. Clement L. Wragge,
Government Meteorologist of Queensland. And it is with a feeling of
considerable indebtedness to these gentlemen that I acknowledge their
uniform kindness. And yet it is important to remember that the annual
temperature, by itself, of any given locality may afford no indication
whatever of its climatic peculiarities. Take for instance the climate
of the North-Eastern portion of the United States. That region is
characterized by intense heat during the summer, and extreme cold in
the winter. In New York, for example, the mean summer temperature
ranges as high as 70.9 degrees, while the mean winter temperature is as
low as 30.1 degrees; yet the mean temperature of the whole year is 53.2
degrees, affording no indication of these extremes. The mean annual
temperature alone, therefore, would be entirely misleading, as it would
give no idea of these alternations of heat and cold. Such being the case,
the actual character of any climate will be far better realized by placing
in juxtaposition the mean annual temperature, the mean temperature of the
hot, and the mean temperature of the cooler months. First of all, then,
I purpose showing the mean annual temperature, and also the mean
temperatures for the hot and cooler months, of the four largest
Australian centres.


TABLE showing the Mean Annual Temperature, and also the Mean Temperatures
for the Hot and Cooler Months, of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide,
and Brisbane.

Capital.   Mean Annual    Mean Temperature     Mean Temperature
           Temeperature   for the Hot Months   for the Cold Months
Sydney        62.9               70                  58.7
Melbourne     57.5               64.9                53.8
Adelaide      63.1               72.4                58.4
Brisbane      67.74              75.2                64.3


Much will be gained by a comparison of these temperatures of the
Australian capitals with those of some other cities in different parts
of the world. A contrast of this kind will, in my opinion, help to a
truer understanding of the climate of these capitals, than any other.
Accordingly I made a successful application to Mr. H.C. Russell, for
the corresponding temperatures of the following cities: London,
Edinburgh, Dublin; Marseilles, Naples, Messina; New York, San
Francisco, New Orleans; Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.


TABLE showing the Mean Annual Temperature, as well as the Mean Summer
and Winter Temperatures, in twelve different cities.

City.              Mean Annual Temp.  Mean Summer Temp.  Mean Winter Temp.
UNITED KINGDOM
London                   50.8               62.9              39.5
Edinburgh                47.5               58                38
Dublin                   50                 61.1              40.7
. . . .

SOUTHERN EUROPE
Marseilles (France)      58.3               72.9              45.2
Naples (Italy)           62                 74.4              47.6
Messina (Sicily)         65.8               77.2              55

. . . .

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
New York                 53.2               70.9              30.1
San Francisco            56.2               60                51.6
New Orleans              69.8               82                55.8

. . . .

INDIA
Bombay                   78.8               82.6              73.8
Calcutta                 78.4               83.3              67.8
Madras                   82                 86.4              76.6


It has been said that Australia is practically Southern Europe, and to
a very great extent this is perfectly true. It will be seen, however,
on reference to the preceding tables, that the Australian climate is
more equable than that of Southern Europe, for there is not such a
marked difference between the hot and the cooler months. In the New
England States of North America, as exemplified by New York, there are
intensely hot summers and extremely cold winters--to which fact
attention has already been drawn. And lastly, in India, the thermometer
stands at such a height, winter as well as summer, that we can only be
thankful our lines are cast in more pleasant places.

Having thus compared the summer and winter temperatures of the
Australian capitals with those of other cities in different parts of
the world, it will be advisable to direct our attention to some details
connected with the climate of these capitals, and of the corresponding
colonies generally. Commencing with Sydney we find that the climate is
characterized by the absence of very violent changes of temperature,
owing in great measure to its proximity to the ocean, which in winter
is about 10 degrees warmer than the air. Its summer climate is marked by
the absence of hot winds, which do not come more than three or four times,
and the are short-lived, seldom lasting more than five or six hours.
For a short time in the midsummer of each year, Sydney is visited
regularly by moist sea breezes, which are enervating to many persons.
While these continue the temperature seldom rises to 80 degrees, but there
is so much moisture that they are very oppressive. Otherwise the climate
is one of the most enjoyable in the world. In other parts of New South
Wales towns may be found varying in mean temperature from 45.8 degrees at
Kiandra to 69.1 degrees at Bourke. Speaking generally it is a fact that
for the same mean annual temperature in New South Wales the range between
summer and winter temperature is less than it is in Europe.

The climate of Melbourne is characterized by a low average humidity,
moderate rainfall, and moderate winds, strong gales being of her rare
occurrence. The most marked feature is the summer hot wind. A hot wind
is always a northerly wind, and the highest temperature generally
occurs a little before the win changes to west or south-west. When this
takes place a sudden drop to a comparatively low temperature sometimes
follows within a few minutes. These hot winds, however, are not
frequent, only averaging eight or nine per annum. These characteristics
will apply to all Victoria except the mountain ranges, where all
the climatic elements vary with the altitude.

The climate of Adelaide is certainly healthy, and, with the exception
of the extreme heat occasionally experienced in summer, the weather may
be described as enjoyable. It must be remembered, however, that these
high temperatures are always accompanied by extreme dryness, the wet
bulb thermometer usually reading at such times from 30 to 35 degrees, or
even more, below the temperature of the air. The heat is, therefore, more
bearable than if it was combined with the humid atmosphere. When the
thermometer stands perhaps at something over 100 degrees, the wet bulb
thermometer will show 65 degrees, and it is this which enables persons to
bear the heat of the summer and carry on their usual pursuits with less
inconvenience and discomfort than is felt in tropical and damp
climates, though the temperature may be 15 or 20 degrees lower, but nearly
saturated with aqueous vapour, as at Port Darwin, where during the
rainy season of the north-west monsoon the thermometer may stand at
only 88 degrees, whilst the wet bulb at the same time indicates 86
degrees. Such an atmosphere, it need hardly be said, is far more
enervating than the hot and dry air of the Adelaide plains. The summer,
which may be termed warm and dry, usually extends over, say, five months;
and during the remainder of the year the climate is simply perfect. The
temperature in mid-winter over the Adelaide plains rarely, if ever,
reaches the freezing point, although there may be sharp frosts, and on
still clear nights, so frequently experienced, copious dews. On the
ranges, and on the high lying plains 150 miles north of Adelaide, lower
temperatures are reached, indeed in some years there have been falls of
snow.

The climatic features of Brisbane are, as a mean expression, decidedly
semi-tropical. The months from October to March may be classed as
tropic when vegetation makes luxuriant growth, especially if the
rainfall prove abundant. The rest of the year, from April to September,
is marked by a dry, bracing, "continental" climate, during which the
westerly wind often proves very cold, bleaching, and searching
accompanied by great dryness accumulated during the passage of this
current from southern-central Australia. Many settlers affirm that they
feel the peculiar searching character of the dry cold "westerlies" more
keenly than the more "honest" frost of the old country. Yet vigorous
constitutions thoroughly enjoy the bracing nature of the westerly
weather of winter. Hard ground frosts not unfrequently occur in the
Darling Downs and Maranoa districts, especially during May, June, and
July, in connection with the westerly type of climate; and, moreover,
ice has at times been observed in the water-jugs of bedrooms, &c. As
before intimated, the westerly winds are marked by great dryness, so
that (saturation= 100) a percentage of relative humidity below 33 per
cent. may occur during the prevalence of such phenomena, not only in
Brisbane, but especially in the more western districts above mentioned.
Such conditions are characterized by great diathermancy of atmosphere,
and hence are frequently followed by days of considerable heat. Even in
the tropics, in inland districts, ground frosts are known to have
occurred owing to this extreme diathermancy of the atmosphere far from
the coast, and the consequent attendant factor of active terrestrial
radiation. In coast districts, or that fringe of country bordering the
ocean north from Rockhampton, frost is of very rare occurrence, and the
prevailing winds are between south-east and east-north-east, with a
rainfall far more abundant than that obtaining in other parts of
Queensland. The climate of the country surrounding the southern end of
the Gulf of Carpentaria is very hot and trying from November to March,
but genial thenceforward. It is certainly not unhealthy, and the
fevers suffered from in the northern and gulf districts of Queensland
are largely brought on by reckless or needless exposure.

In addition to the foregoing, which has been obtained from head-quarters,
certain questions were submitted by me as to the climatology
of the different colonies. As it will be seen, these interrogations are
somewhat extensive in their scope, and supply knowledge upon points,
which is not ordinarily met with in my descriptions of Australian
climate. In drafting them everything which had a bearing on health was
included as far as possible, and consequently in a work of this kind
they unquestionably deserve a prominent place. In arranging them I
purpose placing the different replies after each question in the
following order, namely, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia,
and Queensland. And in the different answers it should be borne in mind
that Mr. H.C. Russell is responsible for New South Wales; Mr. R.L.J.
Ellery for Victoria; Sir Charles Todd for South Australia; and Mr.
Clement L. Wragge for Queensland.

IS IT NOT A FACT THAT THE TEMPERATURE AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE ARE
EXPOSED TO SUDDEN AND MARKED CHANGES? HAVE YOU KNOWN THE TEMPERATURE TO
FALL, SAY, AS MUCH AS 22 DEGREES IN 15 MINUTES?

New South Wales.--The temperature sometimes changes rapidly in the
summer, coming with a change from a hot wind to a cold southerly,
although the instances are rare. Once in 30 years I have known such a
change to amount to 20 degrees in 15 minutes. Under ordinary circumstances
the change in temperature from hot to cold wind takes several hours to
amount to 20 degrees. The fluctuations of barometric pressure are
moderate, seldom amounting to half an inch in a day, or an inch in a week.
In England, on the other hand, the pressure sometimes varies quickly to
the extent of two inches.

Victoria.--Yes; the temperature much more so than the barometric
pressure; it has fallen from a high temperature to 20 and even 30
degrees sometimes in as many minutes, when a hot north wind has
suddenly changed to a cold southerly one. But such sudden and great
changes occur very seldom, and then only in the hot summer months, and
are known as "the change." On several occasions in the last 30 years it
has fallen from 105 degrees in the shade to 70 degrees and 65 degrees in
the shade in less than an hour.

South Australia.--Yes, in the summer; but, especially as regards
temperature, rarely in the winter. One notable example occurred on
February 9th, 1887, when during a heavy thunder-storm the temperature
fell 25 degrees in 10 or 15 minutes, followed by a rising temperature. In
other instances the fall of temperature has been almost equally rapid.
From this it will be seen that we are subject to large and quick falls
of temperature following extreme heat. The approach of hot weather is
usually gradual, and the fall abrupt. The barometer has been known to
show a rise of 6/10 of an inch in 24 hours; this, however, is
exceptional.

Queensland.--There is no record of a fall of as much as 22 degrees in 15
minutes. But, on the other hand, a rise of 30 degrees in three hours is a
common feature over the Darling Downs after sunrise. Owing to the
diathermancy of the atmosphere already referred to, it is a fact,
nevertheless, that in the "continental" or inland districts of
Southern Queensland the temperature in winter is subject to sudden and
marked changes. Barometric pressure, owing to the comparatively low
latitude, is not exposed to sudden and marked changes, except during
hurricane conditions, which usually affect the central coast-line in
February and March.

AS A COROLLARY TO THE PRECEDING, WOULD YOU SAY THAT THE CLIMATE
IS MARKED BY GREAT VARIABILITY?

New South Wales.--No; just the opposite. Indeed, as regards Sydney
itself. there are few cities in which so much uniformity of temperature
and slow changes, are to be found. The cause of any great change is the
hot wind, and as that seldom comes more than three or four times in the
year, great changes are infrequent. The mean diurnal range in Sydney is
11 1/2  degrees, and taking a series of years it is very unusual for the
range on any day to reach 25 degrees.

Victoria.--No; because these are exceptional phenomena. In the late
Spring and during early summer the climate may be said to be
occasionally subject to sharp and sudden changes, which give it the
character of variability. But the deviations from mean temperature,
except for short periods, are not remarkable.

South Australia.--Yes, in summer; but not in winter.

Queensland.--Certainly not; with the exception of the wide diurnal
range of temperature in winter in the southern "continental" districts,
as at Cambooya and Thargomindah. The changes are, according to my
knowledge, far more sudden and marked in the southern colonies (as
during a "shift" from N.E. by W., to S.W. for instance, at Melbourne,
and especially at Adelaide) than in Queensland and its coastal
districts.

WITH REGARD TO SUSTAINED, PROLONGED, OR CONTINUED HIGH TEMPERATURES
DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS, FOR HOW MANY DAYS HAVE YOU KNOWN THE
TEMPERATURE REMAIN CONTINUOUSLY AT A HIGH LEVEL? THIS IS A VERY
IMPORTANT QUESTION, AS IT CONCERNS INFANTILE MORTALITY IN NO SMALL
DEGREE; I SHALL BE GRATEFUL FOR YOUR EXPERIENCE?

New South Wales.--Much depends upon what temperature is deemed a "high
level." If we assume that 90 degrees and upwards is a high level, then
such periods are very rare in Sydney; in fact during the past 24 years
there have only been three. In 1868 there were three consecutive hot
days of which the mean temperature was 91.8 degrees; in 1870 a period of
four days with a mean temperature of 91.3 degrees; and in 1874 a period of
four days with a mean temperature of 90.2 degrees. Since then, although
sometimes near it, the temperature has never been for three days over 90
degrees. Taking a lower level, we have one period of nine days in 1870,
the longest on record, during which the mean temperature was 82.6 degrees.
It must, however, be distinctly understood that what is here taken is not
the mean temperature of each 24 hours, but the highest temperature
reached during the day, and which would not as a rule last more than
three or four hours, if so much. If the mean temperature of the day
were taken these temperatures, as given, would have to be reduced at
least 10 per cent.

Victoria.--It is very unusual to have a hot period lasting more than
three days; when it does happen it is generally in February or March.
In the majority of cases high temperatures (over 90 degrees) do not last
more than one or two days. The exceptions generally occur in February or
March, and have sometimes extended to four or five days hot weather,
with a temperature of over 80 degrees with a maximum of about 90 degrees,
has on a few occasions during the last 30 years extended from five to ten
days; and in 1890, a memorable instance, to 12 days (the only case for 37
years).

South Australia.--The longest stretch of continuous heat noted was in
January and February 1857. On January 28th, 29th, and 30th, the
temperature exceeded 100 degrees, and during the whole of February it was
over 90 degrees on 25 days, and above 100 degrees on 12 days, the mean
being 107 degrees. In January 1858 there were 10 consecutive days over 90
degrees, of which eight consecutive days were over 100 degrees. In January
1860 there were in the beginning of the month seven consecutive days,
above 100 degrees (maximum 107.5 degrees). In the middle of the same
month, seven days were over 90 degrees, of which five exceeded 100
degrees, two days reaching 113.7 degrees. These are, however, exceptions
to our usual experience. Although there are several other instances of
great heat, yet the foregoing will suffice to show what we occasionally
suffer without much harm being done.

Queensland.--During the period February 17th to February 23rd, 1891,
the shade temperature at Townsville ranged between 81 degrees and 62
degrees, but at Cairns a range between 82  degrees and 70 degrees is of
frequent occurrence, within at least fortnightly periods.

ANY INFORMATION WITH REGARD TO HUMIDITY OF THE ATMOSPHERE ALSO, WILL BE
OF GREAT VALUE. ALL PHYSICIANS ARE OF OPINION THAT A HIGH TEMPERATURE,
COMBINED WITH MOISTURE, IS VERY IRRITATING TO THE LUNGS OF THOSE
AFFECTED WITH PULMONARY DISEASE.

Before setting forth the different answers in response to this, it will
be desirable to refer briefly to the term "humidity." The humidity of
the atmosphere is defined as the degree of its approach to saturation.
Air completely saturated is represented by 100, and that absolutely
free of vapour by 0. As a matter of fact, however, the latter never
occurs; even in the driest regions of Arabia a humidity of 10 per cent.
is almost unknown. For its estimation the Wet and Dry Bulb thermometers
are employed. These consist of two ordinary thermometers. One has its
bulb exposed so as to register the temperature of the air. The bulb of
the other is covered with muslin; this latter material being kept wet
through its connection with a cotton wick dipping into a vessel of
water. The water ascends from this vessel by capillary attraction,
spreads over the muslin, and evaporates quickly or slowly,
according to the dryness or moistness of the atmosphere. Thus when the
air is driest the difference between the two thermometers will be
greatest, and, on the contrary, when it is completely saturated with
moisture the two readings will be almost identical.

New South Wales.--A considerable part of the colony, forming the
western plains, is subject to great heat, caused, no doubt, by the
sun's great power on treeless plains, and the almost total absence of
cooling winds; yet, although in summer the temperature here frequently
rises over 100 degrees, and sometimes up to 120 degrees, owing to the cold
at night and in winter the mean temperatures are not greater than those of
corresponding latitudes in the northern hemisphere. This region of the
colony is remarkably dry, and stock of all kinds thrive well and are
very free from disease. At Bourke, the driest place in the colony, the
humidity for a long series of years is--in the spring 51 degrees, in the
summer 49 degrees, in the autumn 61 degrees, and in the winter 74 degrees.
At Sydney the humidity in the Spring is 69 degrees, in the summer 70
degrees, in the autumn 79 degrees, and in the winter 79 degrees.

Victoria.--The humidity of the air of Melbourne is low, the average
being 71 per cent. In the summer it falls to 65, and on hot days is
generally very low. The characteristic of our hot weather is that it is
usually extremely dry; the exceptions are very few, and occur in the
late Spring and early autumn during thundery, muggy weather. On the
hottest days, with north winds, the dryness makes the heat much more
endurable, and the humidity frequently falls to between 30 and 40 per
cent.

South Australia.--Attention has already been drawn to the fact that
the hot, dry air met with on the Adelaide plains is far more endurable
than a lower temperature in which the atmosphere is surcharged with
aqueous vapour. A damp atmosphere is a rare thing in South
Australia during the summer, though in March there are at times some
warm and humid days. In the winter the air for the most part is dry,
although the nights are often damp. The Mount Lofty Ranges, close to
Adelaide, afford a cool retreat; they have a very large rainfall, in
some years over 50 inches. The climate at Mount Gambier, in the
south-eastern part of the colony, is cooler and damper; it has also a much
heavier rainfall than the Adelaide plains.

OF WHAT DURATION ARE THE DIFFERENT SEASONS, AND TO WHAT MONTHS WOULD
YOU APPORTION EACH SEASON?

New South Wales and Victoria.--Spring--September, October, November;
Summer--December, January, February; Autumn--March, April, May;
Winter--June, July, August.

South Australia.--Spring--September, October; Summer comprises the
five months from November to March inclusive; Autumn--April, May;
Winter--June, July, August. Practically, in South Australia the year
may be divided into two seasons, namely, Spring, the seven months from
April to October inclusive; and Summer, the five months from November
to March inclusive.

Queensland.--With regard to Southern Queensland, the seasons may be
provisionally apportioned as follows: Spring--August, September,
October; Summer--November, December, January, February, Autumn--
March, April, May; Winter--June, July.

WHAT ARE THE PREVAILING WINDS, AND WHAT PARTICULAR ROLE DO THE HOT
WINDS PLAY?

New South Wales.--A general statement is not sufficient, for the winds
vary much at different places; but taking the colony as a whole, its
prevailing winds come from some point between north-west and
south-west, and hence the dry climate. In Sydney no less than 39.6 per
cent. of the wind comes from this quarter. The winds known as southerly
bursters are generally to be expected from November to the end of
February; they are always attended with strong electrical excitement, a
stream of sparks being sometimes produced for an hour at the
electrometer. The approach of the true burster is indicated by a
peculiar roll of clouds, which, when once seen, cannot be mistaken. It
is just above the South horizon, and extends on either side of it 15
degrees or 20  degrees, and looks as if a thin sheet of cloud were being
rolled up like a scroll by the advancing wind. The change of wind is
sometimes very sudden; it may be fresh N.E. and in ten minutes a gale
from S. Hence vessels not on the look-out are sometimes caught unprepared,
and suffer accordingly. When a southerly wind commences anywhere south of
Sydney it is at once telegraphed to its principal coast towns, and a
signal put up indicating its approach. As to the hot winds, they are so
insignificant in number that it cannot be said they play any particular
ROLE. Their effect is to raise the temperature, because they flow from
the heated interior of Australia; but they do not last long. and for
the majority of people are dry, healthy winds. Indeed, they are by no
means so oppressive as the warm north-east wind, so charged with
moisture, which comes in the summer.

Victoria.--In summer the N. winds blow to the extent of 8 per cent.,
the S.W. winds 24.1 per cent., and the S. winds 201 per cent.
Northerly, or warm-quarter winds, in summer are 20 per cent., and
southerly, or cool-quarter winds, 64 per cent. The northerly winds in
winter, however, are bleak and cold, like easterly winds in England.
The particular ROLE played by the hot wind is to precede a cyclonic
movement, and is always in front of a low pressure area or V-shaped
depression. It is frequently followed by thunderstorms and rain
of short duration. It dries the surface and raises dust storms when
strong. So far as its effects on the people are concerned, it does not
appear to hinder the ordinary occupations of life. Some invalids are
better during its continuance, some worse; but all weakly people feel
some depression after "the change" comes. The aged are generally better
in hot winds, unless they suffer from disease.

South Australia.--As far as the southern regions of the colony are
concerned, we may say, speaking generally, that light winds and calms
are a very distinctive characteristic. The prevailing wind in the
summer is the S.E., varied by sea-breezes during the day. In the winter
there are mostly dry, cold N.E. winds, broken at intervals by westerly
and S.W. gales of moderate strength, squalls, and rain. The best and
heaviest rainfalls are those which set in with the surface winds at
N.E., the rain increasing in intensity as the wind veers to N.W., and
breaking up into showers and squalls as it veers to S.W. In the
interior, north of, say, latitude 30 degrees to about 18 degreess., the
prevailing wind all the year is the S.E. North of latitude 18 degrees to
the north coast the country is well within the influence of the north-nest
monsoon during the summer months, with frequent thunderstorms and heavy
rains; and during, the winter dry S.E. winds prevail.

Queensland.--Eastern Queensland (or rather the Pacific Slope) is very
seldom troubled with hot winds. The hot winds of "continental"
Queensland are always very dry, and are usually accompanied by dust
storms.




CHAPTER II.



THE ALPHABETICAL PENTAGON OF HEALTH FOR AUSTRALIA.


A few introductory remarks on this subject will serve a useful purpose.
It will be seen that I have referred to the alphabetical pentagon of
health--which is purely a provisional arrangement of my own. It
consists of five headings, which fall naturally into alphabetical
order. They are best considered, therefore, in the following way,
namely:

* (a) Ablution--the Skin and the Bath.
*
* (b) Bedroom Ventilation.
*
* (c) Clothing.
*
* (d) Diet.
*
* (e) Exercise.
*

This is a convenient method of remembering the five great fundamental
principles concerned in the preservation of health. It will serve,
moreover, as a means of impressing them upon the memory, superior to
any other with which I am acquainted.

This very number five, indeed, has a more than ordinary significance
belonging to itself. It has been termed a mystical number. "Five," says
Pythagoras, "has peculiar force in expiations. It is everything. It
stops the power of poisons and is redoubted by evil spirits." According
to the Pythagorean school of philosophy, the world is a piece of
harmony and man the full chord. The major chord consists of a
fundamental or tonic, its major third and its just fifth. The eighth
note, or complement of the octave, is the diapason of man. These are of
course very highly imaginative speculations. It is interesting to
remember, however, that the system of astronomy first taught by
Pythagoras was afterwards developed into the solar system by
Copernicus, and is now received as the Copernican system. But, turning
from grave to gay, we find that five wits have been described, viz.,
common sense, imagination, fantasy, estimation, and memory. Of these,
common sense passes judgment on all things; imagination brings the mind
to realise what comes before it; fantasy stimulates the mind to act;
estimation has to do with all that pertains to time, space, locality,
etc.; and memory is "the warder of the brain." Then again, have we not
also the five senses of seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, and
tasting? Have we not likewise five fingers and five toes on either hand
and foot? Moreover, is not fives an ancient and hollowed game, still
popular wherever the English language is spoken, and is not its name
derived from its being played with the "bunch of FIVES," namely the
hand? And further, there must be numbers of Australians who know well
what "five-corners" are. In addition to the foregoing, the number five
has an important historical and legal association in connection with
the Code Napoleon. Prior to Napoleon's time, different ways and customs
prevailed in different parts of France, and altogether legal matters
were in a chaotic state. It was greatly to his credit, therefore that
he recognised the necessity for the entire alteration and remodelling
of the whole system. But what was more striking than the recognition of
the existing, defects was the speediness with which they were
rectified, for the CODE NAPOLEON was devised and actually in operation
between 1804 and 1810.

It consisted of FIVE parts, namely the "Code Civil," dealing with the
main body of the private law; the "Code de Procedure Civile"; the "Code
de Commerce," dealing with the laws relating to commercial affairs; the
"Code d'Instruction Criminelle "; and finally, the "Code Penal."
It is recorded that Napoleon was prouder of this than of his victories.
"I shall go down to posterity," he said, "with my Code in my hand." The
best proof of its excellence is that to-day it remains in force as the
law of France (though it has been re-christened the "Code Civil" under
the Republic), and that it has been the model for many Continental
Codes, notably Belgium, Italy, and Greece.

But, leaving, these references to the many associations attached to the
number five, it must not be supposed that my desire is to make people
unnecessarily timorous about themselves on the score of health. This is
certainly not my intention, for such a frame of mind would defeat the
very object I have in view. Yet there still remains the fact that a
little rational attention is indispensable if the vigour of the body is
to be maintained at its best. There is a very great difference between
carefulness carried to extremes in this respect, on the one head, and a
heedlessness and total disregard of personal health, on the other. The
golden mean between these two is the proper knowledge of what is
required for the preservation of health, and so much conformity thereto
as will give the best results. And yet it must be remembered that no
cast-iron code can be laid down which would be applicable to one and
all. No; idiosyncrasy, that personal peculiarity which makes each
individual different from every one else, is too potent a factor to be
ignored. In matters of this kind, each one, to a certain extent, is a
law unto himself, and, consequently, what agrees and what disagrees is
only discoverable by the individual concerned. In what follows,
therefore, I have endeavoured to lay down rules for guidance which will
be beneficial to by far the greatest number; although this element of
the EGO must never be forgotten.




CHAPTER III.



ABLUTION--THE SKIN AND THE BATH.


It has been estimated that the external skin of an ordinary adult is
equal to an area of about twelve square feet, and that in a tall man it
may be as much as eighteen square feet. There is a considerable
difference between twelve square feet and twelve feet square, and it is
well to mention the fact in order that there may be no confusion. From
this large surface alone, therefore, it is quite easy to see that the
skin requires to have some attention paid to it. But it is really far
more important than even its extensive surface would be likely to
indicate, for it fulfils no less than seven different duties. In the
first place it serves as an external covering to the body, and, as we
shall see also, the internal skin acts as a support to the internal
organs. Secondly, it is endowed with an extensive system of nerves,
which give rise to the sensations of touch, of temperature, of
pressure, and of pain. In this way we can tell whether a substance is
rough or smooth, and whether it is hot or cold; we recognise, moreover,
the difference between a gentle pressure of the hand and one so
forcible as to cause pain. Thirdly, the skin, as we shall find farther
on, contains thousands of small tubes for the purposes of perspiration,
and besides this, there are other tubes secreting, an oily substance.
Fourthly, the skin plays an important part in regulating the
temperature of the body. Thus in a warm atmosphere the skin becomes
reddened and moist, and much heat is lost; on the other hand, when the
air is colder the skin becomes pale, cool, and dry, thus conserving the
body heat. Fifthly, the respiratory action of the skin must not
be forgotten, although it is nothing like so great as that of the
lungs. Nevertheless quite an appreciable amount of oxygen is absorbed
through the skin, and beyond all question carbonic acid is exhaled from
it. Sixthly, it is an absorbent; that is to say, the skin is capable of
absorbing into the body certain substances applied to it. In this way
remedies are often introduced into the system by what is known as
inunction. And lastly, the skin is a great emunctory, and carries off
waste matters from the body. Accordingly it acts as a purifier of the
blood, in which it assists the kidneys, intestines, and the lungs. And
more than this, it often happens that the turning point in any disease
is announced by a sudden, profuse, and markedly offensive perspiration,
as if a considerable amount of deleterious and noxious matter has
suddenly expelled from the system.

From the foregoing it is evident that the skin has many varied and
important duties to perform. As we might expect, moreover, an organ
with such functions is of complicated structure. Its component parts,
therefore, deserve to have some little attention paid to them, since
the importance of the skin from a health point of view will then be all
the more appreciated. The skin is most conveniently considered under
three divisions--the skin itself; the glands, producing perspiration,
oil, and hair, which are found within it; and the appendages belonging
to it, the hair and the nails. The skin itself may be described as the
soft and elastic tissue which invests the whole of the surface of the
body, and consists of two layers, the outer or scarf skin, and the
deeper or true skin. The interior of the body is likewise lined with a
covering, which is termed mucous membrane, from the fact that from its
surface, or from certain special glands within it, or from both, there
is constantly being secreted a thin semi-transparent fluid called
mucus. At the various openings of the body, as the mouth, the
nostrils, and other parts, the external and internal skins are
continuous with one another. Indeed, at these apertures the mucous
membrane, or internal skin, takes leave of absence from the world to
line the cavities within the body. So that, as Professor Huxley
expresses it, "every part of the body might be said to be contained
within the walls of a double bag, formed by the skin which invests the
outside of the body, and the mucous membrane, its continuation, which
lines the internal cavities."

The use of the scarf skin is manifestly to protect the more delicate
true skin, while at the same time it allows the waste products and
used-up material to escape from the body. In the substance of the true
skin are thousands of minute little bodies called papillae, which are
specially concerned in the sense of touch, for the vast majority of
these papillae contain the end of a small nerve. The numberless fine
ridges seen on the palmar surface of the hands and fingers, and on the
soles of the feet, are really rows of these papillae, covered of course
by the layers of the outer skin. The supply of blood to the skin is
also very plenteous, each of its innumerable papillae being abundantly
supplied in this respect. As a proof of the amount of blood circulating
within the skin, and of its extensive nerve supply, it is only
necessary to mention the fact that the finest needle cannot be passed
into it without drawing blood and inflicting-pain. In addition to the
foregoing the skin also contains a countless number of very fine tubes,
which penetrate through its layers and open on its surfaces by minute
openings called pores. There are altogether three different varieties
of these tubes distributed throughout the skin, namely, those intended
for perspiration; secondly, those which lead from the oil glands; and
lastly, those which enclose each hair of the body. The first of these,
which carry away the perspiration from the body, are very fine, the end
away from the surface being coiled up in such a way as to form a
ball or oval-shaped body, constituting the perspiration gland. The tube
itself is also twisted like a corkscrew, and widens at its mouth. It is
estimated that there are between 2,000 and 3,000 of these perspiration
tubes in every square inch of the skin. Now, as we have already seen,
the external skin of an ordinary adult is equal to an area of about
twelve square feet, and in a tall person it may be as much as eighteen
square feet. The number of these tubes, therefore, in the whole body
will be many hundreds of thousands, so that it will readily be seen how
exceedingly important it is that they should be kept in thorough
working order by cleanliness. The two great purposes fulfilled by the
perspiration are the removal by its means of worn-out or effete
material which is injurious to the system, and the regulation of the
heat of the body by its influence. When it is stopped by any reason,
such as catarrh or disease, the skin fails in its work, and the noxious
matters, instead of being expelled from the body, are thrown back into
the system. Hence there is a good deal of truth in the belief that a
freely acting skin is always a safeguard against disease.

The second variety of tubes, those which furnish an oily-like fluid to
the skin, resemble in--great part those which serve for the office of
perspiration. At the extremity away from the surface of the body, each
one has a gland, the oil gland, which secretes the oily material. The
pores or outlets which open on the skin, however, are a good deal
larger than the similar orifices of the perspiratory tubes, but they
are not distributed so equally throughout the body. In certain parts of
the skin they are especially numerous, as on the nose, head, ears, and
back of the shoulders. The unctuous matter which is secreted by these
oil glands is intended to keep the skin moist and pliant, to prevent
the too rapid evaporation of moisture from the surface, and to act as a
lubricant where the folds of the skin are in contact with each
other. At times in these oil tubes the contents extend to the opening
on its surface; the part in contact with the air then becomes darkened,
and forms the little black spots so frequently seen on the face of some
persons. The white, greasy matter which is thus contained within the
tubes can often be squeezed out with the fingers or a watch key, and on
account of its shape and black end is popularly supposed to be a grub
or maggot.

The tube into which each hair of the body is inserted differs
materially from the two preceding, in that its function is more
restricted. It serves to form a sort of sheath which contains each
hair, and is called the hair follicle. Usually one of the last
described ducts opens directly on the side of the hair follicle, and
its secretion serves the purpose of keeping the hair pliant. It will be
more convenient, however, to enter into a fuller description of the
hair and hair follicle when be come to speak of the hair, the nails,
and the teeth.

Having thus gained some knowledge of the structure of the skin, and of
its delicate formation, it will be the more readily understood why
strict attention to the bath is necessary to produce a healthy frame.
There is a continual new growth of scarf skin going on, and there are
likewise the secretions from the perspiration ducts and oil tubes being
poured forth. The outer skin which has served its purpose is being
incessantly cast off in the--form of whitish looking powder, but
instead of being thrown clear from the body it clings to it and becomes
entangled with the perspiration and oily material, thus forming an
impediment to the free action of the skin. If the pores of the latter
be obstructed and occluded in this manner, the impurities which should
be removed from the system cannot escape, and have therefore to be
expelled by some other channel. Hence the work of removing this impure
and deleterious material is thrown upon the liver, bowels, or
kidneys, and often results in their disease. In our warm climate, where
the skin acts more freely than it does in colder latitudes, the use of
the bath is certainly indispensable, if the health of the body is to be
maintained at all.

The cold bath, at any rate during the summer months, should always be
there before breakfast, but in the cooler part of the year the shock
may be lessened, if it be desirable, by using tepid water instead of
cold. And since there is, as we have seen, a good deal of oily matter
excreted by the skin, it becomes necessary to use something in addition
to water for cleansing purposes, for the latter is unable to displace
the greasy collection by itself. The only thing which will render it
easy of removal is soap, as by its action it softens the oily material
and dislodges it from the skin. Soap has acquired an evil reputation
which it certainly does not deserve, and if it disagrees it is either
due to the fact of its being an inferior article, or else the skin
itself must be at fault. The best soap to use is the white, not the
mottled, Castile, as it is made from pure olive oil. By the proper and
judicious use of soap the skin is kept soft and natural, and the
complexion is maintained in the hue of health.

Even in the matter of washing the face, there is a right way and a
wrong way of doing it. The basin should be moderately filled with water
and the face dipped into it, and then the hands. The latter are to be
next well lathered with soap, and gently rubbed all over the face,
following into the different depressions, such as the inner corners of
the eyes and behind the ears. It is quite a mistake, however, to apply
the lather to the inside of the ears, as it seems to favour the
formation of wax; the different depressions and canal of the ears can
be very well cleaned by means of the finger tips moistened with water.
The face is then to be dipped into the water a second time and
thoroughly rinsed, but it is better to pour away the soapy water
for the rinsing. Many people apply the soap to the face by means of a
sponge or bit of flannel, and do not wash the soap thoroughly off with
fresh water before drying with a towel. The hands unquestionably make
the softest and most delicate means of bringing the lather completely
into contact with the surface of the skin and, besides this, the amount
of pressure to be applied can also be regulated to a nicety. The face
and neck should always be carefully and thoroughly dried by means of a
suitable towel. But for the ears something of a softer material, such
as a clean handkerchief, is more convenient in following out the
various hollows and the canal itself.

Many houses, and fairly sized houses too, are destitute of a bath, and
if there is no room for the erection of one, or if the means for having
it built are not forthcoming, it becomes necessary to see what cheap
and efficient substitute can be made. A sponge bath, or large tub, with
a bucket of water and a good-sized sponge, can readily be obtained,
even in the most humble dwelling, and answers as well as can be wished.
When the body is simply sponged over with tepid water it makes one of
the mildest baths that can be taken; but those who are in ordinary
health can well lather them selves over with soap and cold water, and
then wash it off with some squeezes of the sponge copiously wetted with
the water.

Next in order to the sponge bath comes the plunge bath, and with either
of them the face should always be washed first, in the manner
previously directed, so as to prevent a rush of blood to the head. In
taking a bath, whether it be the sponge or the plunge bath, plenty of
water should always be dashed over the front of the chest, for it makes
one hardier and less susceptible to the effects of cold. In fact,
besides acting as a preventive to attacks of common cold, it really
strengthens the lungs, and renders the body more capable of
resisting disease. If in addition a little cold water is habitually
sniffed up the nostrils at the time of taking the bath it will have
many a cold in the head. After coming out of the bath the towels should
always be used to thoroughly dry the body, and it is certainly better
to have two for the purpose. The two towels should be sufficiently
large in size, at least five feet in length and of ample width;
anything smaller is altogether useless. One of them should be of some
soft absorbing material so as to thoroughly dry the body, while the
other should be rougher, to use with friction to the skin. In fact,
this rubbing down with the rougher towel is in some respects the most
important part of the bath, and there should always be enough friction
to get the skin into a glow. If there is not this feeling of reaction,
but a decided chilliness, it is a sure sign that the bath is not
agreeing, and one with tepid water must be substituted, or else it will
have to be stopped altogether for a time.

But although there may be a certain proportion of people whom the cold
bath does not benefit, yet I am fully convinced that the number is
comparatively speaking small. A good many make the excuse that they
cannot take it, while all the time laziness is the real trouble. Once
the advantages derived from the cold bath are experienced, all the
objections raised vanish into thin air. Not only is there that feeling
of exhilaration which abides with those who habitually employ it, but
it is to be remembered that its greatest value consists in the immunity
which it confers against diseases of the catarrhal type. The effect of
the cold bath is to give tone to the whole system, and to brace up the
body. But it does more than this; by maintaining the functional
activity of the skin, the liability to catch cold is greatly lessened.
There are many explanations given of the phenomena which occur in
"taking cold." They are believed, however, to arise from a disturbance
of the heat-producing forces of the body. As it has been already
pointed out, the skin is the great temperature-regulator of the body.
Accordingly this latter all-important duty is best promoted by keeping
the functional activity of the skin in full swing. The prevention of
catarrh means, therefore, a healthy action of the skin, and for this
nothing is so good as the daily cold bath. The praises of the latter
are well sung in the following extract: "Those who desire to pass the
short time of life in good health ought often to use cold bathing, for
I call scarce express in words how much benefit may be had by cold
baths; for they who use them, although almost spent with old age, have
a strong and compact pulse and a florid colour in their face, they are
very active and strong, their appetite and digestion are vigorous,
their senses are perfect and exact, and, in one word, they have all
their natural actions well performed."

The beneficial effects which follow the daily cold bath have been thus
dwelt upon because I believe that in Australia the greatest good to the
greatest number would follow its use. At the same time, however, it is
necessary to remember that there are some persons, and some even
apparently robust persons, who can never take them. Such baths, also,
are injurious to those who are pale and bloodless, or those who suffer
from a tendency to congestion of the internal organs--excepting under
medical advice. And, in addition, it must also be remembered that warm
baths have claims for consideration from a cleansing point of view, and
a few words upon them in this respect will not be thrown away. Now, the
daily use of the cold bath, together with the assiduous application of
soap, may be sufficient to keep the skin cleansed from impurities. Yet
as a matter of fact this will the more certainly be ensured by a weekly
--or, better still, bi-weekly--warm cleansing bath. The best time to
take it is before bedtime, so that there is no risk of taking a
chill afterwards. After the body has been well lathered over with soap,
and this has been thoroughly washed off, the cleansing process may be
then considered as completed. It is next recommended that two handsful
of common salt should be added to the warm water, and the body steeped
therein for a minute or two. The particles of salt pass into the skin
so firmly that they cannot be removed even by the most vigorous
rubbing. In this way the functions of the skin are stimulated to a
considerable degree; the process of nutrition throughout the body
greatly promoted; and the liver roused to action. From this it is easy
to understand why hot sea-water baths are so beneficial.

There is another effect of the warm bath which deserves to be well
remembered, for it has an historical association. It is related of the
great Napoleon, that after a day's fighting, instead of indulging in a
night's rest, he would take a warm bath. It was so efficacious that he
was enabled to begin his exertions almost immediately. The explanation
of this lies in the fact that when the mascles are tired out and the
vigour of the body diminished, the hot bath rouses the circulation and
renews the worn-out tissues. In the same way, after a night's dancing,
twenty minutes or so in a warm bath, and a couple of hours' sleep, will
be almost as good as a whole night's rest. In addition to the
foregoing, however, it must not be forgotten that the warm bath, or to
speak more correctly the hot bath, is a true medicinal agent. It is
used in many cases of disease, especially those in which the skin is
inactive. A feverish cold is often nipped in the bud by a hot bath at
bedtime; a free perspiration usually follows, and thus relief is
obtained. In some forms of rheumatism and gout, too, the hot bath is of
signal benefit. There are many cases of a spasmodic nature, also, in
which it is of great value. At the same time it must be borne in mind
that the hot bath, when used to an excess, tends to induce a
debilitated condition.


THE HAIR.


The loss of hair is so frequent in Australia, at least amongst the male
population, that it requires a little consideration; and apart
altogether from this, the whole subject is one of extreme interest, so
that some reference to the actual structure of the hair and the
hair-follicles is called for. The roots of the hair are formed in the
hair-follicles, which may be described as little pear-shaped bags,
formed either in the true skin or in the cellular tissue beneath it. Each
hair-follicle, hair-sac, or hair-pit, as it is variously termed, bulges
out at its deeper part, contracting to a long narrow neck as it passes
to its skin. Near the surface of the latter the follicle widens out
again, and it is from this part that the hair emerges. As it has been
previously mentioned, a duct from one of the oil glands usually opens
into each follicle. At its very bottom, also, is the papillae or little
mound-like elevation. This protrudes into the follicle, and from it the
hair is formed.

The blood supply for the hair is very abundant. There is a complete
system of blood vessels encircling every one of the follicles, and
besides this each papilla has a special distribution of blood to
itself. That part of the hair lying within the hair-follicle is called
the root. The lower end of the root, which swells out into a knob,
named the bulb, is concave in shape underneath, so as to fit on top of
the projecting papilla. The shaft is the long stem of the hair, while
its extreme end is termed the point.

By the aid of the microscope it may be seen that the hair itself on the
outside is covered by a layer of scales--the cuticle--overlapping one
another like the tiles on the roof of a house. Beneath the cuticle is
the fibrous part, consisting of many cells closely packed
together. In many instances the fibrous part takes up the whole
interior, but in the centre of the coarser hair there is the medulla or
pith, composed of very minute cells. From this it follows that the hair
is not a narrow tube, as is commonly supposed. This mistake has arisen
from the fact that, when viewed transversely, the colour of the central
and outer part of the hair is different.

Having in this way become acquainted with the actual structure of the
hair and of the hair-follicles, it will be desirable to consider
somewhat briefly the management of the former. We have already seen
that the skin requires a good deal of attention in order to ensure the
perfection of bodily health. And although the hair does not fulfil such
an important function, yet, on the other hand, it must not be
neglected. Even on the score of appearance alone, it has much claim for
attention. Many people would be vastly improved in this way were they
only to visit their hairdresser more frequently. It is very unsightly,
to say the least of it, to see the hair straggling all over the back
and sides of the neck, and the beard (if a beard be worn) with a wild,
untidy look. Besides this, in our semi-tropical climate, a little more
care in this respect would be certainly conducive to coolness and
comfort.

But in addition to these considerations, there is another very cogent
reason why the hair should be more often attended to; and it is the
fact that if it be kept of an ordinary length, somewhat frequent
cutting promotes its growth. There is more than one reason given as an
explanation of this; indeed, there are at least three. In the first
place, the shorter the hair the less it is dragged on in its roots;
secondly, its roots are prevented from becoming blocked at the mouth of
the hair-follicles--and lastly, the weight of the hair is considerably
lessened. From this it will be obvious that it is not the actual
cutting of the hair in itself which is so beneficial in invigorating
its growth, but that, by reason of the cutting, certain results follow
which strengthen it greatly.

We have just seen that the accumulations of DEBRIS and other material
at the roots of the hair are prejudicial to its growth. It must not be
inferred from this, however, that incessant washing of the scalp, by
removing these collections, is a good thing. Now, it is advised by some
that the hair should be wetted daily at the same time the bath is
taken. But as a general rule this is a mistake; only those who have a
superabundance of natural oil can afford to carry out such a practice.
With the great majority of people it is absolutely detrimental to the
growth of the hair to wash it oftener than once a week. After washing
the head, the hair should be thoroughly dried. Many attacks of
neuralgia, especially in the fair sex, are due to the effect of getting
into a draught while the hair is still wet.

There are several points to be borne in mind in connection with the
growth and preservation of the hair. With many persons the scalp is
very tender and will not tolerate vigorous brushing. In such instances
the brush should always be a soft one; indeed, a hard brush cannot be
recommended under any circumstances. The teeth of the comb, also,
should never be so sharp as to irritate the scalp, nor should they be
set too closely together. A certain amount of brushing is necessary to
keep the scalp and hair in healthy action, but it must never be carried
to excess. Singeing the hair is greatly believed in by a number of
people, and in some cases it appears to be of benefit. Many believe
that singeing seals up the cut ends of the hair, which they affirm
bleed when cut. This has no foundation in fact, however, for, as it has
already been explained, the hair is not a tube. A hard, unyielding
covering for the head is not at all suitable; the lighter and
more ventilated the head-gear the better. But, the truth is, a sensible
and suitable head-covering for Australian use has yet to be devised.
Thinning of the hair, and even actual baldness, are not unfrequently
started by the hard rim of the hat employed. This mechanically
interferes with the supply of blood to the scalp, and thus it is that
the crown suffers most in this respect, since it is the more starved of
blood.

As I have previously shown, the hair often suffers from want of natural
oil. The investigations of Liebreich have shown that this is closely
allied to lanolin, which is the purified fat of sheep's wool. Moreover,
it has been found that this lanolin is the very best substitute for the
former. It is, however, too sticky to be used alone as a pomade.
Accordingly, Dr. Allan Jamieson, of Edinburgh, a very high authority on
diseases of the skin and hair, advises that it should be mixed with oil
of sesame in the following proportions:

Oil of sesame....1 drachm.

Lanolin..........2 ounces.

This may be conveniently perfumed with a few drops of oil of bergamot,
oil of orange blossom, or oil of rosemary. For the preservation of the
hair, therefore, it should be trimmed short; the scalp kept clean, but
not overwashed; and the hair, if naturally dry, lubricated by the
foregoing pomade. These must be supplemented, also, by taking care that
the head-covering is not too heating, that the rim of the hat is not
too hard, and that irritation of the scalp by hard brushes and fine
combs is strictly avoided.

If the thinning of the hair has progressed to a more advanced stage,
other measures will have to be adopted. The most useful application
which I know of to restore growth is the following. It is a formula
given by Messrs. Squire, the well-known chemists of London, and has had
an immense sale extending over many years.

Cantharidine (the best) 1 grain.

Acetic ether            6 drachms.

These are to be dissolved together; then add;

Rectified spirit        3 ounces.

Castor oil              1 ounce.

As with the pomade, this is best perfumed by the addition of about 20
or 30 drops of oil of bergamot, oil of lavender, oil of orange flower,
or oil of rosemary, as fancy dictates. The bottle should be kept
tightly corked, and a little of the preparation rubbed well into the
hair-roots daily. If it create any irritation after two or three days'
use, it is best to wash the scalp with a little warm water and soap.
The pomade which has been recommended may be afterwards employed for
two or three days till the irritation has subsided, when the
application may be renewed. A better plan still is, from the first, to
use the hair restorer on one day, and the pomade on the next,
alternately. This foregoing application is of course not infallible,
but it will be found to do more good in a greater number of cases than
any known preparation.


THE NAILS


From the fact that the nails are in reality appendages of the skin,
they are naturally entitled to some brief consideration. Beneath the
nail is the matrix, that part of the true skin from which the nail is
formed. The matrix has not a perfectly smooth surface, but is arranged
in 8 scries of parallel ridges with alternating grooves. The nail is of
a rosy pink colour, because it is transparent enough to let the blood,
circulating beneath, be seen through it. Near the root is a little
crescentric-shaped white portion called the lunula. The growth of the
nail takes place from below. It cannot grow backwards, since it is
confined in a groove. But as the fresh cells form they gradually thrust
the whole nail forward, till at last it requires paring. As a matter of
fact, however, the nails really require more attention than they
usually receive. The finger nails should be trimmed into a bow shape,
and the corners rounded off, while the skin near the root of the nail,
which tends to grow over the lunula, should be repressed into position
by means of any suitable appliance. On the contrary, those of the feet
should be cut squarish in shape, with a hollowed-out centre, so as to
prevent the nail from ingrowing.


THE TEETH


It is not my purpose to enter fully into all the details concerning the
teeth, but there are one or two matters of great importance connected
with them which require a few words. There are many people, beginning
to get on in years, perhaps, who have had the misfortune to lose many
of their teeth. The first thing that happens is an inability to
masticate their food; and, before long, indigestion sets in, with all
the evils attendant on its train. These unfortunates know that they
have indigestion; the pain and discomfort after food tell them that.
They do not know, however, that all their sufferings arise solely from
their want of teeth. They begin to lose flesh, and get altogether in a
bad way. But if they can be induced to apply to a competent and skilful
dental surgeon, they are properly fitted with what they require, and
the consequence is their sufferings almost immediately cease. They
begin to enjoy their food, and before long their whole appearance is
transformed into one of health. In the opinion of all dental
authorities, when the natural teeth are lost, artificial substitutes
unquestionably conduce to health and comfort.

It is quite deplorable to see what little interest people take
in the preservation of their teeth; even those who should know better
are in too many instances quite as neglectful. But the teeth play a
very important part in the thorough division of food, and if this be
not ensured the health is bound to suffer. They should be kept
scrupulously clean, therefore, and the formation of tartar prevented.

These two objects are best accomplished by their thorough cleansing
with a moderately stiff brush. Too soft a brush is insufficient for the
purposes of removing the accumulations which collect upon the teeth. A
tooth-powder or dentifrice of some kind will also be required. One of
the simplest, and possibly also one of the very best, is composed of
the following:

Powdered borax                1/2 an ounce.
Powdered orris root           1 ounce.
Powdered white Castile soap   1/4 of an ounce.
Precipitated chalk            3 ounces.
Oil of cloves                 2 drops.
Oil of winter green           1/2 an ounce.

This leaves nothing to be desired, and will be found satisfactory in
every respect.

It is customary to dip the tooth-brush into water, so as the better to
enable it to take up the dentifrice. But it will be found an advantage
if, after dipping the brush into water, it then be rubbed once or twice
over a piece of white Castile soap. It will by this means pick up a
larger amount of the powder. The teeth should be attended to after each
meal, although cleansing them the last thing at night is an important
duty, never on any account to be neglected. It must not be imagined,
however, that even the foregoing is sufficient. Particles of food,
which the brush fails to remove, collect between the teeth, and, if
allowed to remain, ultimately lead on to decay. This is most likely to
occur when the teeth are crowded close together in the jaw. But
under all circumstances, whether the teeth be closely set together, or
whether they be more widely apart, a piece of floss silk should be
passed between them daily, so as to remove any adherent particles, and
at the same time to thoroughly cleanse the sides of the teeth.




CHAPTER IV.



BEDROOM VENTILATION


Now, if all houses were built in accordance with the requirements of
modern sanitary ideas, there would be but little difficulty in
grappling with the problem of bedroom ventilation, for the sleeping
apartment would be a well ventilated room, with all the latest
contrivances, such as Tobin's ventilators, for the admission of fresh
air. But as the greater number of people have to live in rented
dwellings in which the rooms are very small, it becomes necessary to
know what can be done to remedy existing defects. In the first place
the bedroom should always be upstairs if possible; it is decidedly
healthier, and there is a better chance for the supply of fresh air.
The very worst room in the house that could be chosen for a sleeping
apartment would be one on the basement. Then again, a fireplace in the
bedroom is a priceless boon, and it is almost impossible to rectify
such a deficiency. But as too many rooms are built without it, we are
compelled to look to the window for our air supply. It is estimated
that nearly one-third of every person's life is devoted to sleep; that
is to say, about one-third of it is spent in the sleeping apartment. It
is only natural, then, that this room and its surroundings should merit
some special attention. As a matter of fact, from a health point of
view, it should receive more consideration than all the rest of the
house put together, for during our waking hours; we are moving about
and constantly changing our location; but during sleep, when life is in
abeyance to a certain extent, the system has passively to receive and
be supported by whatever pure air the bedroom happens to
possess. If, as too often is the case, that chamber is looked upon as a
sort of cupboard, where, amongst other things, there is room for a bed,
so much the worse for any one who has to sleep there. If the sleeper
arises in the morning in a dazed and semi-suffocated state and quite
unfitted for the day's work before him, instead of feeling refreshed,
there is no occasion to seek far for the cause. For the mental toiler,
also, it is equally important that the period devoted to the
restoration of brain material and the imbibition of a fresh supply of
nerve power for the ensuing day's requirements should be passed under
circumstances the most favourable for bestowing them.

From this we see that a due amount of sleep, under favourable
circumstances as regards ventilation, is necessary both for brain and
muscle; and that, in fact, unless it be forthcoming, there will be an
inability for either brain worker or muscle user to properly fulfil his
duties next day. But in addition to this there is still the fact that
we have to do with the semi-tropical climate of Australia. It will be
as well, therefore, to make reference to what has been said on the
subject as far as India is concerned. Sir Joseph Fayrer, whose opinion
on such matters must always carry respect, in the course of an address
on the preservation of health in that country, went on to say: "It is
very important that you have good sleep, for nothing in the hot weather
more refreshes or invigorates you. Early rising is the rule in India,
and I advise you to conform to the usual practice."

Sir James Ranald Martin, another authority on Indian affairs, in
commenting on the prevention of disease, also calls attention to the
need for extra sleep, which is always required in hot climates. He
points out that by giving the frame a thorough and complete rest from
the great stimulus of heat, both tone and vigour are imparted--
providing for the requirements of the coming day, as well as repairing
those of the preceding. The general truths contained in the foregoing
apply equally to Australia, and during the hot summer months,
therefore, it must not be forgotten that an extra allowance of sleep is
quite indispensable.

In a great many cases the space under the bed is regarded as an
admirable receptacle for a collection of boxes, parcels, hat-boxes, old
boots, and other interesting relics, while they are effectually
concealed from view by a species of curtain reaching from the bed to
the floor. The drapery which thus hangs down is dignified by the name
of a "valance," and though originally intended for the purpose of
embellishment and ornamentation, it is better that decorative art
should be more limited in its application, so as not to interfere with
the free circulation of air throughout the room. The sleeping apartment
is also considered as being particularly well adapted for the storage
of old clothes, and consequently garments of this description are not
hidden away, nor furtively concealed, but are triumphantly exposed to
gaze in various parts of the room. Indeed, the more obtrusive they are,
the better the purpose of the bedroom is believed to be served. If it
could be only understood how these unnecessarily occupy the air space
of the room, and interfere with its ventilation, this sort of thing
would never be tolerated for a moment.

And while on the subject of the accumulation of useless articles in a
bedroom, it seems fitting here to devote a few words to another kindred
matter, namely, the hoarding up throughout the house of what may
literally be designated as lumber. It is astonishing what a number of
utterly valueless things are allowed to remain in nearly every
household, and it is well remarked that no one ever knows what a
collection of rubbish he possesses till he has occasion to remove.
There may not be much to be ashamed of in the first load or two of
furniture, but at the latter end there is a strong feeling that a dark
night would be more adapted for moving--the darker the better. At
least every twelve months there should be a regular clearance of worn-out
articles, and that miscellaneous collection of odds and ends which
can be of no earthly value to anybody, unless he be an antiquary.

Let us now go on to consider what ill effects result from the breathing
of vitiated air. In his work, A Manual of Practical Hygiene, Professor
Edmund A. Parkes has pointed out: "When air moderately vitiated by
respiration is breathed for any period and continuously, its effects
become complicated with those of other conditions. But allowing the
fullest effect to all other agencies, there is no doubt that the
breathing of the vitiated atmosphere of respiration has a most
injurious result on the health. The aeration and nutrition of the blood
seems to be interfered with, and the general tone of the system falls
below par. Of special diseases it appears pretty clear that affections
of the lungs are more common." The volume of air inhaled and exhaled by
the adult in the twenty-four hours averages 360 cubic feet, or 2,000
gallons, while the amount we take in the shape of liquid or solid food
does not amount probably to more than 5 1/2 pints, which is equal to
only 1-3000th part of the volume of air passed through the lungs. From
this it will be seen how necessary it is that such a large amount of
air should be perfectly fresh and wholesome, for the lungs act as a
pair of immense sponges or absorbers. When the ventilation does not
allow of a continuous supply of fresh air it smells close, and is
surcharged with an increased amount of carbonic acid, while the noxious
exhalations from the breath and lungs deposit themselves throughout the
room. Nor are the ill-effects of impure air confined to man alone, for
it is well known that cows, horses, sheep, and other animals, when
penned up in close quarters, show an increased death-rate from many
diseases.

But though it is perfectly plain that badly ventilated sleeping
apartments tend greatly to the production of diseases of the lungs, it
is not generally understood by the greater number of persons that
diseases of the heart are brought on by similar conditions, and there
is without doubt a great increase of heart diseases at the present
time. It is estimated that upwards of 10,000 people in England alone
die yearly from affections of the heart; yet, taking into consideration
the ceaseless work of that organ (in the words of the motto upon
Goethe's ring, "Ohne Rast"--without rest), it is wonderful that it is
not more frequently diseased. It is said that "the heart is a small
muscular organ weighing only a few ounces, beating perpetually day and
night, morning and evening, summer and winter; and yet often an old
man's heart nearly a hundred years of age is as perfect and complete as
when he was a young man of twenty" (Haughton).

The effect of impure air in its action on the heart is thus spoken of
by Dr. Cornelius Black: "I showed the effect of impure air in promoting
the degenerative tendency in the structures of the heart, and
especially those of the right side of the heart, after the age of
forty. I was then led to a passing consideration of the baneful
influence produced upon the heart by badly-ventilated houses, schools,
manufactories, pits, theatres, underground railways, and all places of
a similar character." "The impure atmosphere of the bedrooms of the
poor, and indeed of many of the middle class, caused by deficient
ventilation, proves a sharp spur to the degenerative tendency
manifested by the heart, and especially by the right side of the heart,
after the age of forty." "I hold that the breathing of impure air is a
fruitful source of disease of the right side of the heart occurring
after middle age. How many people ignorantly favour its occurrence by
confining themselves to closely shut, non-ventilated, stuffy, sitting
rooms, in which the carbonic acid has accumulated to a poisonous degree
in the air they respire! How are these evil results to be prevented?
The simple answer is, let the rooms in which you live be effectively
ventilated by an incoming current of fresh air, and so arranged that no
draught shall be felt."

Sanitarians who have devoted a good deal of time and study to the
working out of questions relating to the amount of fresh air in
bedrooms have decided that each person should, if possible, have at
least 1,000 cubic feet of space, or in other words, the same amount
contained in a room 10 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 10 feet high. It is
also estimated that the amount of fresh air entering into a room of
this size should be 3,000 cubic feet per hour, that is, the air in each
room should be completely changed three times every hour. These
observations of course apply only to the least amount of air which
every sleeper is strictly entitled to. As a matter of fact, however,
any more than this is simply of distinct advantage as far as health is
concerned. The bedroom, instead of being the smallest room in the
house, as it too often is, should be really the very largest. Now it
has been previously stated that foul or vitiated air collects in a
sleeping apartment unless there be a continuous circulation of fresh
air; and that the noxious exhalations from the breath and skin
constitute the chief sources of air pollution. The practical point to
discover is how to have this continuous circulation of fresh air
throughout the room without causing a draught. Before considering this,
a few words on the position of the bed itself will possibly be
appropriate. It is always better to have it standing more in the centre
of the room with its head against the wall, than to have it jammed
alongside the latter. And it certainly should have placed north and
south if the shape of the room admits of it. The wire-wove mattress is
of great advantage both for comfort and for coolness; and here in
Australia, during the summer months, proper mosquito nettings are as
necessary as the bed itself. If the bed is provided with a head-piece,
as it should be, there is no difficulty in fitting on the netting.

Every bedroom window should be made to open freely, and what other
defects exist--such as the smallness of the apartment, or the absence
of a fireplace--can be remedied to a great extent by means of the
window. In many instances the bed is placed so near the latter that
when it is open there is a strong draught playing directly on the bed,
and this is an evil which must be avoided. In such case, to rectify
matters, raise the bottom window a few inches, and have a piece of
board made to fit in under it, so as to support the sash and fill in
the space between it and the sill. The air freely enters the room
between the two sashes, because the top of the lower sash is by this
contrivance raised above the lower part of the upper one. Another great
advantage is that the air is directed upwards to the ceiling by having
to come in over the lower sash, and thus a gentle current of fresh air
is constantly being circulated throughout the room without creating any
draught. There are other devices to attain the same end, such as having
apertures cut in the glass of the windows, but they are not so
effective, so inexpensive, nor so simple as the preceding. In
bedrooms there are the long French windows leading on to a balcony, and
where such is the case the air current can be regulated to a nicety by
having only one of the window-doors open, and directing the ventilation
away from the bed. Many people prefer to sleep with the door itself
open, and by having a PORTIERE or certain suspended outside, privacy
can be ensured, while an upright screen standing at the head of the bed
will effectually ward off any cold currents of air. In our summer
weather there is but little difficulty experienced in regulating the
air supply, for there is generally a desire to have as much fresh air
as possible. Far too many people, however, look upon the bedroom in the
light of an oven, where they are to be baked during the hours of
repose, and this is the case even during the summer. In the cooler
parts of the year they are apt to forget there is just as much
necessity for fresh air as in the warm months.

Soiled or dirty clothes should not on any account be allowed to remain
in the sleeping apartments, as they are a constant source of foulness
to the air. All unclean linen ready for the wash had better be kept
away from the bedroom in one of those long baskets which stand upright
and are furnished with a lid. They are admirably adapted for the
purpose, and may be obtained for a few shillings from any of the
institutions for the blind, where they are made by the inmates. A word
of advice, by the way, to those about to travel on a long voyage, is
never to forget one of those canvas bags for the soiled clothes: they
are invaluable at sea.




CHAPTER V.



CLOTHING, AND WHAT TO WEAR.


It is worth considering somewhat minutely what are the requisites of
perfect clothing, and what properties our different kinds of wearing
apparel possess. Without doubt any reflection on the question of what
is usually worn and what ought to be worn is not only of considerable
interest generally, but of great moment likewise from a health point of
view. It cannot be maintained too strongly that the question of the
proper material for a suitable covering for the body takes a footing
nearly equal to the very important one of diet itself. Now, there is no
form of clothing which on its own account creates heat, or has the
property of bestowing warmth upon the body, but the difference in it
consists in its power of preventing the escape of the body heat. These
qualities in the different varieties of wearing apparel will depend to
a great extent upon the thickness of the materials, and also upon the
varying power which they possess in detaining air within their meshes.
It is this latter property of retaining the air, which is warmed by
contact with the body, in their interstices, which constitutes the
great difference in the various clothing materials. This is also an
explanation of the well-known fact that loose garments are always
warmer than tightly fitting ones, for in the former there is the layer
of warm air in contact with the body, which has no opportunity for
existing in the latter. In the same way two or three layers of
under-garments will always be warmer than a single one, equal to their
combined thickness, since there is a separate layer of air between each
of the thinner ones.

All the differences in the various fabrics are due in chief part
to the properties of heat. The ordinary or normal temperature of the
human body is between 98 degrees and 99  degrees Fahrenheit, while that of
the air will vary considerably, according to the climate and locality.
Each individual, therefore, must be regarded as a material, though living,
object which is enveloped in a surrounding atmosphere. As such, heat
will conform to certain fixed laws in its relations to the two bodies.
It is always a definite fact that when two bodies in contact with each
other are of different temperatures, they tend to become of equal
temperature. The warmer will part with its heat to the cooler, and the
latter will in like manner reduce the temperature of the former. By
covering, then, the surface of the body, it is prevented from giving
its heat directly to the air, for the clothes intercept it by absorbing
the heat themselves.

In the second place the clothes prevent a too rapid escape of heat from
the body, and by keeping a layer of warm air in contact with the skin,
they preserve the body heat. Again, the various materials used to
clothe the body vary much as to the readiness with which they conduct
heat; accordingly we speak of good and bad conductors of heat. A bad
conductor, such as wool, will keep the heat of the body from escaping
to the sir, and thus forms warm clothing, while a good conductor like
cotton will lead away the heat quickly and prove cooler.

As said before, the texture of the material--that is, the size of its
meshes--which allows air to pass more or less freely through it, also
exercises a greater effect upon clothing. No healthy clothing is
absolutely air-proof, the access of the air through it being necessary
to our health and comfort. Thus oil-skin and mackintosh, which are
air-tight as well as water-tight, make most people feel very
uncomfortable.

In addition to their texture or permeability to air, and to
their conducting or non-contracting powers, fabrics also vary according
to their hygroscopic qualities. By hygroscopic is meant the power of
absorbing moisture; thus a thin flannel is one of the coolest materials
we can have, for it absorbs perspiration; while linen, which is
non-hydroscopic, when moist allows the fluid to evaporate rapidly, and
thus cools the body too quickly, and therefore dangerously. Hence flannel
is a most suitable fabric in which to take exercise, as there is less
danger of taking a chill.

There are four chief materials to be considered in connection with
clothing, namely--cotton and linen, which belong to the vegetable
kingdom, and silk and wool, which are obtained from the animal world.
These four, either in their own form or else in combination with each
other, such as merino, constitute most of our wearing apparel. Cotton
is the fine, soft, downy material of a hairy nature which is found on
the seeds of a certain plant, the cotton plant, which belongs to the
mallow family. Its fibres are flattened in shape, and are twisted at
intervals. The form of the fibres has an important effect in the action
of cotton material on the skin. Being of a flattened shape, they have
sharp edges, which in delicate skins are apt to cause irritation.
Cotton wears well, it is not absorbent of moisture nearly to the same
extent as linen, nor does it conduct away the heat of the body so
quickly as the latter, hence it is a warmer material than linen. On the
other hand, it does not retain the heat against the body like wool, and
is an appropriate material for dress in hot climates. In merino there
is a mixture of about one-fifth to one-half part of wool with cotton.

Linen, the other product of the vegetable kingdom, is obtained from the
fibres of the common flax. Its fibres, unlike those of other
fabrics, are distinguished by their roundness and their freedom from
stiffness. These properties give to it that peculiar softness which
makes it so agreeable to the feel, and comforting and soothing to the
skin. But, on the other hand, it has certain characters which are a
drawback. As was stated before, it differs from cotton in that it is
cooler, but unfortunately it absorbs moisture from the body quickly,
and becomes saturated with perspiration. This is removed so quickly by
the action of the external air, causing rapid evaporation, that there
is great danger of a chill.

The next material in alphabetical order is silk, and it is also the
first product of the animal world to be considered. As is well known,
it is obtained from the cocoon of the silk-worm. The fibres of this
material are round in shape like those of linen, and they are even
softer than the latter. On this account the phrase "as soft as silk"
has passed into a saying. It is softer to the feel than either cotton
or linen, and is a bad conductor of heat, as it has little tendency to
remove the heat from the body. It is therefore a warmer material than
either of them; but, on the other hand, from some peculiar action
caused by the slightest friction against the skin, it seems at times to
cause irritation, and draw the blood to the surface. In many instances
the flow of blood is 80 severe as to set up an eruption of the skin,
and there is often so much irritation and intolerable itching produced,
that the garment has to be left off.

Last, but not least, of the quartette under consideration comes wool,
and it is just one of those materials whose place it would be almost
impossible to fill. It is obtained from the sheep, and is one of our
chief productions in Australia. Unfortunately it is somewhat irritating
to some skins, and many persons will declare that they cannot bear the
feeling of anything woollen. Another objection may be taken to
it on cosmetic grounds, and it certainly is difficult to make a flannel
garment look attractive; but still, with a little taste in the way of
bordering, this may be overcome to a great extent. On the other hand,
it has great advantages which none of the foregoing fabrics possess,
and which have been already referred to.

Having thus minutely and scientifically examined into the properties of
the various clothing materials, it will clearly be seen that the one
which possesses the greatest advantages with the least possible
disadvantages is wool. Hence it is to be chosen in preference to all
other fabrics for wearing next the skin, because it wards off all risk
of a chill striking the body. Its disadvantages, as said before, are
mainly two, the first being that some declare it is impossible to wear
it next the skin on account of its causing irritation; this, however,
can only apply to new flannel, since after two or three washings it
feels as smooth as the most fastidious skin could desire. The next
objection, that it cannot be made to look attractive or ornamental, is
to a certain extent true; but if it is simply a question of health
VERSUS appearance, those who would sacrifice the former deserve to
suffer. In this matter we may learn a wrinkle from a practical class of
men, namely, sailors. One will find many of them pin their faith on the
virtues of an abdominal flannel bandage, reaching from the lower part
of the chest well down to the hips. It thus covers the loins and
abdomen, and for warding off attacks of lumbago and muscular
rheumatism, and for protecting the kidneys, it certainly is valuable.

A flannel under-garment reaching from the neck well down to the hips
should always be worn, and in summer it may be of a thinner material
than in the cooler weather. It is better to have four made, so that two
can be washed at a time. In this way two can be in use every
week, changing them day by day, so that one is getting thoroughly aired
while the other is being worn. The one which is being aired should be
turned inside out, so that the part which has been in contact with the
skin becomes thoroughly purified. It must be remembered, however, that
flannel is very liable to shrink from repeated washings. This may be
provided for by taking care that the under-garment, when first
obtained, is several sizes too large. In fact, it can hardly be too
large at first, especially in the case of the thicker one for the
cooler months, which shrinks much more proportionately than does the
thinner one for the hot season. This shrinking, however, can to a great
extent be presented by paying attention to the following points: These
woollen under-garments should be washed by themselves not with any
other clothes, in only moderately hot water. Next, while they are still
damp, and before becoming dry, they should be thoroughly stretched upon
a table and then well ironed out.

With regard to the sleeping apparel, there is no doubt the modern
pyjamas are a great improvement on the old-fashioned bedgown. They are
more thoroughly protective to the skin, and keep the extremities
uniformly warm, which the latter fails to do. They are better made of
flannel, thin in summer and thicker in winter. Persons who are in the
habit of wearing woollen material next the skin during the day should
certainly keep to the same at night, otherwise the change is too great,
and there is thus great risk of taking a chill. The flannel under-garment
which has been worn during the day can then be taken off at
night without any danger, and has the opportunity of being aired. It
might hardly seem necessary to refer to this fact, namely, that the
under-garment which has been worn during the day should be taken off at
night. Yet I can only say that instances in which this
particular garment is never taken off at all, but is worn continuously
both night and day, perhaps for a whole week at a time, are not
altogether so rare as they might be.

In conclusion reference may be briefly made to a subject which is
probably within the experience of everyone. There ale many people who
pride themselves on not requiring any extra clothing during the colder
months, and evidently look upon this fact as a proof that they possess
Spartan powers of endurance, and that cold is a matter of perfect
indifference to them. Now, it may be that a few individuals differ
essentially from the rest of humanity, and do not require any change of
clothing all the year round. But the majority of people who profess
this disregard to climate certainly appear as if they would be all the
better for warmer material, for their faces look pinched and their
hands seem nearly frozen with the cold. But the fact is that even if
the want of thicker clothing is not particularly felt during the cold
weather, it is always wiser to wear an extra allowance, for the heat of
summer can be endured better if this principle is carried out. If a
common-sense view of the matter is taken, then it will be readily
apparent why it is desirable to wear plenty of warm clothing during the
colder months.




CHAPTER VI.



DIET


The larger part of this work is taken up with a consideration of the
most suitable diet for those living in Australia. In this way a greater
restriction in the amount of butcher's meat is counselled, while a more
widely extended use of fish, vegetables, and salad plants is advocated.
And as far as beverages are concerned, Australian wine of a low
alcoholic strength is recommended as being the most natural beverage
for every-day use. But there are a few other matters connected with
food, and drink, and daily habits which will deserve some little
reference, and accordingly they will be dealt with. These are fruit,
tea, coffee, iced drinks, and the use of tobacco. All these are
important enough to merit notice; indeed, they are subjects possessing
more than usual interest.

Before proceeding to give attention to these, however, it will be most
convenient, at this stage, to make some remarks upon the vital topic of
the first meal of the day. With the great bulk of our population
sufficient heed is never given it, and yet it is of infinite
consequence. By far the greater number of people dawdle in bed till the
last possible moment, when all at once they jump into their bath--that
is, if they take a bath--swallow a hasty breakfast, and make a frantic
rush for their steamer, train, or tram, in order to begin their daily
work. How very much better than all this bustle, hurry, and scuttle an
hour's earlier rising would be! It would afford ample time for the
bath, which should be a bath in the truest sense of the term; it would,
above all, give a proper opportunity for a leisurely breakfast, which
is in every respect the most important meal of the day; and
lastly, it would save that wild dash at the last, which is so fatal to
proper digestion and well-being.

But it is a sad fact that, in most cases, even when there is due time
given to it, the monotony of the ordinary breakfast is almost
proverbial. With regard to the average household it is a matter of deep
conjecture as to what most people would do if a prohibition were placed
upon chops, steak, and sausages for breakfast. If such an awful
calamity happened, many the father of a family would have to put up
with scanty fare. It is very much to be feared that the inability to
conceive of something more original for the morning meal than the
eternal trio referred to is a melancholy reproach to the housekeeping
capabilities of many. To read an account of a highland breakfast, in
contradistinction to this paucity of comestibles, is to make one almost
pensive. The description of the snowy tablecloth, the generously loaded
table, the delicious smell of the scones and honey, the marmalade, the
different cakes, the fish, the bacon, and the toast, is enough to
create a desire to dwell there for a very prolonged period. However,
REVENONS A NOS MOUTONS; this has been adverted to, not so much with the
idea of urging people to copy such an example, because expense would
render it an impossibility, but to try and awaken a determination to
make more variety at the breakfast table. It is to be hoped that some
of the recipes at the end of the volume will serve as a means of
initiating a reform in this respect.

But under all circumstances, whether brain or muscle be employed by the
bread-winner, a substantial breakfast is of first-rate importance.
There is one form of food which it is especially necessary should
constitute part of the meal, and which must be referred to. This is
that variety known as the hydro-carbons or fats. The value of
fat, in any of its many forms, in promoting the health of the body and
preventing the onset of wasting diseases is hardly appreciated, and
besides this action it markedly serves to nourish the brain and nervous
system. Dr. Murchison, the late eminent physician, was wont to declare
that bacon fat or ham fat was worth a guinea an ounce in the treatment
of wasting diseases. Cod liver oil, also, has a wide repute in the
treatment of the same class of maladies. Indeed, it is related of an
eminent barrister that he used to take a full dose of cod liver oil
some time before going to plead an important case, for he found it
better brain food than anything else.

In our semi-tropical climate, however, a dislike is often taken to
butter when it is presented at breakfast in the form of semi-liquid
grease. It would require a person with the stomach of an ostrich to
digest, to say nothing of relish, such an oleaginous compound during
our hot months. But if this necessary and all-important article of diet
can be presented in an appetising shape, what a desirable result is
achieved I The mass of the people--I am not referring to those who are
well endowed with worldly gifts--are apt to look upon the ice chest as
a luxury which is altogether beyond their means. But, as I have said
elsewhere, I am firmly persuaded that if the price of ice were brought
down to one-halfpenny per pound, and if a company were formed to
deliver such a small quantity as six pounds per day, or every second
day, it would be a great boon, and moreover a wonderfully profitable
speculation. A very small and suitable ice chest could be constructed,
to sell at a few shillings, solely to preserve the butter in a
congealed, and therefore palatable, state, for children as well as for
adults. The former would take it with great avidity, and the benefit to
health resulting therefrom would be incalculable. Even in some
of the better-class houses ice is looked upon too much as a luxury, and
not, as it should be, a necessity; indeed, the money saved from gas
during the summer months might well be expended in ice.

Not only is this fatty breakfast a necessary feature in the diet of
everybody, particularly of the young and growing population, but it is
likewise a most important matter with all brain workers. If the
business or professional man can put in a liberal breakfast, consisting
largely of butter, fat bacon or ham, he can go on all day with a
feeling of energy and buoyancy. It is in this aversion to fatty matter,
in any shape or form, that the bilious and dyspeptic are so fearfully
handicapped. And not only is it necessary for an active mental worker
to be supplied with a good proportion of fatty material, but, as I have
just said, it is essential that his breakfast should be a substantial
one, in which his food is not stinted in any way. As Dr. Milner
Fothergill said: "I would always back a good breakfaster, from a boy to
a game cockerel; a good meal to begin the day is a good foundation."
So, too, Mr. Christopher Heath, the well-known London surgeon, in his
advice to house surgeons and other medical officers living in
hospitals, says, "the first symptom of \`knocking up,/' is an inability
to eat breakfast," and goes on to point out how important a meal it is,
and that it should be taken deliberately and without undue haste.


FRUIT


It is undoubtedly a most fortunate thing for us in Australia that fruit
is so abundant, and that it is easily within the reach of all. There is
something wonderfully attractive about it; its colouring in particular
appeals so to the eye that a good show of well-assorted fruit is always
certain to ensure attention. Many fruits, moreover, have a
magnificent fragrance which lends to their agreeable taste. It is
somewhat of a pity that fruit is not more ordinarily eaten at meals,
particularly with the breakfast. There is an old proverb that fruit is
gold in the morning, silver at noon, and lead at night; and it is
undoubtedly a fact that it is especially beneficial when eaten early in
the day. In France, fruit is a constant part of every meal, and there
is no question but that such a proceeding is desirable. It was formerly
the custom with English people at regular dinners to have dessert on
the table all through the courses, but it is now more customary to
present it at the termination of the repast, so that it is quite fresh
and not saturated with odours absorbed from the soup, fish, etc.

The agreeable qualities of fruits may be said to reside in three
different factors. First, there is the proportion of sugar, gum,
pectin, etc., to free acid; next, the proportion of soluble to
insoluble matters; and thirdly, the aroma, which, indeed, is no
inconsiderable element therein. This latter quality--the aroma,
fragrance, or perfume of fruit--is due to the existence of delicate
and exquisite ethers. These subtle ethers Are often accompanied by
essential oils, which may render the aroma more penetrating and
continued. Those fruits like the peach, greengage, and mulberry, which
almost melt in the mouth, contain a very large amount of soluble
substances. Some fruits, like the peach and apricot, carry but a small
amount of sugar as compared with the free acid they contain. Yet the
free acid is not distinctly perceptible, because its taste is covered
by a larger proportion of gum, pectin, and other gelatinous substances.
There are other fruits again, such as the currant and gooseberry, which
are markedly acid, because there is only a small amount of gum and
pectin, and a relatively larger amount of free acid.

With regard to fruit when eaten in its raw state, the question
of ripeness is a most important ones and is always to be considered; so
that whatever views may be entertained as to the dietetic value of ripe
fruit, there is a consensus of opinion on the fact that when unripe it
is most injurious. Care must be taken, therefore, to see that it is
perfectly ripe, and no considerations of economy must be allowed to
over-ride the fact. At the same time, though ripeness is a necessary
qualification of wholesomeness, yet fruit must not be over-ripe, as
changes occur which render it undesirable for the system, and thus in
avoiding Scylla we may fall into Charybdis. The skin of fruit should
never be eaten, nor should the stones, pips, or seeds be swallowed, as
there is a danger of their accumulating in a small pouch of the bowel
known as the vermiform appendix. Their lodgment in this little pocket
is a constant source of peril, and would soon set up an inflammation,
which must always be attended with a considerable amount of danger.

As to the question of the unripeness or over-ripeness of fruit, the
following remarks by Dr. F.W. Pavy, an acknowledged authority on all
that relates to food, and worth recording:--"Fruit forms an agreeable
and refreshing kind of food, and, eaten in moderate quantity, exerts a
favourable influence as an article of diet. It is chiefly of service
for the carbo-hydrates, vegetable acids, and alkaline salts it
contains. It enjoys, too, in a high degree, the power of counteracting
the unhealthy state found to be induced by too close a restriction to
dried and salted provisions. Whilst advantageous when consumed in
moderate quantity, fruit, on the other hand, proves injurious if eaten
in excess. Of a highly succulent nature, and containing free acids and
principles liable to undergo change, it is apt, when ingested out of
due proportion to other food, to act as a disturbing element, and
excite derangement of the alimentary canal. This is particularly
likely to occur if eaten either in the unripe or over-ripe state; in
the former case, from the quantity of acid present; in the latter, from
its strong tendency to ferment and decompose within the digestive
tract. The prevalence of stomach and bowel disorders, noticeable during
the height of the fruit season, affords proof of the inconveniences
that the too free use of fruit may give rise to."

The different forms of fruit, and also of vegetables, owe their great
value to the fact that they possess powerful anti-scorbutic properties.
It will be best and simplest to define the word "anti-scorbutic" as
"good against the scurvy." This latter disease is notably dependent on
a want of fresh fruit and vegetables in the dietary, and consequently
is more often observed amongst sailors; and though accessory
conditions, such as great privations, bad provisions, or unhealthy
surroundings, may predispose to it, yet that which essentially produces
it is the deficiency of the former articles from the food. At the
present time it is not nearly so frequently seen, since, according to
the mercantile marine regulations, subject to legislative enactments
passed in 1867, in lieu of vegetables, one ounce of lime juice,
sweetened with the same quantity of sugar, must be served out to each
man daily.

In scurvy there is some great change effected in the blood, and it is
as well to refer briefly to the characters possessed by the latter. The
blood as it exists in the body is a red alkaline fluid, having a
saltish taste and possessing quite a noticeable odour. It consists of
minute bodies, the corpuscles, immersed in a liquid, the LIQUOR
SANGUINIS. Salts also enter into its composition, and include the
chlorides of potash and soda; the phosphates of lime, magnesia,-and
soda; the sulphate of potash, and free soda. Of these the salts of soda
predominate, and the chloride--that is, common salt--is
usually in excess of all the others. The uses of these salts in the
blood are to supply the different tissues with the salts they
respectively require, to take part in maintaining the proper specific
gravity and alkaline character of the blood, and to prevent any changes
going on within it.

In scurvy, as mentioned before, the blood seems to undergo some great
change, and there are accumulations of it beneath the skin. The gums
become spongy, bleeding on the slightest touch, and the teeth
frequently loosen. Blood often flows from the mouth and nose, or is
vomited from the stomach, or is passed through the bowels. Dr. Garrod
advanced the view that scurvy was dependent on a deficiency of potash
in the stem, and that vegetables which contained potash supplied the
want. It is questionable, however, whether the disease is due to this
fact alone, since beef tea, which contains a good deal of potash, may
be given freely to a scorbutic patient, yet he fails to recover till
proper anti-scorbutic diet is supplied. Dr. Ralfe found by experiments
that when acids are injected into the blood, or an excess of acid salts
administered, the same changes occur in the blood as in scurvy. Hence
he supposes that the latter disease is caused by a decrease in the
alkalinity of the blood, which results from the absence of fruit and
vegetables from the food.

Now, although characteristic cases of scurvy are as a rule to be met
with chiefly in sailors, yet there is no doubt that an insufficiency of
the preceding in the dietary brings about an unhealthy condition of the
system. Many typical examples of this are frequently seen in the
patients admitted into our hospitals. They have been living, perhaps,
in isolated districts in the country, where their sole food was mutton
and damper, with no restriction placed on tea and tobacco. As a
rule their skin presents evidences of the need of proper diet, for it
looks unhealthy and is often covered with boils. But apart from these
cases, which so plainly indicate the origin of the poor condition of
the blood, there are many instances in which, from the want of
vegetable food and fruit, the system becomes greatly deranged.
moreover, what is known as the blood being "out of order" is mostly due
to an unsuitable diet, consisting of animal food in excess, and a
corresponding deficiency of the other essentials.

The use of fruit, again, is especially indicated in persons disposed to
the formation of uric acid in excess. When this actually occurs, the
system becomes overloaded with deleterious matter, and the blood and
body fluids are then saturated with a MATERIES MORBI. This morbific
material is best understood by regarding it as being in an incomplete
or half-way stage, in which form it is injurious. But, on the other
hand, if it had proceeded to its final change, the completed product
would have been harmless. Indeed, it is as the latter that it mostly
leaves the body in ordinary conditions of health. Well then, the
retention within the system of this incompletely transformed material
gives rise to various symptoms. One of them is a bitter or "coppery"
taste in the mouth, notably in the early morning. Oftentimes, too,
patients will complain that they do not feel at all refreshed on
rising, even when they have slept fairly well--which does not happen
too frequently. There may be also a great tendency to drowsiness,
accompanied by severe pains in the limbs, coming on about an hour after
meals. Other symptoms which are commonly met with are great
irritability of the temper and lowness of spirits. There is frequently
a headache of a peculiar kind. It comes on generally in the morning,
and may last all day, or even for several days. It is a dull, heavy
pain, felt most often in the forehead. A curious feature of the
affection which sometimes exists is an incontrollable desire to grind
the teeth during the waking hours. There are other symptoms, also,
characteristic of the same malady, namely, palpitation of the heart and
intermittency of the pulse; a liability to colds on the chest; and
perhaps repeated attacks of difficulty in breathing. From all this it
follows that a more liberal supply of fruit for such individuals would
be followed by the most beneficial results and their children might
well be taught to follow their example. For it must be remembered that
all fruits contain alkaline salts which are good for the blood. These
alkaline vegetable salts become changed within the body, and converted
into the carbonate of the alkali, in which latter form they pass out of
the system.

But before finally closing this portion it is necessary to say a few
words about olives, from which the famous olive oil is obtained, and
indeed with regard to their virtues nearly a volume might be written.
With many people the olive, like the tomato, is an acquired taste, and
unfortunately too many fail to overcome their first impressions; but it
is certainly worth acquiring, even if the process takes a long time and
requires much perseverance, on account of its highly nutritive value.
Children are often very fond of olives, and persistent efforts should
be made to induce those who do not like them to overcome their
aversion. We speak of "French olives" and "Spanish olives"; the former
are gathered young, and are small and hard, while the latter are
allowed to remain till a later period of growth, when they become
softer and more pulpy. The French olives are more piquant in flavour
than the larger kind. They are also better to eat as a fruit, though
many prefer the Spanish, and are sometimes employed to clear the palate
before drinking wines. The larger or Spanish olives are more
adapted for cooking, as in the dish known as beef olives, and also for
salads. There must be no misconception as to the name French or Spanish
as applied to olives; it does not refer to the country from which they
are derived, but simply serves to indicate that they are taken from the
tree at a particular time in accordance with the habit observed in the
respective countries. The mode of preparing the olives as they reach us
is as follows: They have been gathered when green, and soaked first of
all in strong lye--that is, water saturated with alkaline salt,
obtained by steeping wood ashes in the former. They are next soaked in
fresh water to remove the somewhat acrid and bitter taste, and are then
bottled in a solution of salt and water. Ordinarily they are presented
at table in a dish or other suitable vessel, with a little of the
liquid in which they have been preserved. In conclusion it may be added
that olives form an historical dish, for we are told that the supper of
Milton the poet consisted usually of bread and butter and olives.


TEA


Tea, with which we are all so familiar, is in reality a number of dried
rolled leaves of the tea plant, Camellia Thea, cultivated chiefly in
China and the contiguous countries. It is used excessively throughout
Australasia--for has it not been shown that our four million people
use more of this beverage than the millions who inhabit Continental
Europe, if Russia be excepted? This fact is much to be deplored, for
when taken in excess it causes severe functional derangement of the
digestive organs, and prejudicially affects the nervous system. The
gentler sex are greatly given to extravagant tea-drinking, exceeding
all bounds of moderation in this respect. Many of them, moreover, live
absolutely on nothing else but tea and bread and butter. What wonder,
then, that they grow pale and bloodless; that their muscles turn
soft and flabby; that their nervous system becomes shattered; and that
they suffer the agonies of indigestion? Their favourite time for a chat
and the consumption of tea is at any period between ten o'clock in the
morning and three in the afternoon. Now, if there is anything of which
I am certain, it is that tea in the middle of the day, say from ten
o'clock to three, is a deadly destructive fluid. And I am equally
certain, too, that innumerable numbers of young girls employed in
business do themselves an irreparable amount of injury by making their
mid-day meal consist of nothing else but tea and a little bread and
butter. There is no nourishment whatever in such fare, and it
inevitably leads to the bad symptoms already detailed and general
unhealthiness, if not to the onset of graver disease. No, they require
something which is nutritious, such as a little warm soup of some kind,
a modicum of bread, and say two different varieties of vegetables to
follow. Of course this may be extended to include pudding, stewed
fruit, &c., but the former is ample enough in many respects. This is a
very important matter to which the attention of proprietors and
managers of large establishments, factories, and other places employing
many female hands might well be directed. And, moreover, if ever there
was an opportunity for an active organization to achieve really
valuable work, it would be in seeing that our city girls had something
better to eat in the middle of the day than tea and bread and butter.

As in every other case, however, there is all the difference in the
world between the use of anything and its abuse. It is wrong to assume
that, because a great deal of something is injurious, a small quantity
judiciously employed is equally pernicious. And so it is even in the
case of tea, for it is not to be denied that a fragrant cup of tea is
very agreeable. As Dr. Vivian Poore most appropriately remarked in
reply to the argument that the lower animals did not require
tea, coffee, &c.: "We are not lower animals; we have minds as well as
bodies; and since these substances have the property of enabling us to
bear our worries and fatigues, let us accept them, make rational use of
them, and be thankful." Of course everything hinges upon the correct
interpretation of the terms "small" quantity, and "judiciously"
employed. It may be said, however, that the drinking of large cups of
tea is never to be sanctioned under ally circumstances whatever. It
should rather be looked upon as a delicate fluid to be imbibed only in
very small quantities. It should certainly not be used in the middle of
the day, between those hours which I have specified; nor should it be
taken during the evening, for it almost always disturbs the night's
rest.

There was a great controversy as to the proper way of making tea in the
medical papers not very long ago. It is of course a perennial topic,
and always excites considerable interest. This particular discussion
began in this way. A new tea-pot, called the anti-tannic tea-pot,
appeared on the scene, and was favoured with a long description by the
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL. It was claimed for this special model that it
extracted only the theine, and not the tannin from the tea. Now, as a
matter of fact, it is simply impossible to make tea, no matter how it
is made, entirely free from tannin. It is quite true that many suppose
by infusing the tea for a very brief period only--two or three minutes
--the passage of the tannin into the beverage can be prevented, but, as
Sir William Roberts has pointed out, this is quite a delusion. Tannin
is one of the most soluble substances known, and melts in hot water
just as sugar does. Tea made experimentally, by pouring boiling water
on the dry leaves placed on filter paper, contains tannin. As Sir
William remarks, you can no more have tea without tannin, than you can
have wine without alcohol.

Nevertheless, it is a fact that this anti-tannic tea-pot has
many excellent points about it, and is sure to meet with favour. It is
really an attempt to make tea by a more certain method than is
generally employed; for I think it must be admitted that the present
happy-go-lucky style has not much to recommend it. On one occasion the
tea will be excellent--and on another either as weak as water, or with
such a sharp acrid taste that it is almost undrinkable. In the latter
case the tea has been allowed to soak so long that it has become a
decoction instead of an infusion. The consequence of this prolonged
action of the hot water on the tea is that it brings out the bitter
extractive material of the plant, and it is this which proves so
particularly pernicious. Tea at sea is proverbially unpalatable, and
invariably disagrees, owing chiefly to the fact that it is a boiled
decoction of tea leaves and nothing else.


COFFEE


Coffee is the roasted and ground product of the seeds found within the
fruit of a tree, the Coffea Arabica. Originally a native of Abyssinia,
it was transported into Arabia at the beginning of the fifteenth
century. Since then it has been widely cultivated in the West Indies,
in Ceylon, and in other warm countries. The fruit itself much resembles
a small cherry in size and appearance, and usually contains two small
seeds--the coffee beans themselves. The choicest coffee is the mocha
or Arabian coffee, and the bean is very small. Of the West Indian
varieties, the Jamaica and the Martinique coffee are the best. The
exhilarating and agreeable properties of coffee are dependent in great
part upon three active principles which it contains. The first of these
is caffeine, which is almost identical in composition with, and
practically the same as, the theine present in tea. Next there are the
volatile oils, developed by roasting, from which coffee derives
its aroma. Indeed, as far as they are concerned, there are many who
believe that these ethereal oils have more to do with the
characteristic properties of coffee than even the caffeine itself. And,
lastly, there are the acids known as caffeo-tannic and caffeic acids,
which are modified forms of tea tannin. They exist to a far less
extent, however, than does the tannin in tea.

Coffee has a decidedly stimulating effect upon the nervous system; so
much so that in France it has been called UNE BOISSON INTELLECTUELLE
(an intellectual beverage), from its stimulating all the functions of
the brain. Not so long ago a writer, Dr. J. N. Lane, in the BRITISH
MEDICAL JOURNAL gave some interesting, information with respect to
coffee and brain work. As the result of his own experience he
recommended "a cup of strong coffee, without cream or sugar, preceded
and followed by a glass of hot water every morning before breakfast.
The various secretions are thus stimulated, the nerve force aroused, no
matter how the duties of the preceding day and night may have drawn
upon the system. Another cup at four in the afternoon is sufficient to
sustain the energies for many hours." It is only fair to add, however,
that the JOURNAL went on to remark that in this way some 50 grains of
caffeine would be taken each week, and that very little more might
develop injurious symptoms, so that the power of doing an illimitable
amount of work would be obtained under somewhat risky conditions.

One of its most remarkable effects is that of relieving the feeling of
fatigue or exhaustion, whether this be produced by brain work or bodily
labour. It enables the system also to bear up under an empty stomach
and when the supply of food is shortened. In this way it is of signal
value to the soldier in the field. Professor E.A. Parkes, all admitted
authority on these matters, bears testimony to the fact that in
military service it invigorates the system and is almost equally
useful against both cold and heat--against cold by reason of its
warmth, and against heat by its action on the skin. It appears, also,
to do sway with the need for sleep, probably from its arousing the
mental faculties, and the effect of a strong cup of coffee in inducing
wakefulness is well known. Coffee has, moreover, a distinct action on
the heart, and tends to strengthen it. The Germans are great believers
in its virtues, and Vogel, one of the principal authorities on diseases
of children, recommends it for them, mixed with cream, both as a food
and as a tonic.

In addition to the foregoing, coffee is also employed by reason of its
important medicinal virtues. In malarious countries a cup of hot strong
coffee, in the early morning, is regarded as a preventive against fever
and ague. It is a valuable agent in many cases of heart disease,
particularly when associated with dropsy. In Bright's disease of the
kidneys, where dropsy is present, it is likewise given with benefit.
Strong coffee is also a well-known remedy in asthma, both in relieving
the actual attack and in acting as a restorative after it is over. It
frequently gives great relief in many forms of nervous headache,
particularly in that variety known as migraine, in which the pain is
generally limited to one side of the head. And, lastly, coffee is a
valuable remedy in opium poisoning, where there is such a tendency to a
fatal coma.

From the foregoing it must be evident that coffee occupies a very high
position as a beverage. All that concerns its preparation, therefore,
is of undoubted interest. In the first place, to obtain coffee in
perfection it is indispensable that the beans be roasted at home, and
not only should the roasting be done in the house, but the operation
ought really to be performed immediately before the coffee is made, and
the reasons thereof I shall give in speaking of the process of
roasting. Many people do not care sufficiently about the
perfection of coffee to go to this trouble, and are content with having
their roasted coffee beans sent to them daily from their grocer. The
leading establishments roast their coffee beans daily, and from them
the latter may be obtained and ground in the mill at home. This, of
course, though not giving the real thing, is an immense improvement on
the hallowed tradition, so dear to some, of purchasing their weekly
supply of,,round coffee at a time and keeping it in a tin or vessel for
use as required. But, as I said before, if perfection is aimed at, the
roasting must be done at home.

In the selection of the green beans care should be taxiway to see that
they are nearly all of the same size, for if some are small and others
large, when it comes to roasting it will be found that the small ones
are done to a cinder, while the larger beans are hardly touched. The
beans, too, should be perfectly dry; if moist, they should be dried in
a dish by the fire or in the oven before going into the roaster. On the
coffee plantations the drying of the bean is considered a most
important matter when preparing them for export.

In the process of roasting, a volatile oil which gives to coffee its
unique fragrance is developed. It is somewhat curious that no amount of
boiling could educe this from the raw bean. This oil is exceedingly
volatile, and begins to disperse and evaporate the very moment it is
born. Hence, to obtain the perfection of coffee, no time should be lost
in grinding and making it directly it is roasted. When the fragrant
vapour of the roasted bean is first given off, it is soon followed by a
peculiar noise, caused by the splitting and crackling of the external
silvery greenish covering of the raw beans. At this time, or very
shortly afterwards, the latter are of a yellowish hue, but before long
they change into that desirable lightish brown colour, when the
peculiar volatile coffee oils are at their best.

The best mill for grinding the coffee, and one which may be
obtained from any ironmonger, is that which can be screwed on the edge
of the kitchen table or dresser. It has a little contrivance to
regulate the size of the grains. and care must be taken not to grind
the coffee too fine; it should be in minute crumbs rather than in
powder.

As I have already said, the perfection of coffee is only to be obtained
under three conditions. These are, first, that the beans should be
roasted at home; that they should be ground without much delay; and,
thirdly, made into coffee as soon as possible. Many people are,
however, unable to carry out the first of these three requirements. The
next best substitute is to have the roasted coffee beans sent daily to
them by their grocer. This is a practice which might be followed more
frequently with a great deal of advantage, for all are able, at least,
to possess a mill and grind their own coffee at home.

The making of the coffee is quite as important as the preceding, and
the number of different models of coffee-makers is almost perplexing.
But of them all, the one which is simplest, and perhaps most effective,
is the ordinary CAFETIERS, or French coffee-pot. This has the advantage
of costing only a few shillings, and is readily obtainable from any
ironmonger. It consists of an upper compartment in which the coffee is
made, and a lower part--the coffee-pot itself--into which the coffee
descends. These two portions are quite separate, although the upper
fits on the lower. The floor--on which the coffee is placed--of the
upper part is perforated by a number of minute holes There is also a
movable strainer about an inch in depth, which fits on top of the upper
part; and a presser, consisting of a long rod with a circular plate at
its end, which for convenience passes through the centre of the
strainer, and rests on the perforated floor of the upper part.

There are one or two points to be borne in mind in the making of
coffee. As a rule English-speaking people do not allow enough coffee to
each cup. The almost universal fault of coffee, made elsewhere than on
the Continent, is its want of strength and flavour. With regard to the
admixture of chicory, this is largely a question of taste, and the
palate must be consulted in the matter. The great majority of people,
however, cannot do without it, and it is quite (when genuine) a
harmless addition. Madame Lebour-Fawssett recommends the following
proportions: For making CAFE NOIR, or coffee after meals, there should
be six teaspoonsful of coffee, heaped up, and a very small teaspoonful
of chicory, or none at all, for one pint of water. The chicory must be
left out altogether, and another teaspoonful of coffee substituted for
those who object to chicory with their CAFE NOIR. For morning coffee or
cafe au lait there should be ten or twelve teaspoonsful of coffee, with
a sixth part of chicory, for each pint of water. As Madame Lebour-Fawssett
remarks, CAFE AU LAIT is never complete without chicory, but
care should be taken not to overdo it, since too much chicory renders
the coffee quite undrinkable. Of course, if you do not require as much
as a pint of coffee, the quantities may be reduced, still observing the
same proportions. Before pouring out the coffee, the cup should first
be half filled with hot milk, and then the coffee added.

Now, having seen what proportions of coffee and chicory are to be
employed for CAFE NOIR and CAFE AU LAIT respectively, it will be better
to describe the actual making of the coffee, since the CAFETIERE will
then be more easily understood. We will suppose its upper part is
fitted into its place on the top of the lower portion, and that the
strainer and presser have been removed for the time being. Enough
boiling water should first of all be poured in to fill both the
upper and lower compartments, allowed to stand for a couple of minutes,
and then poured away. This brings everything to a proper heat for
receiving the coffee.

Next put the amount of coffee necessary upon the perforated floor of
the upper part. The coffee should then be well pressed down with the
presser, and the latter instrument next laid aside. After this the
strainer should be replaced on top of the upper compartment, and the
required amount of boiling water, a little at a time, poured in through
it (the strainer). The object of pouring in the boiling water slowly is
to give it time to percolate through the densely pressed coffee lying
on the floor of the upper part. There is a little tin cover fitting
over the spout of the lower compartment, which should be adjusted to
keep in the steam. The whole may then be set aside for a few minutes,
and when the coffee has passed into the lower part, it is ready for
use. With a little practice, and by paying attention to these details,
the most perfect coffee may be made.


ICED DRINKS


In Australia some reference to the subject of iced drinks is
necessarily required, for they are in great request during the hot
season. There is a considerable amount of diversity of opinion as to
their good and bad effects, but it will be found that the experience of
most medical men is that when used in moderation they greatly relieve
thirst and are not injurious. This, indeed, is my own belief, and were
it not for the abuse of iced drinks, the same opinion would be held
almost universally. America is the country of countries in which the
inordinate use of ice has gained for it a reputation which it has never
deserved. Ice, says George Augustus Sala, is the alpha and omega of
social life in the United States. At the hotels, first-class or
otherwise, the beverage partaken of at dinner is mostly iced water.
Every repast, in fact, begins and ends with a glass of iced
water. When consumed in this way it is no wonder that it often
disagrees, and that ice-water dyspepsia is a definite malady in
America. And more than this, imagine carrying the employment of ice to
such an extent that it culminates in that gastronomical curiosity, a
BAKED ICE! The "Alaska" is a BAKED ICE, of which the interior is an ice
cream. This latter is surrounded by an exterior of whipped cream, made
warm by means of a Salamander. The transition from the hot outside
envelope to the frozen inside is painfully sudden, and not likely to be
attended with beneficial effect. But the abuse of a good thing is no
argument whatever against its use in a moderate and rational manner.

It will be desirable, however, to see what is believed in India about
iced drinks, for it will be something of a guide for us in Australia.
There are two authorities in particular who have been already referred
to, and who have written on this matter in its application to India.
The first of these is Sir James Ranald Martin, who had twenty-two years
experience there in different parts, and is therefore entitled to be
listened to. He says that ice is a matter of necessity in the East, and
quotes Dolomieu, who observes of iced drinks that "they revive the
spirits, strengthen the body, and assist the digestion."

There is also that other great name, that of Sir Joseph Fayrer, who is
most competent to speak on Indian matters. In setting forth rules for
the guidance of those who purpose living in India, he remarks that iced
water may be drunk with impunity there; that he has no recollection of
seeing any one suffer from drinking iced water or iced soda water in a
hot climate; and that in the great heat it is good, since it tends to
keep down the body temperature. When the system is prostrated by the
sun or extreme heat, or exhausted by physical or intellectual exertion
in a hot and damp atmosphere, he believes that a glass of iced
water slowly swallowed is far more refreshing than the iced brandy, or
whisky peg, or draught of beer, too frequently indulged in under such
circumstances.

The different writers on food and dietetics, who have given
considerable attention to the same subject, are almost unanimous in
their opinion to the same effect. There will be no occasion to refer to
all of them, but three at least deserve a brief mention. Dr. Burney Yeo
has recently observed that iced water, when taken in small quantities,
is refreshing and cooling, and likewise stimulates the digestive
functions. On the other hand, it is certainly injurious when taken in
inordinate amount. According to Dr. T. King Chambers, cool drinks are
beneficial to the stomach in hot weather, since they help to reduce the
increased temperature to which the over-heated blood has brought it.
Ice, moreover, is a valuable addition to the dietary both of the sick
and of the healthy. There is one caution to be observed, however, and
it is that ice is injurious when the system is exhausted after violent
exercise. And lastly, Dr. Milner Fothergill believes the craving for
cool drinks during the hot weather is such, that there is evidently
some irrepressible desire to be satisfied. He even writes that in his
opinion the dyspepsia of Americans is not entirely due to the free use
of iced water, but that there are other causes which help to bring it
about.

But while all this is greatly in favour of the moderate use of iced
drinks, the purity of the source from which the ice is obtained is also
a matter of the highest importance. Ice is not ice when the water from
which it is derived is impure. There was an outbreak of sickness
amongst the visitors at one of the large hotels at Rye Beach, a
watering-place in America, one summer. The symptoms were an alarming
disturbance of the with severe pain, great feverishness, and
depression of spirits. It was found that the ice which occasioned this
outbreak had been taken from a stagnant pond containing a large amount
of decomposing matter. A portion of it was carefully melted, and was
found to contain a considerable quantity of decaying vegetable matter.
In the case of artificial ice, the question of purity is even more
important. The reason for this is that the water used in the
manufacture of artificial ice is usually frozen solid, and whatever
substances, consequently, are dissolved in the water remain in the ice
itself.


TOBACCO


Five out of every six male adults smoke, whether it be cigarette,
cigar, or pipe. That is, in a gathering of, say, 600 men, 500 will be
smokers and 100 non-smokers. At least, this is the estimated proportion
in the old country. In Australia the ratio is about the same, but the
average amount of tobacco used by every smoker is greater. According to
Mr. T. A. Coghlan in his WEALTH AND PROGRESS OF NEW SOUTH WALES, the
annual consumption of tobacco in Australia for each inhabitant is 3
lbs. all but a fraction. For the United Kingdom the corresponding
amount is 1.41 lbs.; and for the United States of America, 4.40 lbs.
Italy, it would seem, consumes in the same way 1.34 lbs.; France, 2.05
lbs.; Germany, 3 lbs.; Austria, 3.77 lbs.; Turkey, 4.37 lbs.; while
Holland reaches the excessive amount of 6.92 lbs. Of the five colonies
of Australia, namely, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia,
Queensland, and West Australia, the use of tobacco is greatest in the
latter two; the figures for Queensland being 3.53 lbs., and for West
Australia 4.11 lbs.

With regard to the effect of tobacco on the human system, it will
perhaps be most convenient to make a division into the following three
classes. In the first place there are a certain number of people upon
whom tobacco in any shape or form has an absolutely poisonous
influence. There must be some peculiar susceptibility of the system in
their case which renders them especially vulnerable to its action. On
this account, therefore, they are better without tobacco at all, and
any attempt to habituate themselves to it must be attended with
prejudice to health. Secondly, there are many other people who can only
use tobacco in its very mildest forms. They may be able to smoke a few
cigarettes daily, perhaps only three or four; if they indulge in a
cigar, it must be one of the mildest; if a pipe, the tobacco will have
to be the very lightest. Anything exceeding their allowance is an
excess for which they are obliged to pay the penalty. Then, again,
there is a third class who can enjoy tobacco in moderation. But these
are the very people who are most apt to abuse their privilege. And
although they do not recognise it at once, the effect of their
excessive smoking is bound to assert itself at last, and compel them to
curtail their allowance. If those in the second category, who can enjoy
the mildest tobacco in the smallest quantities, and those in the third,
who can smoke in moderation, were never to exceed their proper amount,
no very great harm would follow. But it most frequently happens that
both overstep their respective bounds, and the result is injury to
health.

The tobacco plant, NICOTIANA TOBACUM, belongs to the order Solanaceae,
which also includes belladonna, capsicum, henbane, and likewise the
common potato. Its active principle, an alkaloid--nicotine or nicotia
--is combined with a vegetable acid. Some of the alkaloids, such as
morphine, strychnine, &c., are crystalline in character, but this,
along with a few others, is liquid. A single drop of it is fatal to the
smaller animals, a cat or Even as it is, the first smoke usually
produces characteristic results. There is generally pallor of the face,
nausea, and vomiting. Usually a cold, clammy sweat breaks out, and the
heart seems as if it were about to stop. The system, however, gradually
becomes habituated to its action, and these symptoms do not reappear.
Seeing that this somewhat unpleasant apprenticeship is uncomplainingly
served, it is evident that in smoking there must be some powerful
attraction. There are many, indeed, who persist in it when it is doing
them an inconceivable amount of injury.

It is a fortunate thing that almost all of the nicotine passes off, or
is burnt up, or else the effect would be more markedly disastrous. But
the pleasurable effects of tobacco are derived in great part from the
volatile alkaloids formed during combustion. The alkaloids which
develop during the smoking of a pipe are entirely different from those
of a cigar. In a pipe, according to Vold and Eulenburg, the tobacco
yields a very much larger proportion of volatile bases, especially of
the very volatile and stupefying pyridine. On the other hand, a cigar
produces but little pyridine, but more of the less active collidine. It
is well known that very much stronger tobacco can be smoked as a cigar
than as a pipe. As a matter of fact a cigar which could be enjoyed as a
cigar, would cause sickness if cut up into small pieces and smoked in a
pipe. This pyridine to which reference has just been made has lately
been brought forward as a remedy for asthma. Now, the effect of tobacco
in cutting short an attack of this latter malady is, at times, very
marked. And Professor See, the eminent French physician, believes that
the pyridine is the relieving agent.

In the earlier part of this section I have attempted to form a
provisional classification of people as far as the effect of tobacco is
concerned. Firstly, those upon whom tobacco in any shape or form
is an absolute poison; secondly, those who can enjoy a very small
amount-daily; and thirdly, those who are able to smoke in moderation.
Now, while those who use tobacco with wise discretion appear to be none
the worse for it, yet it unfortunately happens that far too frequently
there is no limit to this discretion. It is too often the case,
therefore, that quite a serious amount of damage to health results from
excessive smoking. It requires a good deal of judgment, and even more
resolution, to use and not abuse tobacco.

There are certain symptoms which should lead a man either to curtail
his allowance, or else give up tobacco altogether. These are marked
nervousness, trembling of the whole body, unsteadiness of the hands,
and twitching of different muscles. There may be also swimming of the
head, severe headache, and a feeling of despondency. In other cases
there may be irritability of temper, a want of will determination, and
progressive loss of memory. The special senses--sight, hearing, taste,
smell, and touch--may all be blunted. The Bight and hearing are often
markedly affected. Colour blindness is sometimes a result, and there
may be that impairment of vision known tobacco AMBLYOPIA. As regards
the hearing, too, there is not unfrequently a drumming in the ears and
confusion of sounds.

And more than this, tobacco, when unsuitable or used in excess, has
other prejudicial effects. Its action on the heart is well known, and
is frequently manifested by violent palpitation and by disturbed action
of the heart. There is also a definite disorder known as "the smoker's
heart." In this affection the beats, instead of being regular, are very
rapid, suddenly becoming very slow. In this way the rhythm of the heart
has been aptly compared by Dr. Lauder Brunton to a restive horse, who
goes into a gallop for a few yards, next pulls up all at once, and then
breaks off into a gallop again. When tobacco has these
prejudicial effects upon the heart, it is no good diminishing the
allowance. The only way to bring about any good result is to knock it
off altogether.

In addition to its direct action on the heart, tobacco smoking may also
bring on a sudden fainting, in which there is absolutely no warning.
This condition may develop from the tobacco alone, but in many
instances nervous excitement or shock are superadded. Professor Fraser,
of Edinburgh, has observed that quite a number of his college friends,
who smoked to an inordinate extent as students, were obliged to give up
tobacco as middle age approached. Several of them had to do so on
account of the onset of these sudden fainting fits. Many smokers also
suffer from what is termed chronic pharyngitis. In this affection the
mucous membrane at the back part of the mouth looks like dirty-red
velvet, and there is also a constant hawking of phlegm. And further,
indigestion itself is in many eases entirely due to excessive smoking,
from which there is no relief except by abandoning the habit
altogether.

But even when tobacco does not produce such marked ill effects, it is
as well to remember that it has always a definite action from a
gastronomic point of view. And it is this, that directly after the
first draw of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, the palate loses its
delicacy of perception. As Sir Henry Thompson remarks, after smoke the
power to appreciate good wine is lost, and no judicious host cares to
open a fresh bottle from his best bin for the smoker. This is perfectly
true; under such circumstances valuable wine would simply be thrown
away. But, on the other hand, there is an unquestionable sympathy
between coffee and tobacco, and a cup of Mocha blends harmoniously with
choice Latakia. This is well recognised in the East; and throughout the
Continent coffee and temperate habits go hand in hand with the
cigar or cigarette. We must also agree with Sir Henry when he declares
that smoke and alcoholic drinks are only found associated together in
Great Britain and other northern nations, where there are to be found
the most insensitive palates in Europe. It is a good thing, therefore,
that the habits followed here are unknown to him, or else Australia
would certainly have had a rap over the knuckles.




CHAPTER VII.



EXERCISE


This comes last alphabetically of the five essentials concerned in the
maintenance of health--namely, ablution: the skin and the bath; bed-room
ventilation; clothing; diet; and exercise--but it is none the
less important on that account. Exercise may be defined as action of
the body, whereby its organs and their functions are kept in a state of
health. Each one of us has from the moment of his existence a certain
stature allotted, as it were, to which he will attain. In this way some
will be tall, others will be short, so that the height of the body is
something quite beyond our control, as we know by the interrogation,
"Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit to his stature?" But
in contradistinction to height, we know that the muscles of the body
can be developed and increased in size by use. It is by their action in
exercise that the muscles are enlarged, hardened, and brought to their
greatest state of perfection. And it is only by exercise, and by
exercise alone, that they can be maintained at the acme of physical
condition.

Now, in the same way that education develops and increases the power of
the brain, so exercise has a similar effect on the body. When the
muscles are strengthened, the beneficial effect is also participated in
by the heart, lungs, and digestive organs, and thus the removal of
worn-out material from the body is assisted. The effect of exercise is
thus to remove used up products from the system, and so afford an
opportunity for renewed material to take their place. Ceaseless changes
are constantly going on throughout the body, and any part which has
fulfilled its object is no longer necessary for the requirements
of the system, in fact it becomes injurious. Its removal has to take
place by one of the various outlets, and it is by exercise that its
expulsion is greatly assisted. In this way exercise differs altogether
from the part played by food. The latter is the introduction of
nourishment into the system for the renewal of its wants, while
exercise is the principal agent by which DEBRIS is eliminated.

It was well known amongst the Greeks and Romans that the muscles
reached their greatest state of development by means of exercise.
Though, therefore, gymnastics formed a great part of their system of
education, yet the chief aim in their athletic instruction was the
desire to train men to fight their battles, and in those days war was a
matter of personal valour and of individual bravery. On that account,
therefore, the men who were selected as their soldiers were among the
healthiest of the nation. Those who by reason of bodily infirmity or
inherent weakness were unfitted for military prowess were left alone.
But, as Maclaren has well pointed out, the object of systematic and
proper exercise is not for the production of a race of soldiers, though
a certain proportion of the population will always be required for
military service. With the great majority of men the struggle for
existence is keen, and it is simply a question of the survival of the
fittest, and of the weakest going to the wall. The requirements of the
present time are therefore a capacity for endurance and an ability to
withstand the effects of work day after day. We do not require athletes
who are capable of performing wonderful feats of strength; but the
fight of the nineteenth century is brain against brain, and he will be
best equipped for the struggle who has the advantage of good bodily
health. In the higher callings, where brain power is everything, the
necessity for perfect physical condition is all the more imperative,
because the brain is supplied with healthy blood, and the ideas flow
with less effort.

The brain is an organ of the body exactly in the same way that
the heart, the lungs, and the liver are, and therefore is subject to
the same changes which belong to every other part of the frame. It will
be at its best when there is circulating through it a full supply of
rich red arterial blood, for that means a continual renewal of fresh
material to it, and a speedy removal of worn-out products. It is by
exercise mainly, whether it be voluntarily undertaken, or whether it
pertain to the calling, that the body is kept at the pink of condition,
and the brain benefited accordingly. Another great and important result
from improving the bodily health is the increased power of what we call
the will. The undertaking, say, of a long walk or climb involves the
possession of a certain amount of determination, and many people,
though perfectly aware of the good to be obtained by a few hours'
exercise outside the house, have not the determination to carry it into
effect. Once the disinclination to move is overcome, the effort
required is less each time, and ultimately the will gains a distinct
mastery.

When the muscles are put into action, what is termed their
contractility is called into play--that is, the force which was
dormant before is roused into activity. This is effected through the
nervous system, and it is the will which emanates from the brain and is
carried along certain nerves to accomplish definite actions. During the
contraction of a muscle its individual fibres change in form, producing
an alteration in the shape of the whole muscle; thus it becomes shorter
and thicker. At the same time, while it is in action more blood flows
through it, hence we see that one of the beneficial effects of exercise
is to stimulate the circulation through the muscular system. It has
also been ascertained by experiments, that the venous blood which comes
from a muscle in action is darker in colour than that from a muscle in
repose. When the circulation is quickened by movement, and the blood
stream hastened, the vigour of the body is increased, because the used
up material is all the quicker taken away, and a freshly created supply
of nutrition brought to every part.

The rate of breathing is accelerated whenever the body is engaged in
muscular exertion, and with this quickened breathing there is an
increased amount of oxygen drawn in, and an increased amount of
carbonic acid gas and water exhaled by the breath. The oxygen which is
absorbed from the air into the blood is stored in the red corpuscles of
the latter, by which it is carried to every part of the body. The
venous blood which returns from every portion of the system comes back
as a dark crimson, instead of being bright scarlet like the arterial
blood. It contains carbonic acid, and returns it to the lungs, where it
is exhaled by the breath. The oxygen is necessary to existence, while
the carbonic acid is injurious. The effect of exercise, then, in any
form, is thus to distribute healthy blood more rapidly through the
system, while it removes the injurious matters quite as speedily. The
effect of active exercise on the heart, as it is well known, is to make
it beat faster; by this the blood is driven through the body at a
quicker rate than usual. Sometimes, when the effort is unusually
severe, there is a disturbance of the regular balance between the heart
and the lungs. There is thus produced an irregular or unequal action of
the former, causing what is known as "loss of wind," which is, however,
soon restored by resting.

There is an excessive flow of blood to the surface of the body, causing
it to redden, and at the same time the perspiration is greatly
increased. It is on account of this latter moisture opening up the
pores of the skin that the good effects of exercise are chiefly due.
The perspiration consists mainly of water containing different salts
and organic matters. It is found by experiment that the amount
of water passing through the lungs and skin is usually doubled even
with moderate exertion.

The result of moderate exercise in benefiting the nervous system is
well known, and the effect of a gentle walk in making the ideas flow
through the brain is a matter of common observation. At the same time,
it must be borne in mind that exercise, when carried to the verge of
fatigue, compels inactivity of the brain for a time, since Nature must
have repose. But when carried out in moderation with a view of
improving the condition of the body, it conduces to the salubrity of
the brain as well, for the latter organ shares in the health of the
former. The only thing to guard against is irregular and fitful doses;
thus it is far better to take a little in moderation daily, than to
attempt to make one day's exercise suffice for the rest of the week.

It follows from the foregoing, therefore, that without exercise a
perfect state of health is an impossibility. There can be no proper
bodily health unless there be daily exercise. It is the same with
everybody, no matter what the condition of life may be. Exercise is
quite as necessary for the well-to-do man as it is for him who is not
so circumstanced. The laws of health cannot be violated, and all the
money in the world will not atone for neglect in this respect. Exercise
is not a matter that can be carried out by proxy. No; each one must
take his own exercise, and he derives all the benefit for himself.

It is a fortunate thing, then, that most people have to earn their own
living, for the exertion thereby entailed is actually necessary for
health. Yet, while this is the case with those who live by their bodily
labour, it hardly applies to those who are more dependent upon mental
work. For instance, the latter include literary men and journalists,
the members of the professions, and those of the vast commercial
world--all, indeed, who have brain strain and clerical occupations. In
their case the great fault is that they use their heads too much and
their limbs too little. For them walking is one of the very best means
of obtaining health, and it should be regularly and systematically
practised.

It has been said that no man under sixty, unless he be kept walking
while at his work, should walk less than six or eight miles a day, if
he wishes to keep well and have healthy children. In the cooler weather
in Australia these are certainly suitable distances, but in the hot
months half these amounts will be found sufficient, and they had better
be carried out in the cool of the evening. Then again, for those over
sixty it has been well observed that a daily walk is still the best
means of promoting health. But the walk must always be proportionate to
the strength, and should be done at nothing more than a moderate pace,
if a man wishes to take care of his blood vessels.

There is another matter which calls for notice, and it is that of early
morning exercise. Now, I am quite willing to admit that there are many
who derive great benefit from their early morning swim, their matutinal
walk, or their tennis before breakfast. But it should be distinctly
borne in mind that there are others with whom such early morning
exercise does not agree. They get as a result a weary, languid feeling
which lasts throughout the entire day. Now, they are apt to imagine it
is the exercise in itself which produces this effect. But the truth is,
it arises from the time of day at which the exercise is taken, and is
not due to the exertion at all. It must not be forgotten, therefore,
that while many people derive the greatest advantage from early morning
exercise, yet there are others for whom it is altogether unsuitable.
But, on the other hand, the latter will obtain every possible benefit
by taking their allowance of exercise at some other period of
the twenty-four hours.

There are other forms of exercise besides walking, and these have their
good points. Riding is, of course, invaluable, especially in cases of
sluggish liver. As it has been wittily observed, the outside of a horse
is the best thing for the inside of a man. In the cool months in
Australia riding is a real pleasure, but in the hot season it is hardly
so agreeable. Then again, rowing is a magnificent exercise, and has
much to recommend it in early adult life. There is no harm whatever in
rowing as an exercise, but when it comes to racing that is a different
matter. It is the great strain on the heart, together with the
excitement which constitute the sources of risk. The other varieties of
exercise, namely, gardening, the different games, cricket, football,
tennis, &c., need not be particularized as they all subserve the same
purposes, and are in consequence very desirable.

In all the preceding I have endeavoured to show that daily exercise is
absolutely necessary for the proper maintenance of health. But there is
something even more than this. It is that a long life itself is to be
ensured by exercise. It is only by exercise, and by exercise alone,
that the various organs of the body, the heart, the lungs, the stomach,
the liver, &c., are maintained in their normal state of health. Their
condition, moreover, is only to be improved by the muscular movements
belonging to exercise. The heart itself is intended for action, not for
inaction. By action it thrives, and by disuse it becomes weakened. It
is so with all the other organs. In conclusion, therefore, it must be
said that the whole system can only be kept in perfect health by
muscular movements, and that in addition to keeping the body in health
exercise actually increases the chances of living to a good old age.




CHAPTER VIII.



ON SCHOOL COOKERY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE AUSTRALIAN DAILY LIFE.


"BAD COOKERY DIMINISHES HAPPINESS, AND SHORTENS LIFE."--WISDOM OF AGES.


In all probability there are but few who have ever had their attention
called to certain figures duly set forth within the pages of that mine
of information, namely, Mr. T. A. Coghlan's WEALTH AND PROGRESS OF NEW
SOUTH WALES. Nevertheless, the facts associated with these statistics
so directly concern our Australian daily life that they deserve to be
widely known. That portion of the work in which our food supply is
considered, therefore, is well worth referring to. It will he found
that the consumption of butcher's meat by each inhabitant is greater
than in any other country in the world. Thus the amount of meat
required for each member of the community every year in New South Wales
is 201 lbs.; in Victoria 275 lbs.; whilst in Queensland 370 lbs. are
called for. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom only 109 lbs. are
similarly needed; in the United States of America 150 lbs. while the
figures for the different European countries show an average of no more
than 70 lbs.

Another article of commerce which is consumed to excess in all parts is
tea. As I have previously stated, it is estimated by Coghlan that the
four million people in Australasia use more of this beverage than all
the millions who inhabit continental Europe, that is, if Russia be
excluded; but he further points out that in Australia itself the use of
tea is universal. The tables show that for each inhabitant New
South Wales requires annually 7.8 lbs.; Victoria, 7.7 lbs.; South
Australia, 6.5 lbs.; and Queensland 8.4 lbs.; and moreover, that West
Australia attains a maximum with 10.6 lbs. Now, according to Mulhall,
in his DICTIONARY OF STATISTICS, the amount of tea consumed annually
for each inhabitant in the United Kingdom is only 5 lbs.; and for the
United States of America the proportion is but 1.5 lbs.

A survey of these figures consequently must compel us to admit that
Australia is inhabited by a people largely carnivorous and addicted to
tea. Surely not one person in a thousand would advocate such a diet
under any circumstances. Is it not astonishing, therefore, that
innutritious fare of this land is still tolerated in Australia? Facts
such as these call for the most serious consideration, since they must
irresistibly affect the national life; but though it may seem strange,
these matters have never received the notice they stand in need of, if,
indeed, they have ever received any notice at all.

There are worlds of interest, however, centred in the notable
circumstance that Australia, a new and a semitropical country, is now
being peopled by the descendants of those who belonged to an entirely
different climate. At the present time the old racial instincts are
actively powerful, and exert an influence diametrically opposed to
climatic surroundings; and, as a matter of fact, we are witnessing a
struggle between our Anglo-Saxon heredities and our Australian
environment. But such a conflict against our destiny is one in which
the odds are overwhelmingly on one side. For of all forces, that of
climate is the most powerful. It is true that man is able almost to
remove mountains, and that he can create rivers in an arid land; but to
endeavour to resist the dominating influence of climate is to attempt
the impossible.

Yet there is something more than all this which should induce us
to follow the promptings of nature; this is the fact that Australia
will only reach the zenith of her possibilities when her people conform
to her climatic requirements. For what would the latter mean? Market
gardens innumerable, and a healthy and lucrative life for all
concerned; the development of her deep-sea fisheries, and employment,
direct as well as indirect, to thousands; the cultivation of the vine,
with all the wealth pertaining to smiling vineyards; the growth of the
olive and other fruits, and all the other industries which only await
their creation; and instead of this, at present, all we possess is the
knowledge that we are the greatest meat-eating and tea-drinking race on
earth.


PROGRESSIVE CHANGES IN THE THEORIES OF EDUCATION.


We are told that it was Jean Jacques Rousseau who first entirely
severed education and learning. In his Emile, published in 1762, he
advocated a more natural and less pedantic method of training and
developing the physical, mental, and moral faculties of the young. The
work produced an astounding effect on its appearance, and has largely
influenced the educational methods throughout Europe.

Not so long afterwards, in 1801, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, permeated
with the atmosphere following the French Revolution, gave to the world
his views on education in his work HOW GERTRUDE TEACHES HER CHILDREN.
The essence of his belief being that "sense-impression is the
foundation of instruction," he counselled the development of all the
faculties in preference to the mere acquisition of words. "Words
alone," said he, "cannot give us a knowledge of things; they are only
useful for giving expression to what we have in our own minds."
Consequently, he believed in imparting instruction by a direct appeal
to the senses and the understanding so as to call forth all the powers,
selecting the subjects of study so that each step should progressively
assist the pupil's advancement. He contended that observation was the
method by which knowledge was principally gained, and that the
perceptive faculties (intuition) were developed by observation. Even in
his own time his ideas were awarded a recognition of their value; in
fact, he had the honour of being specially visited by Prince de
Talleyrand and Madame de Stael.

In the early part of the present century another reformer, Friedrich
Wilhelm August Froebel, arose to influence all future educational
methods. As with Rousseau, Froebel held that each age belonged to
itself, and that the perfection of the later stage could only be
attained through perfection of the earlier. So, too, while Pestalozzi
upheld that the faculties were developed by exercise, Froebel went
farther, and added that the function of education was to develop the
faculties by arousing VOLUNTARY ACTIVITY, in this way becoming,
according to Michelet, the greatest of educational reformers. Froebel
was convinced that man was primarily a doer, indeed, even a creator,
and that he learnt only through "self-activity." In action, moreover,
there was not alone the mere physical exercise, but also the actual
unfolding and strengthening of the mental powers. To Froebel, indeed,
belongs the honour of originating the kindergarten system, which is
making such progress at the present time; and more than this, it may be
said that while it is employed only in the earlier stages of education,
yet his principles are beginning to make themselves felt throughout the
entire system of education.

As a matter of fact, what is known in Sweden and in Finland as SLOYD,
or manual instruction, may be regarded as a continuation of the
Kindergarten system. Through the exertions of Uno Cygnaeus the whole of
the national system of education in Finland was reorganized, and manual
work was first made a part of the regular instruction in the common
schools. In Sweden, likewise, the same principles have been introduced
chiefly by Herr Otto Salomon, the director of the great sloyd seminarum
at Naas. Sloyd work is used in the schools in a disciplinary way as an
integral part of general education; the children, generally boys, are
employed for a certain number of hours a week in making articles of
common household use. It is maintained that work of this kind is
specially invaluable in supplementing the ordinary school education of
the three R's. It fulfils the injunction "to put the whole boy to
school;" it develops faculties which would otherwise lie dormant, while
at the same time it trains the eye and does away with clumsy fingers.


THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION.


From the foregoing it will be seen that within the last 130 years a
striking change has come over the view held respecting education. Prior
to that time an artificial and pedantic method prevailed, which
received its first check from the pen of Rousseau. The system which he
attacked, however, built up as it was upon centuries of mediaeval
learning, was not to be disposed of by this one encounter. Such a
result was not to be expected in the natural order of things; but as
the ideas of Rousseau contained the living truth, they were bound to
find advocacy in due course, and though the seed might lie quiescent
for a time, yet it was sure to germinate sooner or later. After him the
path of educational reform was illumined by the genius of Pestalozzi,
and a few years later Froebel appeared to influence for ever the
methods of education. Indeed, it was the latter who by his
kindergarten system has founded the practical education of our own day.

The vast change, then, along the whole line of education has been from
scholastic learning towards that of education in manual training. This
is the truest recognition of the fact that the purpose of education is
to prepare a child for his journey through life, and not merely to get
him ready for an examination; but although the meaning of education has
thus become more apparent, there is still too much a tendency in the
present day to burden the developing mind with a multiplicity of
subjects. We do not wish to produce a living encyclopaedia, but we
desire to create a being, well trained in all his senses, and
thoroughly competent to take his part in the battle of life. Far be it
from imagining that I decry the advantages of learning in the slightest
degree, but surely there is the broadest distinction between a
scholastic prodigy and a practical well-informed mortal.

This exaggeration of the function of education expressed by the word
multiplicity deserves a little consideration, for it would appear that
our educationists overlook the fact that the organism with which they
have to deal is going through the most critical period of its
existence. At the very time that children are rapidly undergoing the
process of physical development, there is superadded the acquirement of
elaborate mental knowledge, and when bone and muscle and sinew are in
the active processes of transformation and growth, then it is that the
intellectual faculties are spurred on at a killing pace. The child
leaves school in the afternoon with a load of home lessons to be
prepared for the following day. The very meaning of the word school has
become distorted; instead of being a medium for imparting instruction,
it threatens to become merely a building in which the lessons learned
at home overnight are heard, and besides this, if the school is
thus to become simply a place for hearing lessons, the office of
schoolmaster must correspondingly suffer. This I hope will never be,
for it would at once take away all personality from the teacher, and
transmute him into a mere auditory machine. His individuality would
become lost in the official, and teaching as teaching resolve itself
into a stereotyped function; and this latter consideration leads me to
remark that one man has the gift of imparting knowledge, in which
another fails entirely. One instructor has a way of putting things so
that they ale retained in the memory of his pupils for ever, while
another so fails to express himself that not one clear idea is carried
away by his hearers.

The chief purpose of education should be the preparation of the young
for their adult life. As Agesilaus the Great observed when one asked
him what boys should learn: "That," said he, "which they shall use when
men." But the future of the two sexes differs entirely after school
life is over. It will follow, therefore, that there should be an
essential difference between the education required for the boy and
that for the girl. In our present day system of education, however,
there is too much a disposition to make no such distinction. The boy in
the greater number of cases is the bread-winner, and has to rely on his
own exertions, whether they be manual or mental. The girl, on the other
hand, looks forward to the destiny of housewife. This aspect of the
educational problem certainly deserves to have more attention paid to
it than it has yet received. Still a step in the light direction has
been made by James Platt, the author of many valuable works on
currency, finance, &c., who advocates that business habits and kindred
matters should be taught to all youths. Of course it is not
intended that the sole object of education should be the principles of
money making, but at the same time there is a considerable amount of
truth in his contention. But the chief purpose I have in view is to
advocate a thorough and systematic teaching of Cookery to girls. In the
remaining part of this chapter, therefore, I shall endeavour to bring
forward reasons in support of my proposition.


COOKERY INSTRUCTION IN ENGLAND, NEW SOUTH WALES, AND VICTORIA.


Under this heading I propose to describe briefly what is being done in
connection with Cookery Instruction in the places mentioned. Now the
principal object I have in view is to further the teaching of Cookery
to girls during school life. It will, however, somewhat strengthen my
advocacy if I refer to the beginning of this movement in England, for
it undoubtedly had its origin in causes quite outside of any
educational system. There is no question but that the increased
facilities for communication, resulting from the advent of steamships
and railways, gave to travel an impetus it never before experienced.
And as a result thousands of people in the old country acquired a
practical knowledge of Continental life, which would otherwise never
have been theirs. These travellers saw for themselves the perfection of
Cookery in countries like France, and naturally their eyes were opened
to the neglect which culinary matters received in their own land; at
least, this seems to me a satisfactory explanation of what has
occurred, and I put it forward, therefore, purely as a matter of
personal opinion, and whether this is the right reason or not, it is
quite certain that a desire for improvement in this direction is
insensibly coming over our English people.

It would seem that Mr. Buckmaster gave a series of lectures in
the Cookery School at the International Exhibition in 1873 and 1874. As
a considerable portion of space was devoted to food, it was rightly
thought that some practical remark on the subject would prove of
distinct advantage. Just about this time, too, in 1874, a good start
was made by the establishment of a National Training School for Cookery
at South Kensington. From its inception success seemed to smile upon
it. Its numbers began to increase, steadily at first, and afterwards by
leaps and bounds. It clearly filled a place that had been wanting; and
moreover, the objects it had in view were identified with all that was
praiseworthy. It was proof positive of the long cherished opinion as to
the neglect of Cookery in a girl's education.

Its courses of instruction are for educated persons who desire to
qualify themselves to become teachers of Cookery; for students and
cooks; and for those who wish to be able to cook in their own homes.
Its distinctive feature, however, lies in its artisan kitchen. It is by
means of this that families, which spend from seven to twenty shillings
weekly in the purchase of food, will be so greatly benefitted. Nothing
can exceed this in importance, for any improvement in the Cookery of
the whole bulk of the people becomes a matter of national welfare. A
conspicuous instance of the success which has attended the
establishment of the National Training School for Cookery is the almost
annual appearance of a new edition of its hand-book, which is published
under its auspices. Therein will be found a most detailed account of
the steps necessary for the preparation of innumerable dishes, and the
different instructions are given with a minuteness which leaves nothing
to be desired.

At this period, also, the Masters of the Cooks' Company, not to be
outdone in anything calculated to promote the progress of the culinary
art, had several young girls brought from ward schools, and taught in
the artisan kitchen already referred to. Indeed, they were instructed
entirely at the expense of the Company. This was liberality of the most
commendable kind, and it is satisfactory to see a corporate body acting
in such a practical fashion. An ounce of practice is worth a pound of
theory.

This growing recognition of the importance of Cookery in the old
country at last spread to the educational world, although it has not
yet obtained that position which it must eventually acquire; but the
ball has been set rolling in the right path, and the necessity for
instruction in the culinary art is so self-evident, that there can be
no doubt as to the ultimate result. It is gratifying in this
connection, therefore, to know that the kindred subject of Elementary
Laundry Work has now become part of a girl's education. The Education
Code of 1890 contains specific reference to the fact that special and
appropriate provision has been made for the practical teaching of
Laundry Work, and is also accompanied by instructions to the effect
that the appliances and methods employed in teaching should be those
which are possible in the homes of working people. I have referred to
this in passing, as it directly concerns the point at issue.

It would have been a matter of considerable difficulty for a private
individual like myself to have collected authentic information relative
to the present status of Cookery in English and Australian schools.
Under these circumstances, therefore, I deemed it best to apply
directly to head-quarters for official statements. Mr. Edwin Johnson,
the courteous Under-Secretary for Public Instruction in New South
Wales, willingly undertook to place me in possession of all the facts I
required as far as England and this colony are concerned. I shall,
therefore, give his account of what is being done in the old
country; and next condense from his remarks the substance of what has
taken place in New South Wales with regard to this vital matter.

In England, the Education Department conditionally wants aid to Cookery
Instruction in connection with State Aided Primary Schools under the
following stipulations: what provision as to buildings, &c., has been
made for Cookery Instruction in accordance with the conditions
prescribed. The Department then grants aid at the rate of four
shillings per head in day schools, and two shillings per head in
evening, or, as they are sometimes called, "continuation" schools, on
the number of pupils in the fourth and higher standards presented for
examination in Cookery. The classes are taught by ordinary Primary
School Teachers who have been trained in Cookery work, and have
obtained certificates of qualifications. Under the London School Board,
Cookery classes are established in different centres in connection with
a large number of the schools; and to a less extent similar classes are
organized by the School Boards of some of the larger country towns.
Grants from the Education Department are annually obtained for the work
by these schools.

In New South Wales, the teaching of Cookery in connection with the
Public Schools has long been advocated; and about ten years ago,
special lectures on the subject, and demonstrations, were given under
authority; these did not, however, then lead to any practical results.
Early in 1886, Mrs. Fawcett Story, who had previously taught Cookery
successfully in connection with the Sydney Technical College, was
appointed, on probation, lecturer and demonstrator in Cookery and
Domestic Economy to the students at Hurlstone Training College, the
object being to qualify such students as Instructors of Cookery for
schools in which they would in the future be employed as
teachers. After three months successful work at Hurlstone, Mrs. Story's
appointment was confirmed and she has continued to carry on the work.
At first appointed "Instructress," she now takes rank as "Directress of
Cookery."

In 1889 a Cookery class was established at the Fort Street Public
School, and this proving successful, the instruction was extended to
other schools. Three classes of work were embodied in the plan arranged
to be carried out, namely:--

* 1. An Elementary Cookery Course,
*
* 2. A Plain, or Intermediate Cookery Course,
*
* 3. A Teachers' Course,
*
and at the close of 1890 the numbers receiving instruction had
reached 270.


In 1891 the work was extended to the Sydney and Suburban Schools.
Classes were also established in connection with those of Bathurst and
Goulburn, and arrangements for training a class of Pupil Teachers in
this important work were made and carried out. In 1891 the number under
Cookery Instruction in connection with the school reached 757, and
during the year 1892 arrangements were also made for extending Cookery
Instruction among the masses of the people on the basis already
described.

It should also be remembered that classes for Cookery Instruction have
for some years past been established in connection with the Technical
College in Sydney, and more recently in the similar colleges of the
larger towns and centres.

As far as Victoria is concerned, I am under considerable obligation to
Mr. T. Brodribb, the Secretary of the Education Office, Melbourne, for
the following information. It would appear that although the subject
has not been systematically taught throughout the schools, instruction
in Cookery has been given by experts to the elder female pupils in a
number of Metropolitan State Schools for the past two years; two
courses of 12 lessons being undertaken in each school between the
months of April and November. The instruction has consisted of the
preparation of plain wholesome dishes and sickroom Cookery; the proper
care and arrangement of the various utensils employed forming an
important part of each lesson. Reports obtained from Head Teachers show
that, in most cases, the lessons were productive of much benefit to the
children, and were thoroughly appreciated. At present, however, the
teaching of the subject has been temporarily interrupted; but it is to
be hoped that before long a recognition of its vital importance will
enable measures to be taken for its permanent continuance.


COOKERY IN ITS RELATION TO HEALTH.


We are drawing nearer and nearer to an appreciation of the power which
Cookery wields in the preservation of health, but this awakening as to
its value has been too tardy, indeed, it has been from a slumber of
centuries. Not that good Cookery has not been practised from time
immemorial, but its recognition from a scientific point of view is
almost within our own day; and even at the present time, dietetics, or
that department of medicine which relates to food and diet, is only
gradually assuming a position which is destined ultimately to become
second to none. Moreover, there is still ample room for improvement in
this direction, and matters will not be rectified till a comprehensive
study of food and its preparation, both for the healthy as well as the
sick, is embodied in the curriculum of modern medical education.

Not so long ago THE LANCET made reference to the Edinburgh School of
Cookery and Domestic Economy, which had been opened by the Princess
Louise. It was pointed out that good cookery had more to do
with health and comfort, and therefore with domestic happiness, than
any other known accomplishment. In the same article, moreover, it was
remarked that it would be out of all keeping with the position of
Edinburgh as a medical centre, if the importance, in sickness, of good
cookery and suitable food were not fully recognised. In conclusion, the
same authority expressed the hope that this commendable example would
be adopted by many other towns.

All this is satisfactory in showing that the preparation of food for
the table is a subject which can no longer be pooh-poohed, and there
are other signs and tokens which unmistakably point to the same
conclusion. As a proof of this it is only necessary to point to the
fact that eminent physicians have written prefaces to works on cookery,
and more than this, have contributed to the literature of the same.
There is a very excellent handbook by Phillis Browne, to which the late
Sir J. Risdon Bennett, a former President of the Royal College of
Physicians, London, contributed the prefatory note. In it he remarks,
the value of wholesome and properly-cooked food has never been
sufficiently understood or appreciated in the United Kingdom. "In
scarcely any other country," says he, "does so much prejudice and
ignorance prevail on the subject of food and its employment." And in
proceeding to speak of the growing tendency to make instruction in
cookery a part of ordinary education, he adds that this must be a
subject for sincere rejoicing with those who desire both the moral and
physical welfare of the poorer classes. This is not the only evidence
of interest which the same physician took in this matter, for he has
also written an admirable and lengthy article on Food and its Uses in
Health.

But there is another writer to whom the English speaking people are
deeply indebted for a knowledge of all that pertains to food
and cookery; I refer to Sir Henry Thompson, the eminent London surgeon.
His work on FOOD AND Feeding has already run through six editions, and
one can only hope that he will long be enabled to benefit his race by a
succession of issues. He has written other volumes on the same subject,
and further, by his contributions to THE NINETEENTH CENTURY and The
Lancet, he has materially raised the status of the culinary art. And
there are also quite a number of works on diet, and on food, written by
well-known authorities in the medical world, so that the science of
dietetics must eventually attain an unassailable position.

The preceding naturally leads up to the main point, namely, the
controlling influence which cookery exercises over health. Now if I
were asked to name the one single cause which produces more indigestion
than anything else, I should unhesitatingly answer, bad Cookery. Many
people Fun away with the idea that good Cookery is necessarily
elaborate Cookery, and that in consequence it is quite beyond the
ordinary purse. Such is not, by any means, the case, and as a matter of
fact good Cookery aims at getting the best possible results at the
least possible cost. Herein lies the excellence of French Cookery, and
as I have occasion to remark elsewhere, the bulk of the population in
that country live infinitely better than does the average Briton.

Indigestion, then, is the great primary result of bad cookery. But, on
the other hand, let us hear what Dr. Lauder Brunton has to say on the
score of food when properly prepared. "Savoury food," says he, "causes
the digestive juices to be freely secreted; well cooked and palatable
food is therefore more digestible than unpalatable, and if the food
lacks savour, a desire naturally arises to supply it by condiments, not
always well selected or wholesome."

But important as good Cookery, in itself, may be in its influence upon
health, there is still another essential, which must not be
overlooked. And it is that of variety. The oft-quoted phrase of
TOUJOURS PERDRIX bears upon this very point. It is a way of saying that
even a luscious dish when constantly repeated becomes wearisome, or, in
other words, that there is too much of the same thing over and over
again. And if a ceaseless repetition of the same dish--however well it
may be cooked--palls upon the palate, it is at least certain that it
is equally burdensome to the stomach. Dr. Horace Dobell well expresses
this fact when he says that it is of the highest importance to avoid
unnecessarily limiting the variety of food allowed to all persons, but
especially to those of poor appetites and troublesome digestions.
Monotonous, uninteresting meals depress the spirits and are subversive
of appetite, digestion, and nutrition.


COOKERY AS A PREVENTIVE OF DRUNKENNESS.


Plutarch tells us that Themistocles laughing at his own son, who got
his mother, and by his mother's means his father also, to indulge him,
said to the boy that he had the most power of anyone in Greece: "For
the Athenians command the rest of Greece, I command the Athenians, your
mother commands me, and you command your mother." In the same way it is
easy to make a defective system of education responsible for much of
the existing drunkenness. First of all we have a scheme of education
which fails to provide instruction in a girl's domestic duties; then we
have the wife who undertakes the task for which she has never been
properly trained; next, instead of well-cooked and very much varied
meals, we have a conspicuous and a disastrous failure; and finally, we
have the bread-winner driven to the public-house--and happiness has
left that home for ever. But this is an old story, yet, unfortunately,
it is a true one; and it will continue to be true until a clearer
perception of what a domestic training should be is more
universally recognised. I am sure that I do not exaggerate when I say
that millions of our English-speaking race are living this life without
the slightest glimmering of what domestic content might be theirs.
Surely the word "home" for the artisan should signify something more
than a place where he is badly fed. Still, it is a solemn fact that no
more concrete definition of the word has ever been forthcoming. Now,
such a state of affairs cannot be excused on the score of expense, for
the crowning triumph of good Cookery is its very cheapness.

It has already been mentioned that the late Sir J. Risdon Bennett did
not think it beneath his dignity to write a prefatory note to a Cookery
Book. He has also pointed out that Cookery is a subject which deserves
more attention at the hands of those who have the welfare of temperance
at heart. He believed that a knowledge of wholesome Cookery would do
much to make home happy; to keep the men away from dissipation and
intemperance; and to make the children healthy and cheerful. The same
idea is expressed by Sylvester, who remarked that Cookery should be
most popular, because every individual human being is directly
interested in its success. As he says, the real comfort of the majority
of men is sought for in their own homes, and every effort should be
made to increase domestic happiness by inducing them to remain at home.
And long, long ago a quaint old book, Markham's English Housewife,
published in 1637, contained the idea in a nutshell, as the following
quotation will show: "To speak, then, of the knowledges which belong to
our English housewife, I hold the most principal to be a perfect skill
in Cookery. She that is utterly ignorant therein, may not, by the laws
of strict justice, challenge the freedom of marriage--because, indeed,
shee can perform but half her vow--shee may love and obey, but shee
cannot cherish and keepe her husband."

Opinions such as these are based on the soundest common sense,
indeed no one could honestly oppose them. But it powerfully adds to
their weight to find them thoroughly endorsed by the representative
medical authority of THE BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL and THE LANCET; the
former has from time to time insisted upon the self-same truths, and
strenuously urged their practical adoption. These contributions are
somewhat too lengthy for complete reproduction, but the views expressed
may be briefly referred to. It was maintained that English people have
much to learn from the French methods of Cookery; that these are not
merely tasteful and appetising, but that they are extremely economical;
that materials which the English housewife throws away as useless, her
French sister skilfully converts into toothsome and nutritious food;
and that it is only an increased knowledge of Cookery which the poor
need to render life more agreeable.

THE LANCET also, in an admirable article on "Culinary Civilisation,"
spoke of the need of women becoming acquainted with the modes of
concocting palatable food, if they wished to maintain their domestic
power. It was further pointed out that if the husband was to be
prevented from neglecting his family, the wife must see that he had
well-cooked food at home. And lastly, it was tellingly set forth that
when women had fully mastered this lesson a step in civilisation would
have been gained, which would show in increased health, increased
prosperity, and happier domestic hearths.

But I cannot conclude this portion without a special reference to some
remarks by Madame Emilie Lebour-Fawssett. They occur in her most
admirable book FRENCH COOKERY FOR LADIES, and are so sensible that they
should never be forgotten. "I like," says Madame, "to place before my
husband, who has been hard at work all day long, a nice tempting
dinner, very much varied and well cooked; and I cannot, repeat it too
often, it is one of the strongest ties of home life, and I am sure many
a man in the day, when he is most busy, unconsciously smiles inwardly
at the prospect of the nice little dinner awaiting him at home, when
his hard day's work is over. Small, dainty, well-made dishes gratify
your husband's appetite, help to keep him healthy, prepare him a good
digestion for his old age, and save your purse."

In another part of the book, a little farther on, she remarks:---"One
of my chief objects also is to teach the great mass of people to make
better use of the numberless good things there are to be obtained, and
thereby keep their husbands away from the public-house. It stands to
reason that if a man who has worked all day comes home and finds
nothing warm and appetising prepared for him, he will go away quicker
than he came, and spend at the first hotel the money he would otherwise
have gladly spent on his family if his wife had tried and knew how to
make him comfortable; and, there is no denying it, the greatest
comforts a man can have after a day's work, be it manual labour or
brain work, are a good meal and a quiet corner in which to smoke his
pipe or cigar."


COOKERY IN THE FORMATION OF CHARACTER.


Yet, valuable as it may be in all these foregoing respects, Cookery has
something more to recommend it, which gives it precedence before
everything else in education; and though this is saying a great deal, I
shall endeavour to demonstrate that it is perfectly true. I have
already shown that Cookery is of superlative benefit, both in ensuring
health and in acting as a preventive against habits of intemperance.
But it is as a medium for training that Cookery is at its very best;
for it is in reality an art; indeed, it is a master art. At the same
time, also, it is a science--the science of applied chemistry.
There are no other elements of education which thus blend within
themselves these two factors--the practical and the scientific.

To commence with, Cookery requires accuracy. The instructions given
with any recipe are sufficient to show this. They tell you to take so
much of each thing, to proceed in a certain way, and even what time to
take in the cooking. It also calls for attention to detail.
Carelessness in Cookery is just one of the rocks on which disaster
occurs. An English duke, an ambassador at Paris, was desirous of giving
the CORPS DIPLOMATIQUE the treat of a real English plum pudding. The
fullest directions were given to his chef--all, indeed, with the
exception of mentioning the pudding-cloth. When the eventful time
arrived for its appearance, to his dismay several stately cooks
appeared, each carrying a tureen of dark-looking fluid. The omission of
the pudding-cloth was fatal. Cleanliness is another of the cardinal
virtues of Cookery. The very thought of anything else would be
repulsive. By the way, that fine old saying, "Cleanliness is next to
Godliness," does not come from the Scriptures, as many suppose, but
from one of John Wesley's sermons.

Cookery also exacts punctuality--for have we not Brillat-Savarin's
dictum that of all the qualities necessary for a cook the most
indispensable is punctuality? If any important matter connected with
the process of Cookery be not attended to at the exact moment it is
required, nothing can afterwards rectify it. A little delay in
attending to this thing, or a little delay in attending to that thing,
and whatever is being cooked is irretrievably spoiled. And, moreover,
it is not to be forgotten that cookery is of signal benefit in
inculcating the advantages of a wise economy. With proper Cookery
nothing should be allowed to go to waste, nothing should be thrown
away, unless it be absolutely useless. There should be good
housewifery; everything, even the veriest scraps, may be turned to the
best account. The stock pot will absorb many nutritious and wholesome
odds and ends, which would otherwise be consigned to the dirt-box. The
loss that actually takes place in many kitchens is without the shadow
of an excuse; sometimes the best part of a cold joint is deliberately
cast aside.


A NATIONAL PLEA ON BEHALF OF AUSTRALIAN SCHOOL COOKERY.


But there is still something else to be urged on behalf of Cookery, and
of School Cookery in particular, which places it immeasurably before
even the preceding. I have claimed for Cookery that it develops certain
habits which are of the greatest importance in the formation of
character; yet, as I have just remarked, there is something more than
this, which renders it of priceless value, and of what this consists I
shall do my best to explain.

Every one who has the welfare of Australia and of Australians at heart
must feel no little concern at that growing indifference to domestic
life which is so much the characteristic of our girls. Once a girl has
left school, she seems to think that the household is no longer any
place for her; she consequently ceases to take any interest whatever in
the many matters which constitute the management of a home: her one aim
is to get into "business," as it is called. It appears to be
immaterial whether she is to be a dressmaker, or milliner, or
saleswoman, or employee in a large establishment, as long as she gets
away from home.

Now, all this is greatly to be deplored, and has a disastrous influence
over the whole of Australian family life, because it must happen that
many of these girls eventually marry, and commence their new
existence under the most unfavourable conditions. In the first place,
they are totally ignorant of everything connected with household
management, and what is far worse, they have almost a contempt for it.
What the result is, in too many cases, I have already dwelt upon,--
either the husband and the family suffer from the effects of bad
Cookery, and unhappiness and ill-health follow, or else the bread-winner
flies to alcohol in order to forget his troubles.

It must not be imagined however, that this condition of affairs is
altogether beyond remedy, and that our Australian girls are hopeless in
this respect. No, on the contrary, those of whom I have just spoken are
as attractive and fascinating--as Australian girls always are; but it
is a thousand pities that they do not possess a greater appreciation of
the importance of home life. Still, after all, may it not be that our
educational system is defective in that it does not implant--all
through a girl's school life--a love of Cookery, and of domestic
management? It is during this impressionable age that all these truths
can be so well indoctrinated. Indeed, I am thoroughly convinced that
one of the greatest defects in the superlatively scientific education
of to-day, as far as the girls are concerned, is the neglect which
these matters receive; for it stands to reason that if they are passed
by during school life, they are never learnt at all.

And, further, it should not be forgotten that a cook is always able to
command high wages. That is a fact which should not be lost sight of,
although perhaps it is some what mercenary. A cook need never fear but
that she will always be in constant employment. Ah, yes! Max O'Rell got
in a home thrust when he declared that "the average woman who finds
herself alone in the world could earn her living if she could cook--
but she can't."




CHAPTER IX.



AUSTRALIAN FOOD HABITS AND THEIR FAULTS.--A PLEA FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT.


It is somewhat curious that, among the many questions which pertain to
the national life of Australia, little, if any, attention has been
directed to the influences which the daily food and habitual dietary
exercise upon the present, and in what way they will affect the future
population. And yet it must be apparent that the life of a nation is
moulded in no small degree by its daily fare, by its general food
habits, and still more by the fact of its living in conformity with, or
in direct opposition to, its climatic requirements. It is evident that
the natural dietary of the earth's inhabitants is controlled largely by
the particular region in which they dwell. Thus the Hindoos, and
contiguous Eastern nations, subsist mainly upon the cereals, in which
rice plays so prominent a part. The Greenlander's fare, on the
contrary, consists almost entirely of oils and fats; indeed, on this
point Sir Anthony Carlisle relates the following anecdote:--"The most
Northern races of mankind," says he, "were found to be unacquainted
with the taste of sweets, and their infants made wry faces and
sputtered out sugar with disgust, but the little urchins grinned with
ecstasy at the sight of a bit of whale's blubber." In the same way the
Arab is a date-eater and the Kaffir is a milk consumer. These facts
being borne in mind, it will be desirable to ascertain whether the
usual food habits obtaining in Australia are those which the nature of
the climate renders advisable. If, as a result of such an inquiry, it
be demonstrated that the dietary customs followed here are not
in harmony with the climatic conditions, it would, perhaps, be well to
suggest in what direction amendment should take place.

A reference to the isothermal lines in any physical atlas will be of
considerable value in assisting us to the elucidation of the subject
under consideration. These are certain lines drawn over a chart of the
earth's surface, on which are located those cities and regions where
the mean annual temperature is the same. Thus the mean annual
temperature of Sydney is 62.9 degrees; the corresponding line in the
northern world runs through Naples and Lisbon in Europe, and a little
below the central portion of the United States and California in America.
At Melbourne the average yearly temperature is 57.6 degrees, corresponding
in the old world to a temperature met with at Marseilles, Bordeaux, the
south of France and Northern Italy, while across the Atlantic a somewhat
similar climate obtains about the middle of the United States. The mean
annual temperature at Brisbane is 67.74 degrees; this is the same as that
of Algiers and the southern shores of the Mediterranean generally, and
coincides with that met with in New Orleans and the southern states of
North America. At Adelaide the average yearly temperature is 63.1 degrees,
and the climate is considered to greatly resemble that of Sicily. Now, no
other mode that I am aware of, such as this juxtaposition of localities
where the mean annual temperature is the same, will afford such a
convenient way of contrasting the mode of living which is practised in
Australia with that which is followed by the inhabitants of the regions
referred to in Europe. The cardinal difference, and one which stands
out in bold relief, is that the Australian food habits are
characterised by a preponderancy of meat diet and a corresponding
neglect of vegetable products. On the other hand, the dietary of
Southern Europe is in rational harmony with its climate, and
there is not that insensate insistence of a highly nitrogenous animal
fare to the exclusion of all else. The striking features, then, in
connection with the Australian dietary are this extraordinary
consumption of meat and the faith which is presumably attached to its
food value. It is no exaggeration to say that the vast majority of our
people believe implicitly in the necessity for meat at their three
daily mealy, and not only is this the case in the cooler parts of the
year, but it is practised universally during the height of the summer,
without being modified in the slightest degree. Thus the student of
ethnography is presented with the somewhat curious anomaly of a people
living in a summer temperature of 70 degrees or 80 degrees in the shade,
eating more meat than do the bulk of the inhabitants of Great Britain and
Ireland (with their ice and snow) during their winter months. It is one of
the characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon race, however, this inability to
appreciate the necessity of conforming to new climatic conditions in
which their lot may be cast. It will be the same, too, when the British
restaurant-keeper begins business in Equatorial Africa. For an absolute
certainty his bill-of-fare for the delectation of the unfortunate
colonist will consist of roast beef, Yorkshire pudding, plum pudding,
and the old familiar throng. Whether mine host has to consult the taste
of his client, or whether the latter has simply to accept what is
proffered, is not absolutely decided; probably they are both imbued
with a belief in the necessity of solid fare, regarding it as a solemn
truth beyond all possibility of cavil.

This abuse of flesh food in a climate like Australia would be serious
enough under any circumstances, but it is intensified and aggravated by
the direct unoriginality in dealing with meat. Is it not a fact that
there is no attempt whatever made to break through the conventional
chain of joints, roasted or boiled, and the inevitable grill or fry?
In how many houses does the breakfast ever consist of anything
but the ubiquitous chops, steaks, or sausages? indeed, one might almost
term them "the faith, hope, and charity" of domestic life. I remember
reading some little time ago that if a map of the world were made in
which lands of utter darkness were coloured black like the coalfields
in an atlas of physical geography, certain races would be signalised by
their opaqueness. If such a map were ever compiled, Australia would of
necessity be characterised by blackness; such a blackness, indeed, that
jet itself would be as snowy white beside it. But why should this
lamentable state of things be said of Australians, who claim to be
progressive in their ideas and advanced in their views, usages, and
customs?

In conjunction with this dietetic view of the matter, one of the
objects I have in writing is to direct attention to the great neglect
there is of vegetables, especially those of the more unknown varieties,
as an agreeable, desirable, palatable, and salutary element in the
Australian food life. One need not be a vegetarian to properly
appreciate the valuable properties of vegetables, and most people will
fare better and feel the benefit of a modification of their customary
dietary if they decrease the amount of meat they indulge in and
proportionately increase their vegetable allowance. Now, there are many
vegetables besides those ordinarily in use which might be easily
cultivated, and serve to form a pleasing variety at table. Once the
demand arises for kinds other than those usually grown, the inducement
for market-gardeners to supply them would be no longer wanting. A
reference to the catalogues furnished by the seedsmen and plant-merchants
of the different Australian metropolitan cities will show
that special attention is called to many of these vegetables, and yet I
am informed that, although they are continually inserted in the new
issues as they appear from time to time, no notice seems to be
taken of them whatever. I propose, therefore, briefly to describe some
of these comparatively unknown vegetables, and to point out their
merits and their claims for recognition.

The globe artichoke might be more frequently grown, as it is really a
good vegetable and easily cooked. It constitutes the flower head of the
CYNARA SCOLYMUS (one of the thistle family), and is gathered before the
flowers expand. The ends of the flower scales attached to the disc, and
the central disc itself, are the parts that are eaten, and they
constitute a delicately flavoured vegetable. It is extensively
cultivated in California, and is there to be met with in nearly all
hotels and restaurants. Another thing in its favour is that it is
peculiarly one of the vegetables which diabetics may indulge in without
fear. It does well in the cooler parts of Australia, and should
certainly be more generally grown.

The Jerusalem artichoke is not to be confused with the preceding, as it
belongs to a different vegetable genus altogether. It is a species of
sunflower, as its name denotes, the prefix Jerusalem being in reality a
corruption of the Italian word GIRASOLE, a sunflower. It resembles the
potato in that it is a tuberous-rooted vegetable, and grows readily
enough--in fact, perhaps it grows too readily, for once it takes
possession of the soil it is difficult to eradicate it. The Jerusalem
artichoke, however, is comparatively common here, and when cooked
properly it is a most delightful vegetable, although it may not be
sufficiently appreciated at first. It often happens that these
artichokes are of a bad colour, and too crisp when brought to table.
This is easily prevented, however, by washing and paring them like
potatoes and then placing them in a bowl of clear water, to which a few
drops of fresh lemon juice have been added. When boiled with sufficient
water to just cover them, and a liberal allowance of salt, for
20 min. to 40 min., they come out a snowy white and quite tender. They
are especially delicious when served up with melted butter and egg
sauce.

Asparagus.--Although this delicate and luscious vegetable is of the
easiest culture, and grows readily along the coast, yet to our shame be
it said that it is usually too much of a luxury for ordinary mortal, to
afford. Now, it is for the most part such a general favourite that one
may well ask why it is not more cultivated. The demand for it in
America is so great, and it yields such a good return, that some
growers, make 100 percent; and upwards yearly profit for each acre. Is
it not a severe reflection upon our market gardeners, to find that the
imported preserved varieties of asparagus are so esculent that the very
stalks, are as, luscious as the heads of the vegetable? In its fresh
state it should be eaten as soon after cutting as possible, and, like
the globe artichoke, is readily allowable to diabetics. It is somewhat
curious, too, that the asparagus, and the globe artichoke are the only
vegetables which the British race eat as, a single dish.

Brussels sprouts are the most delicate of all the borecoles, and it is
a thousand pities that this delightful vegetable is not more often to
be met with. These miniature, cabbages, however, require some little
care in their rearing, and hence amateurs often fail to reach
perfection in their cultivation. They may be boiled like cabbage, in
abundance of water and a little salt for 15 minutes, then drained,
dried, and finally tossed in butter with a little pepper and nutmeg.
They do well enough, as does the borecole or kale itself, in all the
cooler parts of Australia.

The cardoon, like the globe artichoke, belongs to the thistle family,
yet it is, more hardy and robust than the latter. It is readily grown,
particularly in the cooler districts, and, like many other of the more
unknown vegetables, is too much neglected. Its leaf-stalks
should be at least an inch and a half thick before they are ready for
cutting. They are then blanched, and when cooked recall somewhat the
flavour of the globe artichoke. These tender leaf-stalks are used in
soups and salads, and it may be boiled also in a similar manner to
sea-kale, in which latter form it is especially palatable.

The celeriac or turnip-rooted celery is a very choice vegetable, and is
much cultivated on the Continent. Its nutty root is not at all unlike
the solid root portion of common celery in taste, which by many is
considered superior in flavour to the other parts of the latter plant.
The celeriac is greatly esteemed, and is known as the CELERI-RAVE BY
the French, and as the knoll-selerie by the Germans. The latter,
indeed, are so fond of it that they call barely talk of it without
moist eyes and watery mouths. It is hardier than celery, and possesses
an advantage in that it can be taken up and stored similarly to carrots
and beets. The celerific may be boiled as a table vegetable or used for
flavouring soups, or it may be sliced for salads. It does well in all
the cooler parts, and might be cultivated with benefit, mingled with
gratitude.

The egg plant, or aubergine, does so exceedingly well, and can be so
highly recommended, that one may well wonder why it is never seen. It
is a native of Africa and tropical America, and is very popular both in
the East and West Indies. It is cultivated also a great deal in the
United States, where it is greatly appreciated for culinary use. In
AUBERGINES FARCIES, a favourite dish, they are cut in hakes, the
centres chopped and put back into the skins with oil, &c. They are then
sprinkled with breadcrumbs, and browned. It is easily grown, and it
seems unaccountable why it should be passed over.

The kohl rabi, or turnip-rooted cabbage, is another nutritious
vegetable which has inexplicably never been received into
public favour. Its delicate flavour should ensure for it a
well-established position with those who are fond of good vegetables, as
it is more tender and more savoury than either turnip or cabbage, and is
not at all unlike cauliflower in taste. For table purposes it should be
only about two-thirds grown, for if allowed to go to full size the
outside skin becomes tough and hard. It is another of those vegetables
which are so highly prized on the Continent, and it is already an
acknowledged favourite in America. It does well in all the cooler
localities, and gives a larger yield than turnips.

The salsify, or "vegetable oyster," is a typical example of a most
unaccountably slighted vegetable with us, and yet it is highly
appreciated on the continent and in the United States. The root is long
and tapering, becoming fleshy and tender by cultivation, and with a
whitish, milky-like juice. It has a rich flavour, not at all unlike
that of cooked oysters, whence it derives its value. In preparing
salsify for table the darkish outside skin requires to be lightly
scraped off, and then it should be steeped for a while in cold water so
as to remove any slight bitterness it may possess. Like parsnips, when
cooked it requires to be boiled slowly, in the smallest possible
quantity of water, until it is almost ready to melt. If boiled fast, in
abundance of water, the savour of both parsnips and salsify is to a
great extent dispersed and lost beyond recall. One of the most approved
methods of cooking salsify roots is to slowly boil them to tenderness
in the smallest possible quantity of milk, and then to mash and fry
them in butter, with salt and pepper. Cold boiled salsify, with the
addition of some chopped herbs, tarragon vinegar, and salad oil, makes
an exceedingly good salad. The salsify does well in all the cooler
regions, and, moreover, it is easily grown.

Scorzonera.--This Spanish plant is very similar to salsify,
and requires the same kind of treatment; but, being a stronger grower,
requires more room in its culture. It may be served in soups or treated
like salsify. The outside leaves should be removed before the vegetable
is cooked. The blanched leaves also are highly esteemed on the
Continent, and are used for salad purposes. It grows well in all the
cooler parts of Australia, and might certainly be introduced for the
public benefit.

Sea kale is one of those vegetables which are brought to perfection in
England, so much so that Careme, that mighty CHEF, when he came across
them in London went into ecstasies. He described them as resembling
branches of celery, which should be served like asparagus, with butter
sauce, after 20 minutes' boiling. In some respects this is verily the
most delicious of all vegetables, and as it grows well here it should
be largely cultivated, yet it is almost unknown. It is fit to rank
with, if not precede, asparagus, and as a matter of fact it is far more
profitable than the latter, so that market gardeners would have
something to gain by its introduction. Like the cabbage, it was
originally a maritime plant, and has been brought to its present state
of perfection by cultivation. It requires to be thoroughly blanched by
exclusion from light, similarly to celery, for when coloured at all it
possesses an acrid taste. Of the many ways of sending it to table, one
of the best is to boil it and serve it on toast with a little melted
butter. It should be largely cultivated, as it does well all along the
coastal parts, being, as already mentioned, a maritime plant.

Sweet corn is deservedly a great favourite with those who know of its
succulent flavour and nourishing properties. Unfortunately, however, it
is with us only in the imported tins from America, and therefore we can
only conjecture how delicious it must be when fresh. It is so
commonly met with in the fresh form in America that it is found at
nearly every dinner table. Large areas where land is not expensive are
devoted to its growth, and hundreds of acres are required annually for
the New York markets alone. It does splendidly in all parts of
Australia, and for growing children it constitutes one of the most
nutritious vegetables that can be well imagined. On this latter account
alone, therefore, it is really a matter for national regret that it is
so improperly passed over. One thing requires to be borne in mind, and
it is that the cobs of ordinary Indian corn which are seen in so many
country districts must not be confused with this sweet corn, as the
latter is entirely different.

These nutritious, although somewhat unknown vegetables, therefore,
evidently deserve to be brought into prominent notice, and once public
interest is aroused, their cultivation and ready sale will speedily
follow. At the same time it must not be forgotten that the tomato
itself had a desperate struggle for reception into public favour when
first introduced to us. It actually trembled in the balance for no
inconsiderable time, and it was some years before its good qualities
were universally recognised. To-day, however, it occupies a very
different position, and takes rank as a luscious vegetable, appreciated
by thousands of people; and besides, it is of undoubted value in many
disorders of the liver. But now that the Agricultural Colleges are in
full swing in the different colonies, notably in New South Wales,
Victoria, and South Australia, it is certain that the greatest possible
good to the whole community will result. Their effect, too, in
indirectly populating the agricultural areas of Australia will
materially aid the great work of decentralisation.

But apart altogether from this matter of the introduction of vegetables
which have hitherto been overlooked is another which is hardly
less important. I refer to the crude cookery which is bestowed on the
ordinary vegetables at present in daily use. That there is sny monotony
in an endless recurrence of boiled potatoes, boiled cabbage, boiled
this and boiled that, never seems to occur to the vast majority of
people in this country, who seem incapable of understanding that these
different vegetables are worthy of being served in an infinite number
of ways. It will doubtless shock those who cling to this beliefs but
the following remarks by Dr. Mitchell, an English physician practising
in Paris, directed against his own countrymen be it understood, are
forcible enough:--"The plain boiled potato," says he, "whatever else
it may be, is clearly a cattle food; so for the matter of that are
cabbages, carrots, turnips, beans, peas, and almost every other
vegetable when plain boiled. None of them in that condition would be
"refused by a cow in fair appetite." Now, there are so many appetising
ways of preparing vegetables for table, and at no additional expense,
that it is lamentable to find people offering no protest against this
feeble exhibition of culinary skill. Why, if there be nothing in the
preparation of vegetables for the table beyond plain boiling, it must
be acknowledged that Cookery has made mighty little progress since the
time it first came into existence.

Having seen, then, what faults exist and what improvements might be
made, it may well be asked how these latter are to be brought about,
or, rather, how can Australians be induced to life in accordance with
climatic requirements? The answer Is by no means easy. It may be said,
in truth, that till the great mass of the people recognise their food
faults, reform will not be of a national character. As I have already
said, the acceptation of that valuable and nutritious vegetable fruit,
the tomato, took years to accomplish. In the same way, I fear, a
universal recognition that excessive meat indulgence is a
climatic error will take many decades before it is an article of
national belief. In the schools, Cookery must form an all-important
part of a girl's education--not a superficial knowledge of the
science, but practical instruction, thorough, complete, real. The
dietetic properties of meat, vegetables, of salad vegetables, and of
fruit, from an Australian standpoint, should be so thoroughly
inculcated that a proper conception of their respective food values
should remain for a lifetime. The prizes for proficiency and excellence
in culinary matters, too, should be such as to render them worth the
winning, and serve as a stimulus for future exertions.

Is it not strange that so far ingenuity, universal approval, or general
consensus of opinions call it what you will, has not up till the
present given us an Australian national dish? Although tea and damper
instinctively arise in the mind when the matter is referred to, yet I
take it that we would all repel such an accusation if levelled against
us. Does the Australian, moreover, away from his native land perpetuate
his patriotism by oft partaking of this pastoral fare? Certainly not.
Well, when this national dish is composed and formally approved of by
the nation, let us devoutly trust that it will be a MACEDOINE of
vegetables, or a vegetable curry, or some well-concocted salad. It is
true that in one of the cookery books I have seen a dish of peaches,
dubbed PECHES A L'AUSTRALIENNE. It is a sort of compote of peaches, but
to the best of my belief it is simply entitled Australian for the sake
of giving it a name, and for no other reason.




CHAPTER X.



AUSTRALIAN FISH AND OYSTERS--AND THEIR FOOD VALUE.


Anyone looking backwards upon the history of Australia cannot fail to
be impressed by one peculiar feature, which is the more distinctive,
too, because it is in striking contrast with all else. It is the more
noteworthy also, because it affects each individual inhabitant of this
island continent, and has a direct bearing on the daily life of every
person is the community. Thus, on the one hand, while we are nearing a
maximum of progress--or, at any rate, attaining to a high level of
success--in political matters, in commercial affairs, and in athletic
prowess, yet, on the other, there is unfortunately an apathetic
indifference in all that concerns our public and family food habits,
which after all constitute the national characteristics of any people.
It is true that we have gained the dignity of responsible government,
that our wool and frozen meat are entering the markets of the world,
and that in the athletic arena our fame is spread both far and wide.
Yet it must be confessed that our national food-life has not conformed
to climatic requirements in the slightest degree since the memorable
day on which Captain Cook set foot on these shores. As those on the
Endeavour lived then, so live are now. On the continent of Europe it
will be found that the manners and customs, even of contiguous
countries, are as widely different as it is possible to imagine. Surely
then, it is, to say the least of it, curious to see the inhabitants of
a semi-tropical country like Australia living in wilful contradiction
to their climatic necessities, and eating the same kind of food as did
their fathers in the old land, with its dampness its coldness, its ice,
and its snow.

Yet, notwithstanding the fact that reflections of this kind are
interesting in the highest degree, I propose to do no more than
consider the matter exclusively from the standpoint of the subject
heading of this chapter. Here, again, we are directly confronted with
an inexplicable anomaly--I refer to the want of enterprise shown in
developing the deep-sea fisheries of Australia. Now, if the dwellers of
this land had sprung from an entirely inland race, this would not,
perhaps, have been so difficult to understand; but arising, as we do,
from a stock the most maritime that the world has ever seen, such a
defect redounds not to our credit as inheritors of the old traditions.
At our present rate of fisheries development it will take centuries
before we will be able to produce anything to even approach the
International Fisheries exhibition of the old country in 1883. At that
memorable exposition His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, in the
course of his conference paper, gave expression to the following
stirring words:--"From the earliest ages the inhabitants of the coast
of the British Islands have made the sea contribute to their food. This
pursuit has produced a race of men strong, inured to hardship and
exposure, patient and persevering in their calling, brave, prompt, and
fall of resource in the face of danger; intelligent and amenable to
discipline, from the daily habit of subordinating their own wills to
that of anyone whom they know is placed in authority over them for the,
purpose of directing their labours and working with them for the common
benefit; accustomed to co-operate with others for the attainment of a
certain end. These qualities are not only exercised from early youth,
but are inherited and intensified from generation to generation. The
foundations of the great position which this kingdom has attained
amongst the nations of the world must, in some measure, be attributed
to our fishermen, for they were our first sea-men; and, from small
beginnings, our seamen increased in number and in skill, until the
whole nation was leavened with that love of maritime adventure which
has resulted in peopling the uttermost parts of the earth with our
race, and in establishing that empire upon which the sun never ceases
to shine. In earlier times our first maritime commerce must have been
conducted by our fishermen, who also manned our fighting navies. The
fisheries of the West of England were the nurseries of the sailors who
enabled Drake to circumnavigate the world, and, as he said, to 'singe
the King of Spain's beard' on more than one memorable occasion."


THE DEFECTIVENESS OF OUR AUSTRALIAN FISH SUPPLY.


That fish should be, comparatively speaking, so scarce in Australia can
only be regarded in the light of a national calamity. And not only is
the supply deficient, but what little there may be is so outrageously
expensive that it is hopelessly beyond the reach of an ordinary purse.
It is so excessive in cost that it must almost be bracketed with
poultry as a luxury only to be indulged in after lengthened periods. I
have been told, when making inquiries on this point, that the reason
why fish is so dear is that this is not a fish-eating community, and
that consequently there is no demand for it. But, on the other hand, I
find that almost everyone I ask is really fond of fish, and that they
do not eat it simply because they cannot obtain it at a reasonable
price, and this undoubtedly is the true explanation.

But this same scarcity of fish has exercised other people besides
myself, for Mr. Alexander Oliver and many others have repeatedly drawn
attention to the same deficiency. It has been the primary origin of a
Board of Fisheries, it had brought forth Parliamentary Select
Committees, and it has produced endless opinions and suggestions on the
part of the public. Now, I am quite willing to admit that there
should be proper supervision over the working of the Fisheries Acts,
and that existing grievances should be rectified; but, with all due
deference, it seems to me that the finger has not been placed on the
exact reason why failure occurs in our fish supply. For I say this,
that you may do what you will to protect and supervise the shore and
inland fisheries, and you may even increase the yield from these
sources to an encouraging extent, but that till the deep-sea work is
thoroughly taken up and properly developed there will be no cheap fish
for Australia. It has been stated that if the deep-sea fisheries of the
United Kingdom fell through from any reason, half-a-million of its
inhabitants would be brought face to face with starvation. And even
these enormous figures include only the fisher-folk themselves, and do
not take into account the vast army of buyers, curers, dealers, &c.,
who are dependent for their very existence upon the fishing industry.
Take away the deep-sea fisheries from the old country, and its whole
fish supply would practically be at an end. In the same way by the
development of our Australian deep-sea fisheries--and by the
development of the deep-sea fisheries only--will it be possible, in my
humble opinion, to increase the supply and cheapen the price of fish so
that it will form part of the dietary in every dwelling.

There was an important select committee appointed by the Victorian
Government, a short time ago, to inquire into the unsatisfactory
condition of the fishing industry there. It examined a great number of
witnesses, and its investigations extended over a large area. Amongst
other things, with a view of encouraging trawling operations, it was
suggested--


"That a careful survey be made of the sea-bottom in the neighbourhood
of our coasts and in Bass' Straits, and the part suitable for
trawling properly charted. That a few sets of trawling apparatus of the
most modern kind be procured by the Government, and Applications
invited from the fishermen at the various ports for permission to use
these trawls, free of charge, under certain conditions for a limited
period. That the Government fit out a steamer for the purpose of
collecting and conveying to Melbourne the fish obtained by the
trawlers, the steamer to be provided with cooling chambers, &c."


A number of different matters were also considered, and, in addition,
it was thought that, in order to afford the general public greater
facilities for obtaining fish, the sale should not be confined to the
metropolitan market. It was, therefore, recommended that stalls in the
various markets for the sale of fish by auction and otherwise should be
opened in the leading suburbs of Melbourne; and that the corporation
officer in the metropolitan market, to whom the fish was consigned,
should regularly distribute to each of these suburban markets such a
quantity of fish as experience would show the particular locality
demanded. To a certain extent all this is very satisfactory, but
unfortunately select committees have arrived at very similar
conclusions over and over again. All their recommendations have never
yet been attended by any practical result, and an adequate fish supply
for Australia appears to be as far off as ever.


OUR PRIMITIVE METHODS OF FISH CAPTURE.


About the last place one would expect to come across a really fine
piece of delicate humour is amongst official correspondence, and yet in
a formal letter from Dr. E.P. Ramsay, the Curator of the Australian
Museum, to Sir Saul Samuel the following passage occurs. Speaking of
the New South Wales exhibits at the International Fisheries Exhibition
of London, 1883, the doctor proceeds to remark:--"People here,
imagining that we must have already developed extensive fisheries, from
the large collection of food fishes which we exhibit, were not
less surprised at our very limited materials and methods of capture
than at the immense undeveloped wealth of our fisheries and fish
fauna." Now, I venture to say that a more unconsciously subtle
insinuation at the crude methods of fish capture at present employed in
our Australian fisheries was never penned. But what makes it so keenly
effective is that it really hits the right nail on the head. In giving
evidence, also, before Mr. Frank Farnell's select committee of 1889,
Dr. Ramsay, upon being asked whether he thought our fishermen were
abreast of the times with regard to appliances, replied:--"They are
about 200 years behind the times."

To my mind another most convincing proof of the crude methods of fish
capture employed in Australian waters is to be found in the following.
In one of the Fisheries Reports it is gravely recorded that "some very
valuable gear IN GENERAL USE amongst English, Norwegian, and American
fishermen, had been destroyed in the Garden Palace fire, but that the
commissioners had been able to replace the otter-trawl and the
beam-trawl." The very fact that these appliances, in active use at the
present time by those in the foremost front of fishery enterprise, are
regarded in the light of curiosities in Australia, proves only too
forcibly the correctness-of this opinion as to our primitive fishery
appliances.


THE BEAM-TRAWL IN DEEP-SEA FISHING.


It must not be imagined that trawling has never been advocated (indeed,
it has even been experimentally practised), for we have only to look
through the various Fisheries Reports to find it repeatedly referred
to; unfortunately, however, these appeals so far have been without any
practical results. It will, therefore, be most instructive to refer
briefly to the manner in which trawling and other modes of
deep-sea fishing are carried out elsewhere; and more particularly to
bring under notice the enormous fish yield effected by them. Trawling,
or as it is more properly termed, beam-trawling, may be described as a
method of deep-sea fishing, in which a large bag net is towed along the
ground so as to scoop, as it were, the fish into its receptacle. There
are at least several important stations in England for trawling; some
in the English Channel; some on the west, and also on the Welsh coast;
and others again (amongst which is Grimsby, the largest fishing port in
the world) on the east coast on the North Sea. The trawling grounds of
the latter are widely known, and comprise the famous Dogger Bank, which
covers many hundreds of acres in area. In its neighbourhood, also,
there are numerous grounds such as the Inner and Outer Well Banks, and
there are others again nearer the English coast. In addition to these
there is the Great Silver Pit, discovered in a severe winter in 1843;
and it has been noticed that during the winter months the fish frequent
the deeper water, because the temperature is more equable than in
shallow places. The depth at which trawling is usually carried on
varies from 20 to 30 fathoms; never under any circumstances reaching 50
fathoms--the depth of the Silver Pit being from 35 to 45 fathoms.

It was formerly urged against trawling that it was very destructive to
the spawn, at that time supposed to be lying on the sea bottom. But the
investigations of the late Professor Sars, for the Swedish Government,
into the spawning habits of sea fish, have conclusively revealed the
fact that the ova of fish float on the surface of the water during the
whole period of their development. Not only have the floating ova of
the cod and haddock been reared, but the common plaice, the
representative of the flatfish family, including the brill, the
sole, and the turbot, is also known to spawn near the surface. The eggs
of the mackerel and the garfish have likewise been found floating, and
successfully hatched. Now, no fish comes so close to the land as does
the mackerel, yet it is certain that it never makes its way into the
estuaries and inlets till after spawning is finished--for that it
spawns in the open sea is almost without a doubt. These facts
consequently do away altogether with the old statements concerning the
destructive results of trawling.

The yield from the English trawleries alone is computed to be over
200,000 tons annually, and as the price for trawled fish at the
Billingsgate market averages 12 pounds per ton, this represents about two
and a half million pounds. And, in addition to these weighty figures,
Professor Huxley's words deserve to be well remembered, for, says he,
"Were trawl fishing stopped, it would no longer be a case of high
prices, but that ninety-nine out of a hundred would hardly be able to
afford any at all--herrings and a few other fish caught in the old way
excepted." Indeed, it is chiefly by this method of beam trawling that
London and the interior are supplied with brill, turbot, and soles;
while by it thousands of tons of plaice, haddock, and other fish are
brought within the reach even of the poorest.


DRIFT-NET AND OTHER DEEP-SEA FISHING.


Important though the beam-trawl may be, there is another mode of deep-sea
fishing which deserves to be well known by us in Australia, and
which undoubtedly must come into general use before we can make any
pretensions with regard to our fisheries. I refer to that by means of
drift-nets. As the trawl is absolutely necessary, on the one hand, for
capturing fish which frequent the bottom, so, on the other, the drift-net
is essential for those whose resort is the upper portion of
the sea. It is by this method alone that fish like the herring, the
mackerel, and the pilchard--which may be termed surface fish--are
caught in great quantities for food supply.

Now, in Australia, we have vast shoals of migratory fish visiting the
coast at different periods of the year. During the winter season
enormous numbers of herrings come to these shores, and are permitted to
depart without any effort being made to capture them. Attention has
been repeatedly called to this strange neglect in our fisheries, for
this herring is plentiful and is considered to surpass the famous
Scottish herring itself in flavour. The mackerel, too, is to be met
with annually, generally about midwinter, in immense shoals, passing
near the coast upwards in a northerly direction. The sea mullet also
makes its appearance towards the end of the summer months, usually from
April to June, at the very time when it is in splendid condition and
full of roe. It is always observed to be proceeding towards the north
in successive shoals and in great numbers. Many consider its richness
and delicacy of flavour to be unequalled. The driftnet system of
fishing would be well adapted for it--if the meshes were larger than
those for the herring--as when fully grown it is nearly two feet in
length. And lastly, it will only be necessary to speak of the "maray,"
which is practically the English pilchard. As with the fish just
mentioned, it is met with about midwinter, passing up north in
countless numbers, sometimes covering miles of sea.

As the name implies, drift-nets are not worked from the shore, but they
are "shot," as the saying is, in the open sea, and allowed to drift in
whatever direction the tide may take them. Each drift-net will measure
about 180 feet in length by about 30 feet in depth. They are secured to
one another at the ends to form a long single line, perhaps two miles
in length. By means of floats the nets hang perpendicularly in
the water, thus forming a long wall against which the fish "strike,"
and get enmeshed by being caught in the gill opening. The nets are kept
on the stretch by being "shot" in the face of the wind, and the vessel
from which they are paid out, being to leeward of them, drifts more
rapidly than they do, and consequently keeps them well extended.

My object, however, is not so much to enter into the details of these
different methods of deep-sea fishing as to indicate their value and
necessity, if we are to have any fisheries worth speaking of. I shall,
therefore, do no more than briefly mention a few other modes of fish
capture. Thus, at the mouth of the Thames, thousands of tons of sprats
are caught every winter by means of the large bag net, known as the
stow net. In shape it is like an enormous funnel, 30 feet high, 20 feet
wide, and nearly 180 feet in length. By means of this contrivance the
yield of sprats is so great that there is often some little difficulty
in disposing of the catch. The renowned whitebait, too, which are
believed to be young herrings, are caught by means of a similar, though
much smaller, net.

Besides these and various other forms of net fishing, there are the
methods in which the long line is employed. For the capture of the cod,
both in Newfoundland and in the North Sea, what is called the bultow is
used. This is a long line many hundreds of-feet in length, and at every
twelfth foot shorter and smaller cords called "snoods" are fastened.
These "snoods" are about 6 feet long, and have the hooks attached to
their free ends. The bultow is "shot" across the tide to prevent
entanglement of the hooks, and is laid in the afternoon. At daybreak,
when the lines are hauled in, as many as 400 of the large cod sometimes
result from the catch. There are various other appliances used for fish
capture in different parts of the world, such as the purse-seine net,
the trammel net, the otter-trawl net, &c.; and, as I have
already pointed out, the most scathing satire on our fisheries is to
find all these necessary means for catching fish regarded as
curiosities. When they are no longer considered so, it will be a
fortunate time for Australia.


BENEFITS FROM THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR DEEP-SEA FISHERIES.


What would the proper development of our deep-sea fisheries mean? In
the first place, it would lead to a more widely diffused use of fish as
an article of diet, within the easy reach of all classes, being thus of
incalculable value from a health point of view. Next, it would ensure
employment to many hundreds, and eventually to many thousands, both
directly and indirectly, and as a natural consequence this would bring
about the creation of a sturdy and desirable maritime element in our
population. And lastly, it would yield a more than satisfactory return
on the outlay invested.

At the present time only the veriest few of our metropolitan population
are able to afford the luxury of fish, and people in the country towns
hardly see it at all. So, too, we are casting about for this plan and
for that plan to lessen a growing difficulty in the Australian
metropolitan centres. There are village settlements (which certainly
deserve to be successful), and other proposals made to relieve a
surplus population, but yet no one has suggested the sea as a means of
remedying this congestion. And not only would the fisheries confer upon
its followers a healthy calling, but they would raise a vigorous stock
of which Australia might well be proud. In addition to all this, a
proper development of our deep-sea fisheries would assuredly open up a
new avenue for investment. Is it not amazing that men will risk all
they have in mines which are not even real, and which exist, only on
paper? And besides this, in the most genuine mine that was ever
worked there is at least a costly outlay for production, for crushing,
or for smelting, before the metal sees the light of day; but in the sea
the catch is ready for the market, and only requires the bringing to
land.

This matter, therefore, must be taken up earnestly, and there must be a
determination to succeed. In the first place, and before all else in
the deep-sea fisheries, I maintain that a proper and systematic search
for trawling grounds is absolutely essential. Till this is done he
cannot for a moment pretend that we have endeavoured to foster them in
any way. All the elaboration of your proposed Fisheries Acts, and all
the details connected with the working of what may be called shore
fishing, sink into nothingness when compared with the results which
would follow the working of our deep-sea fisheries. I have already used
the argument before, and do so again, and it is this: that if you were
to take away from the old country her deep-sea fisheries, she would be
practically without any fish supply.

Apparently it is imagined, too, that unless trawling grounds be
discovered in the vicinity of Sydney or Melbourne, all efforts will be
useless. But it will only be necessary to refer to the deep-sea
fisheries elsewhere to at once set this objection aside. Some of the
great trawling grounds in the North Sea are at such a distance from
port that it would be quite impossible for any vessel to bring its own
catch to market for disposal, for the fish would be utterly spoiled
before it could be done. But the larger trawling boats go on cruises
extending over weeks, and are constantly visited on the grounds by what
are called "carriers," i.e. steamers, who run their freights directly
into market. The same thing is practised by the Dutch vessels, who fish
in the neighbourhood of the Shetland Islands for weeks
together. In the same way carrier vessels attend upon their fishing
fleets, and carry off the take immediately to Holland. Being in
possession of these facts, therefore, we must not be induced to believe
that deep-sea fishing is not possible, simply because suitable grounds
for trawling, &c., may not be actually within coo-ee of the Australian
metropolitan centres.


FISH MARKETS OF SYDNEY AND MELBOURNE.


There are one or two matters in connection with this subject which
deserve having attention called to them. In the first place the method
adopted in our Woolloomooloo Fish Market of placing the fish in little
heaps on the floor itself, when put out for sale, is not satisfactory.
In the Redfern Fish Market they are placed in small divisions or
receptacles--each lot by itself--and raised above the floor, where
they are protected from injury. In the new Melbourne Fish Markets,
there are elevated platforms for the fish, and they are thus quite
above the cemented floor. Not only are they prevented from being
damaged, but it seems to me that the buyers have a better chance of
seeing the fish when it is raised a little distance above their feet.

The size of the fish lots for sale in the Sydney and Melbourne Fish
Markets varies, and this opens up a somewhat debatable point. with us
the lots are comparatively small, both at the Woolloomooloo and at the
Redfern Market; while at Melbourne, on the other hand, the lots are
much larger. When the lots are small it gives private buyers a chance
of purchasing (but how many private buyers are there before
breakfast?), and is said in this way to raise the price for the
dealers. But with the larger lots the latter are said to be able to buy
to more advantage, and thus supply the public with cheaper fish. To say
which is the better of the two plans is very much like being
asked to solve the query in the story of "The Lady or the Tiger."

But before leaving this matter I should like to refer briefly to the
new markets in Flinders Street, Melbourne. They are called the City of
Melbourne Meat, Fish, and Farm Produce Markets, and are most extensive
in area. The viaduct which connects the two railway systems of Victoria
pierces the very centre of these new markets. They are replete with
every modern appliance for the storage and disposal of the food supply
of a large city. There are numerous chambers for the frozen meat, and
by means of what is called a "lock," a whole train can be received into
a long covered gallery. The two gates are then closed at either end,
and the meat is thus received directly into the freezing chambers,
without the slightest loss of any cold air. The fish and game are
treated exactly in the same way, except that the receiving and delivery
"locks" are not quite so large as in the former case. Still, there is
just the same facility for their reception into the freezing chambers
set apart for the purpose. The whole arrangements of these new fish
markets are very perfect, and leave nothing to be desired.


THE "MIDDLEMAN" CONTROVERSY.


This is one of the topics which is continually cropping up in
connection with the fishing industry in Australia. It is noteworthy,
too, that the middleman in some shape or form appears to be part of the
system of fish selling in every part of the world. At Billingsgate,
where they are termed "bummarees," it is stated that they fulfil a
useful office in that they act as distributors to the small
costermongers, who could hardly get along without them. The "bummarees"
watch the market and speculate accordingly, and it must be urged for
them that they run great risks from the unexpected arrival of a
large amount of fish with a consequent glut in the market. But the
"bummarees" pure and simple are comparatively few. Their ranks,
however, are swelled in the following way: A salesman, having disposed
of his own fish, will "bummaree" for the sake of the possible profit,
or a fishmonger, having purchased a double supply for a cheaper price,
will "bummaree" half his purchase. In France the procedure is
different. First of all there is an agent termed an ECOREUR, deputed by
various persons and armed with purchasing power, who is ready to buy
the fisherman's catch at once. This simplifies matters wonderfully for
the fisherman, who gets ready money and has no further bother. Next,
from the ECOREUR the fish is bought by the MOREYEUR, or trader, who
despatches it to Paris and the other large cities. Thus, so far, the
fish, after leaving the fisherman, has passed through two hands, those
of the ecoreur, and those of the MOREYEUR. After this it has to face a
most unjust tax--the OCTROI--by which all provisions are specially
taxed before entering the "barriers" of any French city or town. Hence
the initiated, when travelling in France, often reside on the outskirts
of a town, just outside the barrier, where the cost of living is
reduced by one-third. On arriving at the markets the fish is publicly
disposed of by the FACTEURS A LA CRIEE, or auctioneers, who of course
are paid for their trouble. Lastly, it is bought for sale to the public
by the POISSARDE, or fishwife. And thus we see from the time of leaving
the water till finally it reaches the unfortunate public the fish has
passed through no less than six levies, that by the fisherman, the
agent, the trader, the OCTROI (I.E. the city toll or town due), the
auctioneer, and, finally, that by the fishwife or costermonger.

Having thus explained the system pursued in England and in France
respectively, it will be interesting to refer briefly to the different
methods with regard to the disposal of fish practised in the
Woolloomooloo, the Redfern, and the Melbourne Fish Markets. At the
former, the sales are conducted by Mr. Richard Seymour, the inspector
and auctioneer of the fish market--with other auctioneers--who act
directly from the Sydney Municipal Council; the Redfern markets are
conducted by the Messrs. Hudson; while in Melbourne there are licensed
auctioneers, who pay for the privilege.

But to return to our middleman, upon whom the whole controversy
centres. Indeed, the discussion over him in Melbourne, not so long ago,
might be said to have reached to a white-heat phase. But the. premises
on which the arguments were based were so hopelessly conflicting that
it was impossible to logically settle the point. It was claimed, on the
one hand, that the price the fishermen received was cruelly small in
comparison with that which the public had to pay. On the other, the
contention was that the price paid to the fishermen was fairly
satisfactory, and that the public obtained comparatively cheap fish. We
have seen, however, what takes place in other parts of the world, and,
indeed, every one must admit that there is a remarkable difference
between the price which the fisherman gets and that which the public
have to pay. Between these two extremes there is an inordinate
disparity, and the difficulty is to connect the two together--to bring
to light the leakage--and to find out who is living both on the
fisherman and the public at one and the same time. On this point a
recent Fisheries Report of Victoria says:--"The solution of the very
important question of providing a larger and cheaper fish supply for
the masses rests mainly in the hands of the public. The present high
prices are maintained in virtue of a monopoly which can be only
successfully combated by the initiation of a healthy trade competition
or a more open fish market. The fishermen, under existing auspices,
reap but a small share of the retail produce of their takings, such
being further reduced by the high rates for transport they are called
upon to pay. In this last-named direction some relief might be afforded
by the institution, if necessary by Act of Parliament, of a uniform
tariff for the carriage of fish by road and rail throughout the
colony."


THE DISTRIBUTION OF FISH TO THE PUBLIC.


This brings me to one of the most difficult matters that has to be
dealt with in considering the fish supply of any great city. For you
may have the most extensive deep-sea fisheries, you may have the most
rapid transit of the fish to town, and you may have the most commodious
fish markets; but if you have no proper means of distributing the fish
to the public the whole scheme falls to the ground. At present the
system both in Sydney and in Melbourne is to have the one principal
fish market (there are now two in Sydney, by the way), from which all
supplies for the public are derived. Of course it is perfectly
competent for the latter to obtain their purchases in the early morning
at the time when the sales are conducted; but, on the other hand, the
hour is exceedingly inconvenient, and, as a general rule, the lots are
too large for the private buyer. Hence the distribution of fish depends
almost wholly upon the costermonger or basket-man, who takes his fish
round to the public. The basket-man, or costermonger, or dealer--call
him what you will--is an indispensable personage, and what is more, he
fills a most useful office. It is true that he is given to making
strange outcries, and that he is at times boisterous in speech. Yet,
notwithstanding these things, he is a valuable member of
society, and personally I have a very great respect for him. Indeed, I
am certain that he is the food-bearer to many homes, and people would
otherwise be put to very great straits in obtaining their supplies. Our
friend, however, has usually a long round to travel before he can make
a good living, and perhaps he is unable to cope with the requirements
of his large district.

It is on account of these difficulties, therefore, that I recognise the
value of the French method of distribution, for besides the Halles
Centrales, or principal markets, in Paris, there are in all nearly
sixty local provision markets where it is possible to obtain, under
cover--in all weathers and at any time--whatever is required. It is
most desirable that something of this kind should be adopted in
Australia. At least it is quite certain that every suburb should
possess its own local market. This need not attempt to rival the
central depot, but take rank as a local necessity.


FISHMONGERS AND THE SALE OF FISH.


This is naturally in intimate connection with the preceding, and it is
very advisable to refer to it in order to direct attention to one or
two matters. In the first place, I shall commence by saying that both
Sydney and Melbourne are lamentably deficient in fishmongers' shops
similar to those which are so common in London. As a matter of fact,
the show of fish exposed for sale is in striking contrast to that of
meat. For in Sydney and suburbs alone the butchers' establishments run
to the number of nearly 600, while in the Melbourne metropolis they
even exceed this. One has only to look through the directories of
either Sydney or Melbourne, under the heading of "Fishmongers," to see
how few their numbers are. In our own city, Chinnery, of Hunter Street,
and Matterson, of Pitt Street, make a highly creditable show,
and in the southern capital, Jenkins, of Swanston Street, is well known
for his excellent display. Otherwise the exhibition of fish for sale in
either city is disappointing in the extreme, and is nothing less than
an abject confession of our inability to develop our own natural
resources.

There was formerly in Melbourne, however, a most admirable firm known
as the Mutual Provedoring Company, whose premises were centrally
situated near the main suburban railway station. Their show of fish was
something to behold, and I do not remember to have seen it surpassed,
even in the old country; and, in addition, they hit upon a very
excellent device--one so good, in fact, that it is well worthy of
imitation. That is to say they gave to every customer a capital fish
cookery book, written, indeed, by our own Mrs. H. Wicken. It was a
well-compiled production, and contained a goodly number of practical
and economical recipes, having special regard to our Australian fish.
In this way they did splendid work, as by means of the FISH DAINTIES
(the title of the book) they popularised the use of fish. Now, it is
greatly to be regretted that this firm no longer exists, because if
ever there was a venture which deserved support, it was surely this.
But I am no pessimist in these matters, and verily believe that before
long this company, or one similar, will be in full swing again, and
that the public will thereby benefit in every conceivable way. As far
as Sydney is concerned there is a different state of affairs, and it is
with genuine pleasure that I refer to the New South Wales Fresh Food
and Ice Company, of whose enterprise and praiseworthy efforts I must
express my sincere approbation. It is a good thing for the whole
community that their endeavours have been crowned with such marked
success; and I am very certain that, without any exaggeration whatever,
one is justified in saying that this company have been of
unmistakable service to their numerous customers, and that by their
distribution of fish throughout New South Wales, quite a number of
invalids, as well as of healthy people, have every reason to be
grateful. Their exhibition of fish in King Street is at all times most
satisfactory. Moreover, schnapper and other prime fish are often sold
there as low as 4d. per lb., a price at which no one can complain.


THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE OYSTER.


Attention has been thus far entirely directed to the topic of fish, so
that it now becomes necessary to turn to that of oysters. It will be
found, however, that the actual state of affairs in connection with our
oyster fisheries is not at all inspiriting. But before entering upon
this matter it will perhaps lead to a better understanding of the whole
question if some preliminary remarks are made upon the subject-heading.
In doing so it will be most desirable to have recourse to an account
given, not so long ago, by Professor Huxley--at that time Inspector of
Fisheries--since he speaks with the weight of authority. Referring to
the oysters in the old country, he says that during the summer and
autumn months, from about May to September, according to varying
circumstances, the oysters pass into a peculiar condition known to the
fishermen under the name of "sick." In this state the greater number
contain a whitish substance, consisting of numberless granules held
together by a sort of slime. The whole is known as "white spat," and
the numberless granules are really the oyster eggs. Slowly and slowly
the interior of the eggs assumes a darkish hue, tinging the whole mass
so much that it is then termed "black spat." Within the space of a
fortnight the mass of "black spat" breaks up, and the young oyster is
set free.

Mr. Frank Buckland has been fortunate enough to actually see
this taking place. The oyster appears to await its opportunity, it
stealthily opens its shell, and a lot of spat looking like a dense
cloud is ejected. After a minute or two another cloud appears, and this
is continually repeated till the performance is concluded. Myriads of
young oysters thus liberated from parental control now enter upon the
free swimming or locomotive stage of their existence. That is to say
they remain near the surface of the sea, although incessantly moving in
every direction.

After a variable time, however, they suddenly descend and attach
themselves to any suitable substance, on which they at once become
distinctly visible in the form of white dots. In their restless stage
they are scarcely discernible by the naked eye, but they settle down so
rapidly and in such numbers that they appear to fall down through the
water. This is known to oyster fishermen as a "fall of spat," and we
shall see that this fall of spat is an important occurrence, but that
it varies greatly in different seasons.


THE FAILURE IN THE NEW SOUTH WALES AND VICTORIAN OYSTER SUPPLIES.


In both New South Wales and Victoria the condition of affairs in
connection with the oyster fisheries and the oyster yield is extremely
discouraging. So much so, that unless something is done--and done
quickly--we may have to rely mainly on outside resources for our
supply. Even at the present time this is the case to a greater extent
than most people have any idea of. In support of this statement, as far
as New South Wales is concerned, it is only necessary to turn to the
last Fisheries Report for the year ending 1890. There it is pointed out
that in that year, notwithstanding the enormous length of our
oyster-bearing foreshores, we are brought face to face with the fact that
we are indebted to other colonies--New Zealand and Queensland--
for TWO-THIRDS of our supply. Again, Mr. Lindsay Thompson, the chief
inspector of New South Wales fisheries, in his recent official work,
THE FISHERIES OF NEW SOUTH WALES, makes the following statements:--In
the year 1871 no less than 93,000 bushels of oysters were obtained from
the New South Wales beds, which, indeed, helped to supply the Victorian
as well as our own needs; in the year 1883 there was a fall to 46,377
bushels; while in 1891 our fisheries yielded only 14,181 bushels. This
is a very significant shrinkage, and shows a remarkable falling off in
the winnings. It is still maintained by some, however, that there has
been a succession of bad spatting years, and that the supply may yet
reach to something of its old proportions.

It will be instructive, then, in this connection to refer briefly to
the efforts which legislation has made to remedy matters in New South
Wales. Under the old Oyster Beds Act of 1868 the areas given to lessees
were somewhat large, and consequently what with the prolific natural
supply, and a relatively small population, they appeared to be doing
too well. It was urged, therefore, that the holdings should be more
restricted in size, and that in this way a large number of small
occupiers would be afforded a means of living, while at the same time
these smaller areas would receive more attention. By the Fisheries Act
of 1881 a new era dawned upon the oyster fisheries of this colony, and
a system of licensing small holdings was initiated. Under this Act
licensed dredging was permitted, but with such disastrous results that
within two years a Fisheries Act Amendment Act had to be passed. What
happened, in short, was that the beds were actually skinned, so that
the total disappearance of the oyster was looming in the distance. But
even the passing of this latter Act was powerless to check the evil,
and by the Oyster Fisheries Act of 1884 (the present Act) there
was a reversal to the old system of long leases and larger holdings.
Even at the present time matters are far from perfect, and in the
opinion of the Commissioners of Fisheries some radical change is
necessary if oyster production is to have a place at all. Now, it is
true that the present Act has checked the wholesale extermination of
oysters on the part of licensed dredgers. But, unfortunately, in its
passage through Parliament, some unhappy amendments totally altered the
intention of the Bill. For instance, one clause makes it penal to
remove oysters from a reserve or leased area without authority; but
omits the protection of oysters on adjoining foreshores which may not
be under lease at all; and it has accordingly happened that
unprincipled persons have proceeded to rob the adjacent unleased beds
of every single oyster they contained.

But while faulty and inoperative legislation may be responsible in part
for the failure in our oysteries, it is certain that other causes must
be at work to bring about such a disastrous result. And in the
different annual reports on the fisheries of the colony this is
attributed to various reasons. Thus at some places, between the
Richmond and Port Macquarie, it has been set down to the presence of
quantities of decomposing sea-weed on the oyster beds; in the Manning
to deposits of mud and sand; and elsewhere again to the ravages of a
small worm. Besides these causes, too, it has been ascribed to the long
continued absence of floods, with a consequent increased salinity of
the water--the latter being considered inimical to oyster life. In the
opinion of scientific writers, water containing 3 per cent. of salt is
most suitable for oyster development, water above that salinity being
too strong, and that below it too weak. It has also been well pointed
out by Mr. henry Woodward, in his admirable pamphlet on Oyster Culture
in New South Wales, that most of our deep water beds are
situated in the rivers, a little way from the sea. Under favourable
circumstances there is just that commingling of the fresh water from
the river and the salt water from the sea which produces the oyster to
perfection. In times of drought, however, the salt water drives out the
oysters from the deeper beds by reason of its greater density. On the
other hand, the fresh water, being the lighter, floats at the top and
enables the oysters to live in the shallower parts, by maintaining the
required 3 per cent. of salinity. It is evident from this, that the
lessees have acted in direct opposition to this natural law, for they
have stripped the oysters from the shallow water, where they would have
done well, and laid them down on the deep beds, where the increased
percentage of salt water has proved too much for them.

Dr. James C. Cox, of Sydney, the President of the Fisheries Commission,
and our best known authority on conchology, has contributed a very
valuable paper upon "The Australian Oyster, its Cultivation and
Destruction," to the recent official work, THE FISHERIES OF NEW SOUTH
WALES, already referred to. A brief summary of his views will,
therefore, be full of interest. First of all, then, he separates
oysters into three classes, namely, drift oysters, mud oysters, and
rock oysters. Now, this classification must be clearly borne in mind,
as it will the better enable the reader to understand what follows. He
attributes the want of success in our oysteries to several causes,
which have not been sufficiently heeded. One of these is that the
oyster culturists have expected that the seed oysters which they
obtained from between high and low water mark (rock oysters) would
produce drift oysters if placed on beds on which drift oysters once
throve in abundance. Dr. Cox maintains, however, that these two kinds
of oysters, the rock oysters and the drift oysters, are quite
different, and, as it will be seen, believes that they require
different food. It can be well understood from this, then, that rock
oysters will fail to grow on drift-oyster beds.

As to the mud oyster, he thinks very highly of it, and regrets that it
has been so ignored by our oyster culturists. He is quite sure that if
our mud oyster were cultivated and educated as it is now in Europe, it
would be brought to the same perfection as the European and American
oyster. It has been said of our mud oyster that it will not keep, and
will not carry; but the same was said of its European representative
until its cultivators came to discover that by a gradual process of
raising it could be educated to keep quite long enough for all
commercial purposes.

To come to the real point on which Dr. Cox considers that all oyster
culture has failed in Australian waters. It is an established fact that
the drift oyster and also the mud oyster require a diatomatic food for
their existence. These two varieties of oysters no doubt consume other
forms of food, but living diatoms constitute by far the greatest part.
On the contrary, the rock oyster does not appear to need the diatomatic
nutriment to sny extent, and is fed chiefly by larval forms of marine
life. Thus, knowing that the drift and mud oysters require different
food from the rock oyster, it is easy to see why our oyster culturists
have failed in establishing new beds of oysters in various places. For
the whole purport of Dr. Cox's paper may be summarised into expressing
his belief that sufficient attention has not been devoted to the
replenishment of our natural beds, WITH THEIR OWN KIND.

In former days, when our drift and mud oysters were in their prime,
there were many pools of naturally preserved fresh water--in fact,
often very extensive lakes--on the banks of many of the
estuaries and inlets running up into our rivers and creeks. Now, these
reservoirs appear to have been constantly supplied by subaqueous
springs of fresh water, and in consequence the supply of diatomatic
food was abundant. It was abundant, because, as it is well known,
diatomatic life depends for its existence, to a great extent, on the
presence of fresh water. These collections of fresh water no longer
exist, so that the diatomatic food supply is not forthcoming to
maintain the drift and the mud oyster. But there are other additional
causes for the disappearance of these latter. The surrounding ground
has been cleared for agricultural purposes, and the earth, broken up by
ploughing, has been washed into these estuaries, and has suffocated, as
it were, the oysters in their natural position. Again, the water which
flows over the oysters is continually being disturbed by the different
steamers passing up and down. The stirred-up mud they create gets into
the gills, and destroys the oysters.

From the preceding it will be seen that Mr. Cox is of opinion that the
loss of diatomatic food is one of the principal causes in diminishing
the supply of drift and mud oysters, and in addition he believes that
this decrease has been also brought about by muddy water. Indeed,
fairly clear water is absolutely necessary for their existence. On the
contrary, water loaded with any sediment interferes with the functions
of the oyster so much as to destroy it. In this way floods are
considered to be beneficial, and even almost necessary, to proper
oyster development; for they clear out the accumulations of mud, silt,
and marine vegetable growth, thus giving the beds every chance. And
further, Mr. Thomas Whitelegge, of the Australian Museum, has made some
investigations into what is known as the "worm disease," due to the
POLYDORA CILIATA. It was commonly suppose that it was not the
worm itself which was fatal, but that by boring through the shell it
afforded entrance for the fine mud, which quickly destroyed the oyster.
From the result of his researches, however, Mr. Whitelegge believes
that the young worm simply swims into the open oyster, and that it
immediately begins to construct a tube and collect a large quantity of
mud. The worms appear to have the power of collecting a large quantity
of mud in a very short time. The mud is covered over at once by the
oyster with a thin layer of shelly matter, thus enveloping the worm,
together with its mud. After this, one of two things happens: if the
oyster be healthy, it envelops the worm and mud so quickly as to
dispose of the intruder for good; but, on the other hand, if the oyster
be unhealthy, or already infested, the shelly deposition is far slower,
as a consequence of which the worm gains the ascendency, and the oyster
succumbs.

In Victoria, too, the oyster fisheries are in a most unsatisfactory
condition. According to Mr. Saville Kent, the author of THE GREAT
BARRIER REEF OF AUSTRALIA and formerly Commissioner of Fisheries in
several of the Australian colonies, and who is qualified to speak on
these matters, the destruction of the oyster there has been brought
about by sedimentary deposits, by parasitic growths, such as sponges,
mussels, ascidians, and sea-weed; by the attacks of the dog-whelk and
other natural enemies; and by their continual removal by human agency.
He points out that there are the remains of magnificent natural beds in
different parts, but that they are on the verge of ruin through neglect
on the one hand and the invasion of poachers on the other. In short, he
very plainly shows that unless active measures be taken for their
general resuscitation and development, Victoria will have to look
elsewhere for her oyster supply.


THE RE-CREATION OF OUR OYSTER FISHERIES.


If one only looks to the conduct of some of those who have been engaged
in our oyster fisheries, the reason for their present defective state
will be readily apparent. The Fisheries Commissioners well express it
when they state that "If a person takes up ground only for the purpose
of collecting and selling whatever oysters he finds upon it, and
bestows no care in providing for the continuity of the supply, that
ground must cease to be productive." And apart from this it will be
found that even when every effort has been made to provide for
continuous supply, yet the matter is by no means easy.

The truth is the oyster fisheries have been managed in a happy-go-lucky
way. There has been but little care taken in their conservation, and
the inevitable result is that the winnings, as the official figures
show, are rapidly failing. The same thing is not peculiar to Australia,
however, and has happened everywhere else where the same careless
policy has been pursued. We have, then, a grain of comfort from the
fact that it is not confined to us. In our own case the Fisheries
Commissioners have repeatedly called attention to the need for certain
legislative reform in connection with our oysteries. They assert, in
fact, that "it is absolutely imperative that our oyster beds and
deposits must be regulated on quite a different system to that which
obtains under the existing law."

Mr. Saville Kent, who has been investigating the cause of failure in
connection with the oyster fisheries of Victoria, not so long ago, has
made some interesting recommendations. The principle of his system is
to establish on selected spots, in the neighbourhood of the formerly
most productive natural oyster grounds, small Government reserves,
whereon stocks of oysters shall be laid down and carefully
cultivated for breeding purposes. He points out that the capacity of
oysters for breeding is greatly augmented when they are collected
together in a small space, in comparison with that of equal numbers
thinly scattered over my extensive area. Each reserve in this way
constitutes a prolific breeding centre for stocking the surrounding
waters, and by this means alone the process of restoring the natural
beds is quickly accelerated.

Indeed, he is particularly careful to draw attention to the fact that
in the previously attempted establishment of artificial oyster
fisheries a prominent error was in working too large areas. One or two
acres intelligently cultivated can be made to produce far more
substantial results than a very large area under inefficient
management, and at much less expenditure of time and money. A vast
amount of money has been expended in different localities on the
Victorian coast for the purpose of developing the oyster fisheries. In
the great majority of cases, however, the site selected was unsuitable
for such a purpose, and the mode of culture adopted impracticable and
inefficient. For instance, one place was the recipient of a vast amount
of sedimentary deposits. Here he found that they had surrounded the
chosen areas with fences of great height and strength, and closely
wattled, for the purpose of catching and retaining the young oyster
brood. Instead of this, however, they had simply acted as "catch-pits,"
which had accumulated soft oozy mud to the depth of several feet, and a
few dead oyster shells were the only result.

Instead of such an evident failure as this, he recommends oyster-spat
collectors of two kinds, one consisting of extra thick split palings 4
ft. long by 8 in. wide, with a brick attached to each end to weigh them
down, and at the same time to raise them off the ground. Several of
them on being raised for inspection, after three months, were found to
have over 1,000 embryo oysters adhering to them. The other form
of spat collector he employs consists of cemented slates, arranged
ridge-wise on light ti-tree frames, and in some localities these were
found to be even more efficacious than the palings.

In the old country the same necessity for oyster culture is well
recognised. In an interesting address given not so long ago, Professor
Huxley, after referring to the growing scarcity of the bivalve,
expressed his belief that the only hope for the oyster consumer was
first in oyster culture, and secondly in discovering a means of
breeding oysters under such conditions that all the spat was safely
deposited. France has done more than any other country in the world in
the artificial culture of the oyster. Not many years ago the oyster
fisheries there were in danger of absolute extinction--a state of
affairs brought about by reckless and unrestricted fishing, without any
effort to provide for a re-supply. Mainly through the efforts of M.
Coste, the propagation of oysters was scientifically carried out, with
a result that has even exceeded the marvellous. According to a recent
French official report, the Bay of Arcachon contained in the year 1807,
20 private PARCS, or district oyster beds. In the year 1865 these had
increased to the number of 297, with an output of 10,000,000 oysters.
In the year 1887, the area under cultivation in the same bay amounted
to 15,000 acres, and produced 300,000,000 oysters. In addition to this,
a still later report attributes the present flourishing condition of
this industry "to the steps primarily initiated by the Government, and
to the necessity of upholding this success by continuing the same
system of administrative supervision, together with the practical
illustration in the Government model PARCS of the most perfected
methods of oyster culture, for the benefit of private cultivators."

And lastly, if we require further evidence in support of the
necessity for ostreiculture, we have only to turn to America. A falling
off in the supply led to an inquiry into the cause by the United States
Fish Commission. Professor Goode, in his review of the work
accomplished by this body, writes, INTER ALIA:--"The important
distinction between the extermination of a species and the destruction
of a fishery should be noted. In the case of fixed animals like the
sponge, the mussel, and the oyster, the colonies or beds may be
practically exterminated, exactly as a forest may be cut down. The
preservation of the oyster beds is a matter of vital importance to the
United States, for oyster fishing unsupported by oyster culture will,
within a short period, destroy the employment of tens of thousands, and
the cheap and favourite food of tens of millions." "Something," the
professor proceeds to say, "may be effected by laws which allow each
oyster bed to rest for a period of years after each season of fishing
upon it. It is the general belief, however, that shell-fish beds must
be cultivated as carefully as garden beds, and that this can only be
done by leasing them to individuals. It is probable that the present
unregulated methods will prevail until the dredging of the natural beds
ceases to be remunerative, and that the oyster industry will then be
transferred from the improvident fisherman to the care-taking
oyster-culturists." We are thus led to the inevitable conclusion that if
our Australian oyster fisheries are to be re-created, it will be necessary
to follow in the same lines. With that object in view, therefore, it
will be needful to devise suitable legislative enactments to protect
our oyster fisheries and to foster ostreiculture at the same time. We
must benefit, in short, by the experience derived from other parts of
the world where ostreiculture has been carried to a state of absolute
perfection.


THE FOOD VALUE OF THE OYSTER.


In the first place I shall begin by affirming that it would be a
difficult matter indeed to say too much in favour of the oyster. It is
as highly appreciated at the present day as it was by the Romans
hundreds of years ago, and it is certain that in centuries to come it
will be found occupying a similar unrivalled position. At the same
time, it must not be forgotten that it is not every person who cares
for the oyster, showing that there are various forms of affliction; and
we find, accordingly, that there is no half-heartedness about the like
or dislike for the oyster--it is either held in the loftiest
admiration, or looked upon almost with repugnance. It is both food for
the sick-room and food for the strong man. It is one of the most
valuable forms of nourishment for the growing child, and it gives
strength to those of declining years. It is specially appropriate for
the brain worker, and yet it is deservedly in great repute with the
muscle user--whether athlete or artisan. It is the opening ceremony at
our feasts, while it reigns supreme at supper. In short, there is
everything to be said for it, while not a single word can be urged
against it.

But if it is thus so highly appreciated in health, it is in disease
that it is at its best; for here it occupies a place which nothing else
can fill. Indeed, after many cases of acute or serious illness, the
oyster is one of the first things which the patient looks for. In many
chronic disorders, too, it is absolutely without a rival. Thus, in
anaemia, where the blood is so poor, it restores the strength; in
bronchitis and other chest diseases it helps to relieve the loaded
tubes of phlegm; in consumption and similar wasting maladies it
conserves the vital powers; in debility it creates new force; in
indigestion it is often digestible when all else is
indigestible; in nervous disease it renews the nervous energy. The
list, in fact, might be multiplied indefinitely, but enough has been
instanced to prove the value of the oyster. It should be added, in
conclusion, that it is best eaten raw, with its juice, which is its
blood mixed with sea-water. A squeeze of lemon is generally employed to
bring out its flavour, and, for those who are not invalids, a sensation
of cayenne pepper is distinctly an improvement.


THE FOOD VALUE OF FISH.


Along with its great ally, the oyster, fish undoubtedly occupies one of
the highest places on the food list. Unfortunately, it is not met with
in every home as it should be, its high price and scarcity combining to
make it conspicuous by its absence. That such a state of things is
actually the case in Australia can only be deeply deplored. Let us
suppose, for instance, that we were as well supplied with fish as we
are entitled to be, considering that we are of a maritime race and that
we live near the sea. If such were the case--and I would it were so--
how would a sudden reversal to the present state of our fish supply be
received? Would it not give rise to protestations, to indignation
meetings, to questionings in the House, and to the papers being filled
with complaints, till matters were put right again? Yes, indeed, all
these things would happen! meanwhile, however, we continue placidly in
our fishless state of existence, and the finny tribe, outside in the
deep sea, have a good time in consequence.

It may seem of little use, therefore, to call attention to the value of
fish when we are practically bereft of it. But as some improvement may
come about in course of time, the attempt will not be altogether thrown
away. First of all, then, it is worthy of note that in the old country
that advocate for rational feeding, Sir Henry Thompson, has
recently expressed his opinion that a large proportion of the town
population would profit by exchanging some of their meat, as an article
of daily diet, for fish. He further adds that the digestive system is
apt to become overloaded and oppressed by meals consisting chiefly of
meat, and that many a constitution suffers from an over-supply in this
way, which cannot be remedied without a considerable amount of
exercise. That being the case in the old country, with its cold, damp
climate, these facts are intensified a thousandfold when they are
applied to our semi-tropical existence. Dr. T. K. Chambers, also,
another authority on all that pertains to diet, is an advocate for a
more general use of fish in our daily life; and, as he sagely observes,
every sort is best when it is cheapest, for it is then most plentiful
and in fullest season. Then, again, we have Dr. F.W. Pavy, who is well
qualified to speak on these matters, observing that fish is an
important article of food. For, as he proceeds to point out, the health
and vigour of the inhabitants of the fishing towns, where fish may form
the only kind of animal food consumed, show that it is capable of
contributing, in an effective manner, to the maintenance of the body
under active conditions of life. Dr. Horace Dobell, too, tells us how
nearly fish represents in food value as equal weight of meat, and how
important it is to other forms of animal food as a mixed diet. Indeed,
it would be possible to adduce similar statements to an indefinite
extent, but my main object in making these references is to call
attention to the value of fish as ordinary diet. And although it hae an
every-day value of this kind, there are in addition certain qualities
ascribed to fish which render it particularly appropriate for a large
and important section of our population.

I refer to the brain workers. I say large and important, because in
their ranks are to be found literary men and journalists,
members of the professions, active-minded, busy men of the commercial
world, and the vast array of those having mental work and clerical
occupations. In one of the latest books on the subject of food and diet
by Dr. Burney Yeo, he remarks that it is the custom to speak of fish as
an "intellectual" or "brain" food, on account of the phosphorus
contained in it. But he adds that much of its reputation in this
respect may be due to its being readily digested by persons of
sedentary and studious habits. He proceeds to quote Louis Agassiz, the
famous naturalist, who bestows upon fish the following:--"Refreshing
to the organism, especially for intellectual labour; not that its use
can turn an idiot into a wise or witty man, but a fish diet cannot be
otherwise than favourable to brain development."

But if fish is thus a necessary and desirable element in the dietary of
our active daily life, it is not to be forgotten that it is at least
equally valuable for the invalid. It is often tolerated by the stomach
when the digestive powers are weakened from any cause. When the system
is recruiting after any exhausting illness, it is usually amongst the
earliest forms of nourishment allowed. In many chronic disorders,
likewise, it is just one of those things whose place it would be
impossible to fill. And, lastly, it should be ever remembered that many
men whose lives are passed in a state of perfect thraldom by reason of
their extravagant use of butcher's meat would find themselves better in
health, better in spirits, and better in temper, were they to curtail
their allowance, substituting fish in its place.




CHAPTER XI.



ON SALADS; SALAD PLANTS AND HERBS; AND SALAD MAKING.


"A SALAD IS A DELICACY WHICH THE POOREST OF US OUGHT ALWAYS TO COMMAND."



Although for some years past any information pertaining to salads and
salad-making has been eagerly welcomed by the writer, yet it must be
admitted that great difficulties in obtaining such know-ledge in
Australia do exist, because the use and value of salads are not
widespread and understood, and thus it is that their health-conferring
properties are passed by seemingly without regret. And if the topic,
therefore, is one possessing an attractive personal interest, for that
very reason it is felt that the present chapter falls far short of what
might be achieved; yet it may be permissible to plead in extenuation
thereof that its composition has not proved the easiest of tasks, and
its shortcomings must consequently be condoned by an indulgent public.
I shall begin, then, by saying that if ever there was a form of food
which was intended for our semi-tropical climate it is undoubtedly the
salad, and as thus constituting an article of diet so well adapted for
Australia it should certainly be seen daily in every household. It is
so appropriately suitable for use amongst us that it deserves to be
intituled "the sea-breeze of the table," for in addition to its
invigorating qualities, it cleanses, while at the same time it
enriches, the blood. The late gifted George Dallas did not go too far
when he asserted that a salad was not merely food, but that it had also
an exhilarating effect and a distinct action upon the nervous system,
which was immensely agreeable and acted like a spell.

It seems more suitable, however, instead of abruptly plunging
into the matter of salad concoction, to say a few words from a culinary
point of view on the art of making life enjoyable, and thus to draw
attention to the curious neglect which is shown to a form of food
within the reach of all classes, and whose use would be of the greatest
advantage to the health and pleasing to the palate. At the same time,
although an ardent believer in the distinct benefit which would be
derived by the entire community from the adoption of a mode of living
more in harmony with their climatic surroundings, yet I must disclaim
any desire to pose as a "faddist." In truth, there are too many worthy
people who would submit all the world to their theories in a
Procrustean fashion, and who see in their particular hobby a panacea
for the whole of human frailties and human sufferings. Instead,
therefore, of dilating on the undeniable consequences attached to the
reasonless use of animal food at present followed throughout Australia,
I shall content myself with a few remarks on the art of living. By far
the greater number of people pay too little attention to the present,
and imperil their happiness with the hope that at some future period,
when they will have put a little together, they will be enabled to
thoroughly lay themselves out for enjoyment. But in the vast majority
of cases these halcyon days never arrive, or, if they do, it is more
than probable the health is undermined by the neglect of those very
matters which should form part and parcel of one's daily existence. It
is the exact parallel to a man hurrying through many fields and parks
and gardens for the purpose of enjoying, from some high eminence, the
scene through which he has passed. In his desperate haste to attain his
object he disregards all that is beautiful and interesting, only to
find that his travelling is nearly over, and that his steps cannot be
retraced. On the other hand, a far more philosophic frame of
mind belongs to him who, as he proceeds onwards through life's journey,
gets a rational enjoyment out of his existence, so that his days pass
pleasantly and his health receives the consideration it deserves. It
will appear somewhat mundane in this connection to assert that the
latter and, therefore, happiness are to a great extent dependent upon
the mode of living, but nevertheless it is absolutely true, and thus it
is that I come back to the quotation at the beginning of this chapter--
"A salad is a delicacy which the poorest of us ought always to
command."

You will remember that the Duc de la Rochefoucauld, in those marvellous
essays and maxims of his, says that notwithstanding the disparity of
men's fortunes happiness is equally distributed. He was doubtless
right, more especially as he looked at the matter from a Frenchman's
point of view, for it must be remembered that to the great body of
people in that country life is more pleasant than to the rest of
humanity. Indeed, on this point Mr. Sept. Berdmore declares that in
France dishes are cooked by the humblest which would be appreciated if
they appeared on the menu of the best club in London, and he avows,
moreover, it possesses the greatest national school of cookery that has
ever existed. But, on the contrary, as far as Australia is concerned,
the state of affairs in the culinary art with the bulk of the people is
simply deplorable, and it seems. well nigh hopeless for any improvement
to be brought about. There is, however, one little ray of light at the
end of this dark tunnel we are in, and it is the knowledge that the
cookery classes in the public schools will by-and-by bring about
important changes, resulting in the amelioration of the whole of the
culinary habits at present, curiously, supposed to exist. And it is
gratifying to know that the admirable cookery classes at the Technical
College, under the able guidance of Mrs. Wicken, are making the most
excellent progress and producing brilliant results.

These altruistic reflections, however, have somewhat drifted us
away from the matter under consideration, so that it becomes necessary
to revert again to the main subject. Now, even at the risk of being
regarded as wearisome, I propose to consider somewhat fully the
different steps to be followed in the preparation of a simple salad,
for it will be noticed that in all the cookery books the directions
given for the concoction of a salad are most meagre and wanting in
detail. In addition to this want of information, too, it is quite
evident that the instructions have never been actually followed by the
compilers of these works themselves, or they would signally fail if
they attempted to follow their own advice. Furthermore, even those who
pride themselves on the knowledge of the preparation of food for the
table are often surprisingly misinformed on the subject of salad-making.
It will be as well at this stage, consequently, to refer to the
plan usually followed by English people, so as the better to contrast
the two methods--the faulty or English with the correct or French.
Well then, English people almost invariably cut their lettuce first
into halves, and next into quarters. These latter are then placed in
water to soak for some time, and are afterwards laid on a plate to
drain. In this way the leaves are supposed to be thoroughly cleansed,
but as a matter of fact deep down between the leaves are the minute
insects, which are left undisturbed. The next proceeding is to cut the
leaves into very fine shreds, to add a few slices of hard-boiled egg,
and finally to pour over the whole a mysterious mixture known as
salad-dressing. Thus is produced the orthodox English salad, which
everyone, probably from patriotic motives, pronounces to be extremely
nice. In the French preparation of a salad, however, each single leaf is
detached and carefully cleansed, some needing simply wiping, while
others require absolute washing. Every leaf, be it borne in mind,
before going into the salad bowl must be perfectly dry, or else
the first great principle of salad making will be infringed, for oil
and water refuse to mingle. In preparing a French salad, too, the
stalks or coarse ribs are removed from the middle part of each leaf,
and the larger leaves also are carefully divided into halves. The whole
leaf is not chopped up into shreds, as in the English salad. After this
the drying of the leaves is best accomplished by placing them within a
clean towel. Instead of the towel a wire basket, panier a salade, is
more convenient and is generally used in France; it should be easily
obtainable for a shilling or two. In using the towel the four corners
are held together in the right hand, and the whole is repeatedly
brought sharply round with a swing of the arm, stopping with a sudden
jerk, till all the water is driven off 011 the floor. Herein consists
the excellence of the French method, for the leaves are thoroughly
cleansed, the acrid parts are removed, and the leaves are perfectly
dry. On a small plate, near by, are usually three or four heaps of
finely-chopped herbs (FINES HERBES), namely, burnet, chervil, chives,
tarragon, mustard and cress, or even parsley; these constitute what is
known as "the fourniture" of the salad. The lettuce leaves, on being
taken out of the towel, are then placed within the bowl, and over them
is daintily spread whatever is required from each of the little heaps
of herbs already referred to. A little salt is next to be quietly
tapped over the salad, and the spoon salad-server is then filled once
or twice with the best salad-oil, and this is now sprinkled on the
salad, carefully turning the leaves over the while so as to obtain the
thinnest possible film of oil equally distributed over the whole
surface of each leaf. The salad spoon is next half-filled with the best
vinegar, and the latter liquid is now most carefully added, only a drop
or so at a time, so as to diffuse it uniformly throughout the whole.
The thorough incorporation of the oil, but more particularly of
the vinegar, with the salad requires to be done with a light hand to
avoid bruising the leaves, and consists in stirring it and dexterously
bringing up the under leaves.

This comparison, however, between the methods of preparing salads
according to the English and the French fashion is not quite complete,
and consequently it will be advisable to refer to one or two other
matters, of which it is necessary to be apprised in order to produce a
perfect salad. In the first place, the form of the salad bowl itself is
very important, for it will readily be apparent that it must be of such
a shape as to facilitate the complete blending of the oil and vinegar
with the materials used. That which is nearest to half a perfect sphere
is by far the best; and another essential is that it should be of
sufficient size to afford room for free manipulation. On looking in the
windows orle is fairly astonished at the diversity of shapes that are
exposed for sale. In most of them the floor of the bowl is flat, with a
sort of recess all round its margin. This, of course, is most ill-adapted
for the purpose for which it is intended. Nearly all of them,
again, are by far too small; it is impossible to mix a salad properly
in a vessel very little larger than a soup plate. So that in the
selection of a salad bowl see that it is the nearest approach to half a
perfect sphere in shape, and take care that it is roomy enough for
freely working the salad. Lastly, do not waste money on the
meretricious ornamental world which besets so many of the bowls exposed
for sale. A very good substitute can be made in the ordinary large
earthenware basin used in the kitchen, the deeper the better, which
will be found to answer every purpose, and its cost brings it within
the reach of every purse. Next, with regard to the servers, these are
usually supplied with the bowl, but wooden servers are considered by
many to be the best, and price is certainly no drawback. The
oil, too, must be the purest you can buy, and Crosse and Blackwell's is
as good as any; at least, I do not know of a better oil at present, as
it is sweet and without the slightest suspicion of rankness. So, too,
with regard to vinegar: pay a little more for a good article, and you
will have no cause to regret it. The best French, or Crosse and
Blackwell's white wine vinegar, is good enough for anybody. You will
find that the oil and the vinegar will last a long time, and that the
cost of making a salad is actually the veriest trifle. In making a
plain lettuce salad such as has been described, you will, of course,
have to do without the chopped herbs, because, unfortunately, we in
Australia have not risen to the necessity for their cultivation, but
you can make shift with small pieces of celery, which taste admirably
in the salad, or little bits of radish, or thin slices of cucumber--
whatever, in fact, happens to be in season.

There is a remarkable condition of affairs obtaining in Sydney, and the
same applies to the other metropolitan centres of Australia. On turning
up our directory for the current year it will be found on reference
that the number of butchers for the city and suburbs is nearly 600. On
the other hand, the number of those whose calling is given as that of
greengrocer does not reach 300. Now, it is not to be denied that a
goodly proportion of vegetables are sold by dealers whose address is
not to be found under the latter heading. Nevertheless, it is still a
significant fact that while many of the butchers' establishments
possess quite an attractive and inviting appearance, on the contrary
those devoted to the sale of greengrocery are represented by dingy-looking
places, and by a collection of faded vegetables which seem
always to be apologising for being on view at all. The show of meat
which is to be found in our Australian capitals is certainly worthy
city in the world, and if the display of vegetables were only
equal to it, as it assuredly should be, there would be at least
something on which we might congratulate ourselves.

Another fact which is equally to be deplored with this small display of
vegetables seen throughout the city is the few varieties which are
cultivated. In a former chapter attention was drawn to the nutritious
properties and exquisite flavour of many vegetables which are easily
grown, but which are most unaccountably passed over, and it will be
remembered that the tomato was instanced in particular as having a
desperate struggle for existence, and that it was years and years
before it was finally received into favour. Similarly in the case of
salad plants there is the same matter for complaint, and beyond the
ordinary cabbage lettuce, celery, cucumbers, and radishes, there is
nothing grown. And yet there ought to be inducement enough for many of
our young men to devote themselves to such a healthy occupation as
market gardening, with profit to themselves and with benefit to the
community. The market gardens around Paris, although small, are
cultivated to perfection. The French market gardeners, moreover, are,
as a rule, a very prosperous class; they keep to themselves, and marry
among themselves. On making inquiries from the leading seedsmen
throughout Australia, and asking what varieties of salad plants are
mostly in vogue, you find that the cabbage lettuce is almost the sole
representative. And thus it is that in the very climate where the
system calls for salads, so to speak, there is absolutely no attempt
made to supply a crying want. A brief reference to a few of these salad
plants will better illustrate the importance of their culture. Here, as
with the different vegetables, I applied to headquarters for
information, namely, to Mr. F. Turnen, of the Department of
Agriculture, Sydney, who once more came to my assistance and
courteously indicated the localities in which they are likely
to do well. And it only seems fitting and appropriate here to remark
that Australia's road to prosperity lies through her agriculture; the
hydro-cephalic growth visible in every colony is unnatural and needs
rectification.

Lettuce.----Of this there are two varieties, the ordinary cabbage
lettuce and the cos, so named from the Island of Cos in the Aegean Sea,
which is also known as the upright, or smooth-leaved lettuce. Although
this latter is to be obtained, yet in nine cases out of ten only the
cabbage lettuce is procurable. But, as a matter of fact, the upright or
smooth-leaved cos lettuce is of a more delicate flavour, and when grown
properly by having the leaves loosely tied together at the top about
ten days before cutting, it is more crisp and juicy, and better adapted
for saladings. In the old country, too, the cos variety, with its long
leaves, is common enough, and is there preferred to the cabbage
lettuce. It is to be regretted, therefore, that we see so little of it.

Endive.--Now, here is a noble salad plant of which even the very name
is hardly known by the greater number of our people. There are
practically two classes of endive, the broad-leaved or Batavian
variety, and the curly-leaved endive. Both sorts, however, must be well
blanched if perfection is required. It is true that the curly-leaved
endive is at times to be obtained here, but it is extensively
cultivated in England, as it is very crisp and tender, while it also
possesses a piquancy which is greatly appreciated. Nevertheless, the
plain or Batavian kind (the ESCAROLE of the French) has also its
admirers, particularly for salad purposes. Now, it is to be carefully
noted that the accompaniments, or "fourniture," of these two varieties
of endive are vastly different. With the Batavian it usually is formed
of chervil, tarragon, and that delicate alliaceous salad herb, chives.
On the other hand, a chapon is used with the curly endive; it
consists of a crust of bread over which a clove of garlic has been
rubbed. This is thrown into the bowl and tossed about during the
process of mixing the salad, and gives to it a delightful effect. In
addition to its use as a salad, the curly-leaved endive makes a
particularly good garnish for grills, such as chops, steaks, &c.; and,
by the way, Sir Henry Thompson, the eminent surgeon, remarks that the
sauce PAR EXCELLENCE for grills is mushroom ketchup. But before leaving
the endive it is as well to refer to a blood relation, namely, the wild
endive or chicory. When its large, fleshy roots are dried in a kiln,
roasted and ground, they become familiarly known by their admixture
with coffee. This plant, the succory of former days, is greatly
esteemed by the French, by whom it is known as barbe de capucin. To
meet the great demand for it large quantities are sold in the
neighbourhood of Paris in order to produce this salading. Its young
leaves are used for this purpose, but they must be thoroughly blanched
so as to take away every particle of bitterness.

Corn Salad.--This hardy annual salad plant is believed to derive its
name from the fact that it grows spontaneously in the grain-fields. It
is also known as lamb's lettuce, and in America as fetticus. Here is an
example of a once well-known plant dropping out of use, for one of the
earliest-known salads was this same corn salad, on which was laid a red
herring. But now-a-days it is called MACHE in Covent Garden Market,
where it has been sent over from France. This lamb's lettuce is greatly
appreciated on the Continent, and makes one of the best of salads,
especially when mixed with celery. As it can be easily grown in all the
coastal districts and in the cooler parts of Australia, it is certainly
a matter for regret that we are not favoured with it.

In addition to the preceding, namely, the cos lettuce, the two
varieties of endive, the chicory, and the corn salad, or lamb's
lettuce, there are one or two other salad plants which require a brief
notice. Now, as far as celery and radishes are concerned, we may be
said to be fairly well off; but the same is not the case with mustard,
with garden cress, or even with watercress. The latter is to be
obtained from John Chinaman, it is true; but it is curious that in
Australia we see none of the watercress vendors so familiar in the
streets of the old country.. Yet there is really a good living to be
made out of it, and its use would prove of benefit to hundreds of
families, as with a little salt it makes an exquisite sandwich between
two thin pieces of bread-and-butter. A wise physician, Dr. T.K.
Chambers, uttered a great truth when he remarked that the pale faces
and bad teeth which characterised many of the inhabitants of cities
were due to their inability to obtain a proper supply of fresh green
vegetables, and that thus the watercress-seller was one of the saviours
of her country. So great is the demand for watercress in New York when
it first comes in that the prices range from 2s. to 4s. for a basket
holding only three quarts. At this rate an acre of watercress under
cultivation would represent almost a fortune. Of course all watercress
should be thoroughly washed and then dried in a towel, like the lettuce
for the salad, before it is eaten. Lastly, it must never be used from a
source where any sewage contamination is suspected.

Now, although these different forms of salad plants are not cultivated
to any considerable extent, yet when we come to inquire into the salad
herbs, we find that they are not grown at all, and indeed they are
practically unknown. They constitute, however, the crowning grace of a
proper salad, and confer upon it a delicacy which is unrivalled, and
thus it is that any traveller will tell you that a salad in France
tastes so infinitely better than one elsewhere. Now, these salad herbs
are readily grown, and do not require any care in their
cultivation, so that there is no opportunity for excuse on that score.
In order, however, to prevent this paper becoming too diffuse, I must
confine my remarks to those salad herbs which it is almost impossible
to do without--that is, if we wish to have any salads worth speaking
of. It will be convenient, for this purpose, to refer to the word
"ravigote"; and by this term is meant a collection of four herbs,
namely--burnet, chervil, chives, and tarragon. As has been already
mentioned, each of these herbs, chopped up very finely, is usually
placed in a little heap by itself on the one plate, and from these four
heaps is selected whatever is required for the salad. This invariably
forms the garniture of any lettuce salad, whether cabbage or cos, and
also of the Batavian endive, though, as we have already seen, the curly
endive is best suited with the chapon--i.e., the crust of bread rubbed
over with a garlic clove. The very derivation of the word "ravigote,"
from the French verb RAVIGOTER, to cheer or strengthen, shows that
certain exhilarating virtues are ascribed to these herbs.

Burnet.--This is also known as salad burnet, and is a hardy herb,
which will continue green during the greater part of the year. The
young and tender leaves possess a smell and taste almost identical with
cucumber, and greatly enhance the flavour of the salad. These leaves,
when blanched, are sprinkled over the latter; but in addition burnet
enters into the composition of ravigote butter, and helps to form green
mayonnaise. It hardly requires any culture whatever, and will do well
in the coastal districts and in all the cooler localities. With all
these advantages, therefore, we can only marvel why it is denied us.

Chervil.--Of the two varieties which are cultivated elsewhere than in
Australia--namely, the common chervil and the curled variety--the
latter is generally considered the better. It grows about twenty inches
high, and has deeply divided leaves, which are aromatic, and
which are thus absolutely a necessary component of any well-ordered
salad. The plant will grow everywhere, and, as it is never seen, it is
only one instance out of the many which might be adduced, that much is
neglected in Australian cultivation which would be of advantage to the
whole community.

Chives.--This is the most delicate of all the onion family; it
occupies the one end of the scale, while garlic presides at the other;
and midway between these we find the spring onion, the shallot, and the
onion itself. It is a delightful salad herb which is too much
neglected, and it is worthily entitled to cultivation in Australia. It
gives to the salad a piquancy and an agreeable pungent flavour, which,
while it faintly recalls that of the onion, is yet free from the
accentuated properties of the latter. In addition to lending such an
enhancement to salads, chives may be used for soups. The plant itself
is a hardy bulb, growing to a height of about eight inches, and it is
the tender tops which are used for saladings. It can be easily
propagated, and will grow readily in all the cooler districts.

Tarragon.--This used popularly to be known in the old country as "herb
dragon," whereas it is now vested with the newer title. It is
frequently to be found there is the country gardens, where it is in
repute for the preparation of tarragon vinegar. It, however, occupies a
position second to none as a salad accessory. It is one of the most
odoriferous of the pot herbs, and gives to a salad a delightful
aromatic warmth. At present all that one can do in the concoction of a
salad is to make use of the tarragon vinegar, which is so admirably put
up by Messrs. Crosse and Blackwell. Those who are fortunate enough to
possess the plant itself should keep the leaves, as when dried they
retain their flavour for some time. It is recommended, however, that
the young plants should be propagated each year by division of the
roots, as the plants of the first and second years are more
delicate than those of older growth. It can easily be grown over the
greater part of Australia, but I am not going to say more than that we
are needlessly bereft of what we might enjoy.

In drawing attention to any matter connected with the subject of this
chapter, a brief reference to mayonnaise sauce must necessarily find a
place. This may be used with all endless variety of salads, but it is
particularly concerned in the preparation of chicken, and also of
crayfish salad. On looking through the cookery-books one gets perfectly
bewildered with the different directions laid down by the various
authors. This mayonnaise sauce, however, is so very important that it
becomes an absolute necessity to know the successive steps in its
preparation, for, though easily made, yet there is a right and a wrong
way of going about it. Through the kindly offices of that accomplished
aristologist, Dr. A. Burne, I was enabled to have some practical
instruction in making mayonnaise sauce at the hands of the CHEF of the
Cosmopolitan Club, and I will endeavour, therefore, to give an account
of how he went to work.

The bowl he employed to mix it was about 9 in. across at the top, and
its floor was rounded in shape, just as a salad bowl should be, to
facilitate the thorough incorporation of the ingredients. Then, taking
a couple of eggs, he broke each one by knocking its side midway between
the two ends against the rim of the bowl. The greater part of the white
of the egg was allowed to escape into a small vessel next the bowl, as
it is not required for the mayonnaise, but comes in handy for other
culinary purposes. He now, with the yolk in one half of the shell,
poured away all the white remaining in the other half. Next he
dexterously turned the yolk into this latter emptied shell and then got
rid of the white left in the half previously occupied by the yolk. One
egg was thus served in this way, and then the other, and the
two yolks were slipped into the bowl and broken up with a few stirs of
the egg-whisk. This latter is readily purchased from any ironmonger for
the modest sum of one shilling. The next proceeding was a wrinkle which
is worth knowing, and it consisted of placing, within the bowl about a
salt-spoonful of the ordinary dry mustard. This was well beaten up in a
second or two. About a tablespoonful of good vinegar was next added,
the whisk going vigorously to work, and thus blending well together egg
yolk, dry mustard, and vinegar. At this stage occurred a sort of halt
or breathing time in the manipulation, as the chief peculiarity of the
mayonnaise now began. The CHEF, with his left hand, managed to tilt up
the salad bowl and to hold a bottle of salad oil at the same time. The
latter being inverted, he kept it over the contents of the bowl in such
a way as to allow only a drop or so of the oil to escape at a time.
Drip, drip, drip, went the oil, and as his right hand kept unceasingly
plying the mixture with the whisk I could not help noticing what a fine
wristy action he had. Almost directly as the oil touched it the
mayonnaise began to thicken, to swell, and to change in colour. The
remorseless whisk almost seemed to lash it into foam, and now the oil
came faster and faster till the amber-looking sauce was ready, and all
this within the space of at most two or three minutes. I suppose he
must have used quite a teacupful of olive oil. Only one thing more:
after stirring in a sufficient quantity of pepper and salt, the CHEF
desired me to taste the result, and as I did so I read the triumph in
his eye--it was superb.

It has been my aim, indeed my only aim, all through this chapter, to
bring into prominence the important fact that the salad is a dish which
is at once within the reach of every family, and moreover that it is
one which is fairly a necessity in our semi-tropical climate. For these
very reasons, consequently, I have endeavoured to give the
fullest directions for the mixing of a simple salad. But it may be that
after becoming thoroughly expert at making this latter, and being
flushed with success, the aspirant for saladic honours will be desirous
of a more ambitious essay. Some instructions for the famous herring
salad have therefore been added, and it can be reserved for high days
and holidays, or as a lordly dish wherewith to entertain a much-esteemed
guest. It is slightly altered from a valuable recipe given to
me by my very good friend Mr. Ludwig Bruck, and is made as follows:--
Two salt Dutch herrings are to be obtained. These are imported in
casks, and when purchased have a somewhat pronounced odour, which is
removed by the soaking. If milt herrings are used, the milt should be
moistened with a little vinegar and rubbed up into a paste, and this
should be kept to pour over the salad just before the dressing is
added. If roe herrings are bought, the roe should be soaked in vinegar
for a few minutes, the eggs then separated and kept for sprinkling over
the salad similarly to the preceding. The herring heads and tails are
to be removed and discarded; the bodies should be gutted, skinned, and
washed, and then they must be soaked in water or milk for three hours--
the latter enhancing the flavour greatly. After the soaking the bones
should be removed and the flesh cut into small dice-like cubical
pieces, and the latter are then set aside in a basin. The next thing is
to peel and core two sourish apples, and then to cut them up into small
cubes like the herrings. To the apples should DOW be added two pickled
gherkins, and, if you like, some boiled beetroot and a few capers, and
these--excepting, of course, the capers--should be divided into the
same small pieces. If you wish to have the real herring salad, a
quarter of a pound of cold roast veal, also in small pieces, will
likewise be required. Whatever you may choose to use of these
is now to be well mixed together while the next direction is attended
to. It is only fair to note here that Mr. Lang, formerly of the German
Club, who prepares the best herring salads in Sydney, always adds a
little cold roast beef, cold ham, and boiled ox tongue. While all this
is being prepared two potatoes should be boiled with their jackets on.
They should then be immediately peeled and cut up into small pieces
like the other ingredients. While now hot the potato is added to the
preceding, and everything is thoroughly mixed together; it is necessary
to use the potato warm, for if cold it would set hard. The methods of
using the milt or the roe of the herring have already been respectively
indicated, and after this matter has been attended to, all that is now
needful to complete the herring salad is to pour over it some
mayonnaise sauce, the preparation of which has been previously
described.




CHAPTER XII.



ON AUSTRALIAN WINE, AND ITS PLACE IN THE AUSTRALIAN DAILY DIETARY.


"WITH TIME AND CARE AUSTRALIA OUGHT TO BE THE VINEYARD OF THE WORLD."--
GREATER BRITAIN.


Were I asked to name the one industry on which the prosperity of
Australia must sooner or later rest, I should unhesitatingly answer,
"On the cultivation of the vine." And this must be so; for while there
is every reason to know that it will be called for from abroad, it is
absolutely certain that it will be required in our own territories. The
chief purpose of this chapter, indeed, is to insist upon the value of
our own wines as the most healthful and the most wholesome drink for
Australian use. It is a strange anomaly this, that at the present
period of our existence a declaration of this kind should be necessary.
Yet it is only in keeping with the rest of our food habits, with their
perpetual challenge to our semi-tropical environment; and hence we are
confronted with the astounding fact that although we are practically
Southern Europe, yet we follow a mode of living suitable only for a
rigorous climate and a land of ice and snow.

Moreover, as I shall attempt to show, the Australian climate and soil
are beyond all question naturally intended for the cultivation of the
grape, so that there is no occasion to overcome the forces of nature;
on the contrary, they are unceasingly giving us the greatest
encouragement. Then, again, think what widespread prosperity the use of
our own wine would bring about. Apart from its beneficial influence on
the national health, it would cover the land with smiling vineyards,
and give to enormous numbers a healthy livelihood; it would
absorb thousands from the fever and fret of city wear and tear into the
more natural life of the country; and lastly, it would relieve the
abnormal congestion of our crowded centres, and do more to bring about
widely distributed employment than any other industry.

The history of the introduction of the grape to Australian soil
deserves more than bare reference to that event It will be remembered
that Captain Cook discovered this territory in 1770; in November 1791,
barely more than twenty years afterwards, the first vine was planted at
Parramatta, near Sydney. Nothing can demonstrate the suitability of the
climate and the soil for its cultivation more than this one fact,
namely, that at the very beginning of Australian settlement it was
plain enough that the land was meant for the grape; and there is an
interesting historical association, well worthy of note, attached to
this circumstance. By order of the Emperor Napoleon, the Great
Napoleon, a voyage of discovery to the Southern Hemisphere was
performed by a fully equipped expedition during the years 1801, 1802,
1803, and 1804. One of the naturalists, M.F. Peron, has given us an
excellent account of his New South Wales experience, and after
referring to the Parramatta vineyards as likely to be followed by the
most excellent results, he goes on to say:--"By one of those chances
which are inconceivable, Great Britain is the only one of the great
maritime powers which does not cultivate the vine either in her own
territories or her colonies, notwithstanding the consumption of wine on
board her fleets and throughout her vast regions is immense." This is
another illustration of the old adage that lookers-on see most of the
game, for this observant Frenchman has recorded an opinion the very
truth of which comes well home to us. His remarks, moreover, open up a
vista of what a great trade might be done with India in
connection with our wines; indeed, it is this interchange of products
which keeps the circulation going in the blood-vessels of commercial
life.

Yet, although the vine was thus early started in Australia, it
has since made but little progress, relatively speaking, in comparison
with the great industry of wool-growing, and it will be appropriate to
make this reference to the grape and the fleece conjointly, for the
same name--that of John Macarthur--is intimately associated with
both. In a small way sheep-breeding had been initiated soon after the
settlement of Australia. But it was John Macarthur, by his introduction
of the merino sheep in 1797, who gave the first impetus which led to
the subsequent creation of the Australian wool trade. It was John
Macarthur, too, who formed the first vineyard in Australia at Camden
Park in 1815; though, as I have already said, the growth of the vine
industry has not advanced with anything like the same rapidity as that
of wool; if it had, Australia would now occupy a position second to
none in the world.

It seems most fitting and opportune also to mention the fact that at
the very time I am writing there is a proposal in the SYDNEY MORNING
HERALD to do something to perpetuate our gratitude to John Macarthur.
It is not often that one man has the opportunity of establishing two
such great industries as wine-making and wool-growing. The benefits to
Australia which have followed from the latter are altogether beyond
calculation; for which alone the name of John Macarthur deserves to
hold a place in the memory of Australians for ever, and if the wine
industry had only been developed in like proportion, Australia's
prosperity would have marvellously increased. Knowing, therefore, what
John Macarthur has done for Australia, it is to be hoped that
before these lines see the light of day what is now proposed will be an
accomplished fact.

The next most notable occurrence in the history of Australian
viticulture is undoubtedly the action of James Busby who in 1828, says
Mr. T.A. Coghlan in his WEALTH AND PROGRESS OF NEW SOUTH WALES,
returned from Europe "with a large collection of cuttings from the most
celebrated vineyards of France, Spain, the Rhine valley, and other
parts of the continent of Europe, and started, on his estate at
Kirkton, in the Hunter River district, a vineyard which has been the
nursery of the principal vineyards of the Colony." This was a more
important event than would be imagined from a bare recital of the fact,
for Busby has conferred upon Australian vines a high quality for all
time to come in this way. His collection of cuttings from the best of
the vineyards in Europe consisted of the choicest varieties or
"cepages," and this has been a matter for congratulation ever since.
Fuller reference, however, will be made to this important subject a
little farther on. what is certainly interesting also is that Busby was
so impressed with the future of the Australian wine industry that in
1830 he published his MANUAL OF PLAIN DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING AND
CULTIVATING VINEYARDS, AND FOR MAKING WINE, IN NEW SOUTH WALES; and, as
I have just said, the high qualities of our wines are due to him alone,
so that the name of James Busby must always be gratefully remembered by
all Australians.

It makes one think that these sturdy pioneers of former times had a
greater belief in Australia and her possibilities, and more energy and
foresight, than are apparently possessed nowadays. But while I am on
the subject of the literature of Australian viticulture I must not
forget to mention an excellent little pamphlet by James King in 1807,
entitled, AUSTRALIA MAY BE AN EXTENSIVE WINE-GROWING COUNTRY.
Indeed, James King was another of those far-seeing men who were
convinced that there was a great future for the Australian wine
industry; moreover, he did a good deal in the way of developing it by
cultivating the grape and by making wine.

Now, there are certain figures connected with vine-growing and the
consumption of wine which possess a great value in relation to
Australian viticulture, inasmuch as they enable us to see more clearly
its relative progress, and, what is more, they indicate its future
possibilities. It is only by methods of this kind that we are enabled
to form an accurate estimate of the condition of any industry. And
besides this, too, they act as a--stimulus to increased exertion. But
it will be still more interesting and instructive to make a comparison
between the little which has been done in wine production and the
almost incredible proportions of our wool industry. And when it is
remembered that there was nothing to prevent the wine trade from
attaining a magnitude very like to that of wool, it will be seen what
magnificent opportunities have thus far been practically thrown away.

At present the whole of Australia annually produces only a little more
than three million gallons of wine, while the yearly yield of France is
795; of Italy, 798; of Spain, 608; of Hungary, 180; and of Portugal,
132 million gallons. And another thing is that the whole of the five
colonies of Australia and Tasmania have altogether no more than 48,099
acres under vine cultivation. The total amount of wine made in the six
foregoing colonies for the year ending March 31st, 1892, was only
3,604,262 gallons. The city of Paris itself requires nearly 300,000
gallons of wine daily, so that this single city would consume in 12
DAYS all the wine which the whole of Australia takes 12 MONTHS to make.
So far back as 1875 the production was 1,814,400,602 gallons.
And lastly, there is just one more fact worth remembering which is that
the approximate value of the 1890 vintage to France was nearly
40,000,000 l. sterling.

Let us see, on the other hand, the gigantic strides on the part of
wool. In 1805 the amount of wool exported from Spain was 6,895,525
lbs., and from Australia NIL. In 1811, however, Australia exported the
modest quantity of 167 lbs. In 1861 the exportation from Spain had
fallen to 1,268,617 lbs., while from Australia it had increased to
68,428,000 lbs. In 1891 New South Wales alone produced 357,096,954
lbs., representing a value of 11,036,018 l. And lastly, the wool
exportation of Australia and Tasmania (not reckoning New Zealand) for
the same year reached the enormous figures of 593,830,153 lbs., with a
value of 20,569,093 l.

The disproportion between the attention which has been given to
viticulture and that which has been bestowed upon wool-growing is well
brought out in the following table:--

TABLE showing the value of the total amount of WINE produced in the
FIVE COLONIES OF AUSTRALIA (including both that for local use and that
for export) for the year ending March 31st, 1892; and the value of WOOL
(only that exported, and therefore irrespective of that locally
required) for the FIVE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES and TASMANIA alone, and not
including that exported from NEW ZEALAND, for the year 1891:--


Pounds (value).

Total value of Australian wine (local use as well as export)
produced for the year ending March 31st, 1892, only about..........800,000

Value of wool exported from Australia and Tasmania alone in 1891
(and therefore irrespective of the additional value of that
locally required), not less than................................20,569,093


From the foregoing, therefore, it will be apparent that the
whole subject of Australian viticulture is one of tremendous
importance; and I am strongly of opinion that practical results will
only be brought about by awakening in the mind of the Australian public
an active interest in everything connected with this, though yet
undeveloped, great wine industry. With that object in view, therefore,
it will be my endeavour to bring forward those main points of
viticulture which it is most desirable should be widely known. But such
an attempt, to be successful, must largely depend upon the arrangement
which is adopted, for it is impossible to do more than take up the
principal matters concerned with the space which is at my disposal. The
scheme which has been devised will, it is hoped, help to a clear
understanding of the subject.


THE CLIMATE.


If there is one reason more than any other why the wine industry should
sorely reach to colossal dimensions, it is that the climate is
naturally adapted for the cultivation of the vine. Although human
effort and human skill can overcome what looked to be almost
insuperable difficulties, they cannot, as we know, fight against
climate. Hence, having a climate created, as it were, for the growth of
the grape, there can be no possible excuse offered for its neglect.
Indeed, as I have already shown, the suitableness of the climate for
this purpose directly attracted the attention of the first arrivals,
and as a consequence the vine was actually planted a few years after
the discovery of Australia.

There are three constituents, namely, heat, light, and moisture, which
in varying proportions make up what is known as climate. The first two,
heat and light, are derived from the same source--the sun--and may,
therefore, be conveniently considered together. The more heat and light
a vine receives the more vigorously it grows. What is more
important, however, is that the wine from it becomes stronger. It gains
in strength because the percentage of glucose increases in the must:
the must being the juice pressed from the grape, but in which
fermentation has not commenced. Accordingly we find that the wines of
the warmer regions in new South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia
are much stronger than those from the cooler parts.

It is important to remember that the unripe berries of the grape
contain several acids, notably tartaric, citric, and malic acids. As
the fruit begins to ripen, these acids act upon the various substances,
namely, starch, gum, dextrine, lignine, cellulose, &c., also contained
within it, and grape sugar or glucose is formed in consequence with the
advent of ripening, therefore, the fruit becomes richer in sugar and
poorer in acids; part of the acids, in addition, is neutralised by the
mineral salts which are absorbed by the roots. These acids, however,
are not so thoroughly neutralised in a cooler climate, and as a result
the wine has often a sour, crude taste. The warmer the climate the more
alcohol the wine will contain; indeed, it may become too strong. On the
contrary, the cooler the climate the more of acid there will be, and it
may possess in consequence a crude, sharp taste. But these are matters
which can be rectified by choosing the right varieties of grape for the
different localities, and by their proper cultivation.

The third element concerned in the climate, namely, moisture, has now
to be considered, and it is important from the fact that in a moister
climate the percentages both of glucose and of acids in the grape are
diminished. It is also important for another reason, namely, that while
heat and light are unalterable, moisture may be produced by irrigation.
This constitutes one of the vexed questions connected with viticulture,
and the most diverse opinions have been expressed about it.
Some believe that irrigation is of great value, while others cannot say
enough against it. But it would seem that when judiciously employed it
is of unquestionable advantage. It renders the cultivation of the grape
possible in places where it would otherwise be impossible; it largely
increases the yield; and, what certainly must not be forgotten, it
enables a lighter wine to be produced in the warmer regions. And
another argument in favour of irrigation is this, that there is far
more fertilizing matter in river water than in rain water. Hence it is
that irrigation greatly enriches the land and increases the yield. It
is thus a powerful aid, and because its advantages have been abused,
that is no reason why it should not be made use of in a rational and
scientific manner.

There is still another matter connected with this question of climate,
namely, the aspect of the vineyard, which should be referred to because
many different views are held upon it. But, as in all similar cases
where there are such decidedly antagonistic opinions, it will be found
that the arguments are not maintained from the same standpoint. So in
this case the importance or non-importance of the aspect depends
altogether upon the climate, and upon the locality--whether it be
level or hilly. On level ground the aspect is not nearly so important.
On hilly land it makes a considerable difference, from this
circumstance, that in Australia the northern side of a hill is always
hotter than that facing the south. In the hot regions, therefore, a
hill slope facing towards the south is preferable; while in the cooler
districts, since more warmth is required, a situation with a northern
aspect is necessary. It is often said that hilly ground is better for
the cultivation of the vine than level land. This is certainly true as
far as cold localities are concerned, because a warmer aspect can then
be chosen, and there will also be more shelter and better drainage.


THE SOIL.


People as a rule run away with the idea that the soil for the grape
must necessarily be of a rich character. Even the farmer, thinking of
wheat growing, and the market-gardener, thinking of his turnips, are
apt to entertain a similar belief. But the truth is that the vine is a
hardy plant and will grow in almost any place that is not water-logged
or otherwise unsuitable. In America the definition of a soil adapted
for the grape is expressed in the following phrase:--"Land that is
suitable for vine-glowing is land that is not suitable for anything
else." This is of course an extravagant way of stating the matter,
still it is worth recalling. We may say this much, however, that almost
any soil will do for the vine, provided that it does not bake and crack
in the summer, nor get wet and boggy in the winter. A simple test is
said to be adopted by the vine-growers of the Rhine. A specimen of the
soil is put into an earthenware vessel into which boiling water is
poured to cover it, after which it is undisturbed for three days. If
the water on being tasted gives a mouldy or salty taste, the soil is
believed to be unsuitable.

In considering the soil we must pay heed to its physical and its
chemical characters. By its physical characters we mean its looseness
or stiffness, its depth, and its colour. This looseness is a matter of
much importance. It fulfils the great indication required in a soil for
grape-growing; that is, a soil which will not remain damp after having
been well wet. There is a marked difference between a stiff clayey soil
which dries up and cracks in summer, and a loose soil which is always
moist a little below the surface.

The depth of the soil is a matter that varies in accordance with the
climate. In warm districts the vine requires more room for development,
and goes deeper. In the cooler regions it has a sufficiency of
moisture, and can content itself with a shallower soil. The colour of
the soil, like its depth, is a matter of consequence according to the
climate. A dark soil absorbs heat, becoming hotter consequently, while
it reflects but little on the plant above. On the other hand, a
light-coloured soil absorbs very little heat, but reflects almost the
whole of the rays upwards upon the vine. From this it follows that a dark
soil is better in a cooler climate, because there is generally an
excess of moisture; while a light colour is more suitable in the warm
regions, for the moisture is then retained.

The chemical constituents of the soil play no inconsiderable part in
assisting the development of the vine. Of these, however, there are
only five--namely, nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, calcium, and iron--
to which it is necessary to draw attention. For the successful
cultivation of wheat and other cereals a richly nitrogenous soil is
invaluable; for turnips and maize one rich in phosphorus is of great
advantage; but for the vine potash is of considerable importance. It is
true that nitrogen and phosphorus are necessary for the production of
the vine wood, but it is for the fruit itself that the potash is so
much required. As it is well known, the deposit known as winestone or
"cream of tartar," on the inside of the cask by the fermentation of
wine, is really tartrate of potash. In a similar way the potato is a
plant which requires a supply of potash, and without it there is a
manifest diminution in the crop. But in the case of the vine, unless
there is a sufficiency of potash, the leaves do not attain to their
full development; the stem is stunted to one-fourth of its natural
size; and there is little or no fruit at all. Calcium or lime has a
marked effect in increasing the strength of the wine. For this reason,
therefore, this element is more necessary in the cooler than in the
warm regions. And finally, there is that other chemical
constituent of the soil, which deserves a brief notice, and it is iron.
Now, the presence of iron therein has a distinct effect in deepening
the colour of a wine. This is without doubt the reason why our
Australian wines, as a general rule, are so rich in colour.


"CEPAGE," OR VARIETY.


Many words connected with viticulture are of French origin, as might be
expected considering that it is a land where the wine industry is such
a source of wealth. The term "cepage" (pronounced say-pazh) is one of
these, and it possesses quite a distinctive and particular
significance, so that a little explanation is necessary. The vine
family is divided into several species, of which the ordinary grape
vine, VITIS VINIFERA, is the most important. Of the VITIS VINIFERA
there are many, more or less distinct, sorts of "cepages"; and the
value of the word lies in the fact that it serves as a means of
distinguishing all these different varieties. Originally a native of
Asia Minor, there are now over a thousand sorts of European vines. Of
these quite a number are already cultivated in Australia, and a brief
reference to a few will help to a better understanding of the term
"cepage."

Of the red grapes the following may be instanced:--The Carbenet
(pronounced Car'-ben-ay); of which-there are two varieties, the GROS or
large, and the SAUVIGNON or smaller kind. The latter is perhaps the
choicest of all the red wine grapes, and has a characteristic flavour,
with delicious bouquet and perfume. It forms the basis of all the best
vineyards of Bordeaux, and is largely cultivated in Australia, for it
does well in the cooler parts. And it will be just as well to take this
opportunity of referring to the word "Carbenet," as in Australia it is
much too often erroneously spelt "Cabernet." The best authorities,
however, are all in favour of "Carbenet" as the proper mode of
spelling. In the same way an unfortunate orthography in the case of
Riesling, which was given as "Reisling" in the London
exhibition of 1886, gave a writer in the SATURDAY REVIEW the
opportunity of a tirade against Australian wine-makers.

The Pinot (pronounced Peen'-o) Noir or Noirier will serve excellently
to demonstrate the significance of the word "cepage." This is the
dominating grape of the best vineyards of Burgundy, and enters into the
composition of many famous wines, such as Romanee-Conti Chambertin,
Corton, &c.; just as the Carbenet Sauvignon belongs to the renowned
clarets of Bordeaux, Chateau Margaux, Chateau Lafitte, and Chateau
Latour. This black Burgundy does well in our cooler regions, and is
usually pruned short, although it gives far better results with long
pruning.

Shiraz (pronounced Shir-az') is another red variety which is
extensively cultivated in Australia. It is the grape from which the
celebrated Hermitage red wine of France is made, and was first planted
by a monk, who brought the cuttings from Shiraz, in Persia. It is one
of our most reliable red varieties, and prospers best in a moderate
temperature. But the white varieties will perhaps afford us a better
idea of the expression "cepage," for three different varieties may be
adduced, whose characteristics are well known. First of all there is
Riesling (pronounced Rees'-ling, but too often, as I have just
mentioned, erroneously spelt Reisling), whose prototype is that
delicate Riesling of the Rhine, from which those famous wines of the
Rheingau, namely Steinberg, Marcobrunner, Johannisberg, as well as
Hock, are made. It is probably the best of our white wines, and does
well in the cooler districts. But it should be borne in mind that long
pruning is indispensable for it, as it gives very poor crops when
pruned short.

Then we have Tokay (pronounced Tok'-ay), so nearly corresponding to the
Furmint, which is the chief grape grown in the well-known Tokay
vineyards of Hungary. It yields a most excellent wine, and does well in
the same regions as the preceding. And lastly, Verdeilho (pronounced
Ver-dell'-o) deserves to be referred to amongst the white wines. It is
the principal white variety grown in Madeira, and Madeira is a wine
that is especially held in repute. It is better suited for the warm
districts, and requires to be completely ripe before vintage.

It was a most fortunate thing for Australia, therefore, that her
pioneers in viticulture were men like James Busby, who obtained
their plants from the finest "cepages" in Europe. And this is a
magnificent legacy which must inevitably exercise a powerful influence
for ever on the Australian vine. Mr. Hubert de Castella drew special
attention to this very fact in his paper read before the Royal Colonial
Institute, London, in 1888: so that a beginning was made under the most
auspicious conditions.

There are some interesting facts in connection with the different
"cepages" which are certainly worth noticing. If the climate and the
soil in one place be similar to the climate and soil in another, each
variety--LE CEPAGE--of the grape will always produce the same wine.
Thus some vineyards on the Yarra, Victoria, having a similar climate
and similar soil to one of the great Bordeaux districts of France,
produced a wine hardly to be distinguished from that of the latter.
Then, again, one vine may produce a choice wine in one locality, but
only an indifferent growth in another; and, conversely, a different
"cepage" which does well in the latter region is almost a failure in
the former. For instance, in France, the Gamay in the Beaujolais
district, in which the soil is granitic, gives a superior wine to the
Pinot; but, on the other hand, the Pinot in the Burgundy country, where
there is a limestone formation, gives forth a world-famous wine, whilst
the Gamay is nowhere in comparison.

Next, it is necessary to remember that the effect of a warmer climate
is to increase the alcoholic strength of a wine. At the same time,
however, it must not be forgotten that this effect is greater in some
varieties than in others. One "cepage," giving in a cool region a wine
of 18 per cent. of alcohol, when transported to a warmer locality may
show an increase to 26 per cent. of alcohol. Another "cepage," showing
20 per cent. in the lower temperature, may only develop 23 per cent. in
the hotter districts.

It will be evident from the preceding that the greatest
discrimination is necessary in the selection of the variety for any
particular region; and from the knowledge at present at the vine-grower's
command he can do no more than form an approximate opinion of
the "cepage" likely to suit his locality best. It is recommended,
therefore, that new planters, before starting their vineyards, should
carefully observe what varieties are giving the best results at any
neighbouring vineyards; if some appear to be doing better than others,
they should stick to the successful kinds. And again, it is advisable
that they should be chary of what plants other wine-growers extol, when
perhaps the latter are in another part of the country altogether and
under totally different conditions of climate and soil. Instead of
committing themselves to a large purchase, therefore, they should plant
a selection of several varieties, and find out those which are the most
suitable.


THE GROWING OF THE GRAPE--THE PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.


It is not my purpose to enter fully into the entire subject of
 grape-growing, for that is too extensive to be dealt with here;
nevertheless, there are many points about it of Australian concern, over
which there has been considerable discussion. This shows that our
vignerons, instead of placidly following out old lines, are determined to
find out for themselves the methods which will give the best results. That
such a spirit is in active existence is unquestionably a source of
satisfaction to those who have the welfare of Australian viticulture at
heart, for it is only by a determination to find out the best course to
be pursued in the many points connected with grape-growing, and more
especially with wine-making, that we can hope to reach perfection.

And although we have the climate, and the soil, and everything
in our favour, yet it must be recollected that there are vignerons of
the very highest excellence in the old wine-making countries, and that
it will only be by surpassing them that we can hope to secure the
markets of the world. As I have already said, my own belief is that the
best way of infusing vigour into our wine-making industry is to arouse
public interest in the subject; and with that object in view,
therefore, I shall endeavour to bring forward those matters which are
of Australian viticultural importance.

Even at the outset we come against a disputed point, about which there
has been, and is still, considerable diversity of opinion. It is to
what depth the ground should be cultivated. On the one hand, there are
some who affirm that a shallow depth of 8 or 9 inches, or even of 6
inches, is quite a sufficient penetration of the soil for most land;
but, on the other, there are many who, while conceding the fact that a
superficial cultivation like this may be successful for a few years,
are strongly opinioned that a deeper working is eventually necessary.
More than this, they contend that, even admitting good results were
obtained by simple ploughing, yet they would have been still better
with a deeper working. It would seem, however, that climate has a good
deal to do with the matter. In the hot districts the vine attains a far
greater development than in the cooler parts, and the roots require a
deep soil. And besides this, in the warm regions the wine is naturally
too strong, and the deeper the soil is worked the lighter the wine will
be.

But there is one thing in particular which should not be overlooked,
and it is that the land should be in a state of fine sub-division. One
American writer insists that the ground before planting should be "as
fine as bolted flour." This expression serves very well to show the
importance of a thorough pulverisation of the soil; and the
best results are certainly obtained .where this is energetically
carried out.


THE GROWING OF THE GRAPE--LAYING OUT THE VINEYARD.


The next thing in order is that of laying out the vineyard, in which it
will be desirable to consider what distance apart the vines are to be
planted. This matter of spacing the vines is one about which there is
still considerable disagreement; and the question as to whether they
should be planted near to one another, or far apart, is yet unsettled.
But the truth is no inflexible rule can be laid down, as the climate,
the soil, and the "cepage" all exercise a controlling influence. It
seems to be generally admitted that in the warm districts the vines
should be planted farther apart than in the cooler regions.

In a hot climate the vigour of the plant is increased by the great
amount of light and heat which it receives. The must will be too
strong, therefore, and it is only by planting the vines at a greater
distance apart than usual, and also by pruning very long, that the
resulting wine will be rendered sufficiently light in strength. In a
cooler region, on the other hand, where the vigour of the plant is
less, the crop on each vine must be reduced by short pruning, so as to
increase the percentage of glucose in the must and ensure a good wine.
And where the size of the plant is lessened by this method of pruning,
the vines must be placed closer together in order to make use of all
the available soil. This latter itself has also to be thought of in
this matter of spacing the vines. In a rich soil, where the vigour of
the plant is increased, the vines should be placed farther apart; in a
poor soil, on the contrary, they should be planted closer together.

Mr. Francois de Castella, formerly Expert to the Board of Viticulture,
the author of THE HANDBOOK ON VITICULTURE FOR VICTORIA, and who is now
the proprietor of the Tongala vineyard, in an instructive article on
viticulture in Victoria lays down the following rules with regard to
the spacing of vines:--"THERE IS FOR EACH LOCALITY, WITH THE SAME
CONDITIONS OF SOIL AND CLIMATE, A CERTAIN DISTANCE, WE MAY CALL THE
OPTIMUM, AT WHICH VINES WILL THRIVE BEST; IF THIS DISTANCE BE INCREASED
THEY WILL NOT IMPROVE, AND MAY EVEN DETERIORATE. Unless this be a
distance which cannot conveniently be worked by horse labour, it would
evidently be a waste of land to plant any wider, and would entail the
use of unnecessary labour for its cultivation. It would be just as
foolish to plant vines any closer than this, as it would give
unnecessary pruning, disbudding, tying up, &c.--that is, if the
climate be such that grapes will ripen satisfactorily.

"I have come to the conclusion that in our district (Lilydale, a cool
region) the optimum distance is 4 1/2 by 4 1/2 feet, practically 2,000
vines per acre, at least in the poorer soils; and, after careful
observation, I am of opinion that vines planted any wider will not bear
more fruit. This is, however, rather too close to be conveniently
worked by horse labour. I should, therefore, recommend 5 by 5 feet. But
on the Murray (a warm region) this distance would not suit at all, and
I believe that the vine-growers are right to plant 8 by 8, and even 10
by 10 feet, in that district.

"In conclusion, I would advise every vine-grower starting in a new
district to determine by experiment what is his optimum distance. He
can make a pretty good guess from observations of soil and climate, and
for the rest let him, instead of planting all his vineyard on one
scale, plant different blocks at different distances apart, so that if
he wishes to extend his vineyard later on he may know what is
the most suitable way to do so. By a careful consideration of these and
other points which regulate the growth and development of the vine, and
a practical application of the deductions drawn from them, it is
possible for the intelligent vigneron to obtain from his land a maximum
of return with a minimum of labour, and also to regulate the strength
of his wine so as to suit the requirements of trade, thus making
viticulture one of the most remunerative as well as most attractive
branches of agriculture."

In France, especially in the northern districts, the vines are placed
much closer together than ever they are in Australia, and this means
that only hand labour can be employed. But it has to be remembered that
the scarcity of manual labour with us makes it necessary to arrange the
vineyard with enough width between the plants for a horse. rt is
desirable, however, not to go to the other extreme and space the vines
at too great a distance from each other; indeed, in favour of a closer
planting, the following influencing circumstances should be borne in
mind. In the elevated regions, where the rainfall is ample, the vines
may be planted closer together than on the plains or on the lower
slopes; firstly, because there is no fear as to a sufficiency of water;
and secondly, for the reason that the vines, by being nearer together,
protect one another from the inclement weather. Spring frosts also are
very liable to occur in certain localities; and here again the vines,
by being brought closer together, afford shelter to each other from the
direct rays of the sun, which are particularly injurious when coming on
top of a severe frost.

Then again, although some believe that in dry districts it is better to
give each vine plenty of space, yet there are others who are of opinion
that a closer formation is rather an advantage. And on this account:
that since the roots come in contact with one another, they are
compelled to strike deeper in search of water--just in the very place
it is desirable they should go. In addition to the foregoing, it must
not be forgotten that a dark-coloured soil absorbs more of the sun's
heat than one of lighter colour; just as a dark coat is hotter to wear
than a light-coloured one. For this reason, therefore, it is better for
the plants to be closer together in a dark soil, since the shadow of
the vines will then be over the root-producing areas.

In the SOUTH AUSTRALIA VINEGROWERS' MANUAL, which has been prepared by
Mr. George Sutherland, under instructions from the Government of South
Australia, the author expresses this conviction: That a very large
proportion of the new vineyards of South Australia will be planted
wide, especially in the warmer districts and on the lower rises of the
foothills; but that after all 6 feet may be found the most suitable on
more elevated localities, where we shall have to look for some of the
best wines of the claret and hock type. One leading Californian
authority, according, to Mr. Sutherland, was a great advocate for wide
planting. After an exhaustive inquiry into the matter, however,
throughout the wine-producing countries of Europe, he became quite
converted, and believed in closer planting. Mr. Francois de Castella
also records the fact that in a block of vines at St. Hubert's
(Lilydale, Victoria), every second vine was rooted out on one-half of
the block. After ten years it was found that on the whole the closer
wines had done better than those from which every alternate vine was
rooted out.


THE GROWING OF THE GRAPE--WHETHER TO PLANT CUTTINGS OR ROOTED VINES.


There is another somewhat disputed matter connected with viticulture,
which deserves a little notice; and it is the relative merits
of planting cuttings or rooted vines in the vineyard. The majority of
the witnesses examined by the Royal Commission on Vegetable Products in
Victoria, 1889, admitted that cuttings ultimately produced a better
vine. But, as in some of the preceding points at issue, may it not be
that climate and soil have a great deal to do with the results? Signor
Romeo Bragato, the Expert to the Board of Viticulture in Victoria, in
his HINTS TO INTENDING VINE-GROWERS, recommended cuttings, not only for
cheapness, but because if planted in the vineyard at the first they did
not require removal.

In the course of his advice he proceeded to remark:--"The ways used
here and elsewhere by the vine-grower are two--namely, by cuttings,
and rooted vines--but they do not always agree which of the two is the
better. There are many who say that, for the new plantation, rooted
vines must be preferred; others maintain that it is better to plant by
cuttings, because they grow more nourishing and give the vine a longer
life. Both these methods are good and to be recommended; but, in a
general way, I would advise you to stick to the cuttings, and that not
only because by planting them you will have a sensible economy, but
also because if you plant the cuttings in the vineyard you will never
have to more them. If you use rooted vines, it is impossible,
notwithstanding all your care and attention, for you to carry them from
the nursery to the vineyard without hurting their roots, which are very
delicate.

" But if the ground which you intend to plant with vines were loose and
arid, then I would never hesitate to advise you to always use in that
case rooted vines, because the cuttings without roots would not absorb
the rainy water which in such kind of soil runs away in the same time
it takes to fall. This is the reason why, in such a soil, the cuttings
seldom strike.

"On the selection of the cuttings depends the future of the
vineyard, but of this the vine-growers are not sufficiently persuaded,
because they do not pay all the attention required for this delicate
operation. In fact, when in the vineyards in order to cut the cuttings,
they take the thin and thicks--those growths on the new wood and on
the old--without making any distinction, and without knowing if the
old vine gives fruit or not. Many also, without other care, leave their
cuttings in the vineyard for months exposed to the air, sun, and rain;
not thinking that the very porous wood gets dry very quickly, and
becomes weak near the buds. Others, again, buy their cuttings without
knowing to what variety of vine they belong, and how they were
preserved. It is not surprising, therefore, that these negligent
vine-growers, after having incurred great expense in preparing the soil
and planting the vineyard, besides having their vineyard planted with so
many varieties, are compelled to pull up a great number of cuttings
that have not struck, or, having struck, do not carry fruit."


THE GROWING OF THE GRAPE--THE HEIGHT OF THE VINE ABOVE THE GROUND.


The young vine takes about four years to reach its fruit-bearing stage.
During this time the plant requires to be properly trained so as to
obtain the best results from the growing grape. Now, although there are
many different systems of rearing vines, yet in the main they consist
of an upright stem or trunk, and an upper part or crown--the latter
varying considerably in shape. Thus we have the "gooseberry-bush"
style, which is employed for those vines requiring short pruning. Then
there is the "trellising" style, for the long-pruned varieties, in
which the vine is trained to a great distance along a wire. Indeed,
these two methods may be taken to represent the two main styles
of training the vine; although the different modifications used in
various countries are almost endless.

There is, however, one important point which requires attention, no
matter what system is adopted, and it is the height of the vine above
the ground. The nearer a vine is to the ground, the more radiated light
and heat it receives, and as a consequence its resulting nine is
stronger. In vines so near the ground, also, the alkaline dust arising
from the soil neutralises the natural acid of the fruit, and
prejudicially affects the fermentation of the wine.

As a matter of fact the earthy taste--GOUT DE TERROIR--which is
sometimes present in wine, is believed to be caused by a certain amount
of soil being present on the grapes during fermentation. This must be
looked to, especially in the warmer districts, where by giving the wine
a greater distance above the ground, a lighter, more delicate, and
better wine, quite free from the foregoing demerit, is produced.

The testimony of experts throughout Australia is unanimously in favour
of raising the vine sufficiently above the ground, so as to keep the
grapes well off the soil, and also to provide for the free circulation
of air beneath. It is true that in some parts of the Continent the
practice for ages has been to keep the vines well down against the
earth. But this is done to secure the advantages of the radiated heat,
and enable the grapes to ripen. In Australia, however, even in the
elevated districts, the sun is usually warm enough to ripen the grapes
without this being necessary.


THE GROWING OF THE GRAPE--ON PRUNING.


Before leaving these references to the growing of the grape I purpose
making a few remarks upon pruning, a subject which is as interesting as
it is important. The objects of pruning are manifold. By it the
cultivation of the wine is facilitated; the best results are obtained
from each variety of grape; the yield is increased; the product is more
uniform in character; and the quality of the wine is vastly improved.
But a great deal of the work of pruning is so entirely technical that
it would utterly fail to possess any attraction for the general reader.
Consequently I shall attempt no more than to briefly refer to those
particular matters which are of Australian concern.

Now, it is laid down as a rule for pruning that some vines should be
pruned short, while others require long pruning; that is to say, one
variety of wine requires to be repressed, as it were, and in another
the branches have to be kept long to produce a superior quality of
wine. The explanation is that while the sap is on its way through the
roots, the stem, the branches, and the shoots of the vine, for the
production of fruit, it is distilled out, so to speak, during its
passage from the earth to the fruit. As Mr. George Sutherland prettily
puts it, the grape is, in fact, the crowning product of the whole
plant. In this way, the farther the sap has to travel through the whole
vine on its way to the growing fruit, the better will the resulting
wine be.

To a certain extent this is true of all vines, but more especially so
in the case of Shiraz and some of the Pinots. In various districts of
France, in order to bring the grape to perfection, the vine-growers
will train out their main branches along trellises to a length of 50
and even 60 feet, so as to give the sap the longest possible distance
to travel; and, further, for the purpose of concentrating into the
fruit the whole result of the wine, all the buds and little shoots,
which would distract therefrom, are carefully taken away. This gives to
the vine a very curious look, but it serves well to illustrate how
greatly wines differ as to whether they require short or long pruning.
It also helps to a better understanding of the two main styles of
training the vine already mentioned, namely, the "gooseberry bush" and
the "trellising."

The fact that this elaboration of the sap in long-pruned vines requires
a long distance to intervene between the roots and the fruit itself, is
one of considerable importance. It is necessary to remember, however,
that cultivation of this kind requires additional labour. Moreover, one
of the principal reasons why the short-pruned vine has become such a
favourite in Australia is that it is a labour-saving vine, and
therefore its adoption is almost a necessity. But, as Mr. Sutherland
remarks, "there is no doubt that Australia can never hope to produce in
any quantity the finest qualities of wine until the vignerons attend
more to those practices which depend essentially upon the fundamental
fact that the sap flows with different habits through different
varieties of vines; and, therefore, that some vines require short
pruning, while it is even more important to remember that others will
only yield satisfactorily under a system of long pruning."

In a paper on viticulture, at Mildura, which was drawn up for the Royal
Commission on Vegetable Products in 1890, Mr. Francois de Castella, a
former expert to the Board of Viticulture, Victoria, has condensed so
much knowledge within a small compass that I have quoted the following:--

"Most of the settlers I met told me that they intended to prune their
vines short. Now, in my opinion, they could not make a greater mistake
--for wine-growing, at least; as for raisin-growing I have never taken
any interest in the subject, and, having no experience, do not wish to
express an opinion on it. I must say that all the settlers I had
occasion to speak to were raisin-growers, but I should warn any future
wine-grower at Mildura, who may chance to read these few notes, to
beware of short pruning.

"Most of our vineyard labourers come from the cold parts of Europe,
such as Switzerland, where grapes ripen with difficulty under ordinary
circumstances, and where the vine does not take any considerable
development. There, short pruning has to be resorted to in order to
make a drinkable wine. When these men arrive in Australia they bring
all their old habits and prejudices with them, and tell the
inexperienced vineyard proprietor that long pruning weakens the vine.
The proprietor, thinking that they know more about the subject than he
does, allows them to do as they like, and they set to work to cut the
vine down to such an extent that, unable to take advantage of the
genial climate to which it has been transplanted, it gives only one-eighth
or one-tenth of the quantity of grapes it could be made to bear
with intelligent pruning, besides being much weakened; whereas
long-pruning strengthens a vine if the climate be favourable to its
development.

"Another disadvantage of short pruning in warm climates is the well-known
fact that the less grapes you have on the vine, the more glucose
the must will contain; therefore, instead of making much more per acre
of a drinkable wine, which they easily could do, they content
themselves with a much smaller quantity per acre of a wine which
ferments so badly that alcohol has to be added to prevent the
production of lactic acid, resulting from the excessive temperature
reached during fermentation favouring the development of this
particular germ.

"The resulting wine, a curious mixture of alcohol, sugar, lactic acid,
and water, is most unpalatable, sour, uninviting, and unwholesome.
besides ruining the name of Australian wine when sold as such.

"I may here warn vine-growers against the advice given to them by some
would-be authorities, who tell them they can make a light wine by
picking grapes before they are ripe. This is absurd. The unripe grape
contains a certain percentage of vegetable acids, such as tartaric,
malic, &c., &c. some of which are themselves converted into glucose
during the process of ripening, whilst others are eliminated after
helping to transform the starch of the vegetable tissues into glucose.
It stands to reason that if the fruit be picked before complete
maturity, these acids, which are not capable of fermenting, will be
found unchanged in the wine produced, thereby rendering it acid and
undrinkable. It is, of course, necessary, in warm climates, to pick the
grapes before they get over-ripe or shrivel up; but it would be just as
foolish to rush to the other extreme, and pick the fruit too soon.

"If, instead of blindly following the mode of culture which has been
adopted in a cold climate, the vine-grower would listen to the dictates
of reason, and were to try a few inexpensive experiments, he
would soon find out his mistake, and confer a boon on himself as well
as on his neighbour, not to speak of the consumers of his wine.

"Even in the cooler districts of Victoria, such as the Yarra Valley, I
do not know of any variety of vine which is weakened by long pruning,
even in a series of years; while certain varieties are so influenced by
short pruning as to bear no fruit at all. If this be the case on the
Yarra, how much more must it be so on the Murray?"

Mr. de Castella then referred to some other matters connected with the
practices followed at Mildura, and concluded with these encouraging
words:--

"I contend that no other culture will give such magnificent returns, do
so much good to a country, or have greater attractions for the happy
proprietor of the vineyard, as there is no branch of agriculture which
presents such a vast field for experimental research, or which is so
extensively benefited by the practical application of scientific laws
and principles, as viticulture."


THE MAKING OF THE WINE--THE CELLAR.


Up till this time our whole attention has been taken up with everything
that has to do with the production of the grape. But with the gathering
of the crop a complete change has taken place, for nature no longer
exercises such a controlling influence. At this stage the art of
winemaking really begins, and the climate, the soil, and all the other
factors that have so much to do with the growth of the grape assist us
no longer. From the moment that the grapes are gathered till the wine
is ready for bottling is a most eventful period; for, during this
important time, under proper treatment, wine may be made to reach
perfection.

Indeed, it is only by paying the most minute attention to all the
details connected with the making of wine that Australian vignerons
will succeed in placing our wines before all others; because it is very
important to remember that the must produced in Australia is
equal, if not superior, to any in the world. Now, all that follows this
portion relates to wine-making alone; and it should for that very
reason, therefore, possess a special interest for us. Moreover, it will
be a good thing for the wine industry, for Australia, and for her
people, when such an interest becomes part of our daily life.

Naturally the first thing to suggest itself, therefore, in the making
of the wine, is the place in which it is made. There is no doubt that
in Australia the importance of a proper cellar has never been
sufficiently appreciated. But the French have a proverb, "the cellar
makes the wine," showing that it plays no inconsiderable part in the
production of good wine. As Mr. Walter W. Pownall, the representative
of the Australian Wine Company, explained before the Vegetable Products
Commission in Victoria, a knowledge of cellar routine and cellar work
would aroid the spoiling of much good wine. A man thinks when he has
grown the wine that is all that is necessary. But the fact is, a
wine-grower has never done with his wine till it has passed out of his
hands.

There was a valuable pamphlet on Australian wines written by the late
Doctor Bleasdale, of Melbourne, in 1876. It is now out of print, and
regrettedly so, for the worthy Doctor was one of the best connoisseurs
of wine Australia ever had. Mr. L. Bruck, the well-known medical
publisher of Sydney, however, has placed me under considerable
obligation by giving me his own copy, and in the preface therein I note
that the author, in speaking of this very question, remarks:--"I would
here reiterate what I have often stated, namely, that if the cellar
management in the three colonies were equal to the magnificent produce
of the vines, no "country on the earth could surpass, in quality and
variety "of kinds, Victoria, South Australia, and New South Wales."

Then again, Mr. James Smith, of Melbourne, in the course of his
admirable prize essay on Australian wine, which appeared in GREVILLE'S
YEAR BOOK OF AUSTRALIA for 1886, has these observations on this
subject:--"It is, however, in the management of the cellar that one
must look for the most efficient means of securing that uniformity of
quality which I regard as such an important desideratum. If it be not a
science, it is certainly an art requiring special knowledge, training,
and experience, combined, perhaps, with natural aptitude. And it is
precisely in this respect, I fear, that our deficiency in Australia is
greatest.

"In the wine-making countries of Europe the cellarmaster is an expert
who inherits the skill, traditions, methods, and usages of many
generations of men who have adopted and followed the same calling. His
organs of smell and taste have been educated to practise the nicest
discrimination of flavour and odour, and if the vintage of a particular
year differs in quality from that of its predecessor, he knows how, by
a judicious blending of the old with the new, of the highly-coloured
with the pallid, to arrive at that uniformity which is so
indispensable."

The cellar must neither be too damp nor too dry. Any excess of dampness
would rot the casks and give a musty taste to the wine; while, on the
contrary, in too dry a cellar the staves of the casks would shrink and
cause leakage. The cellar is usually kept somewhat dark. The openings
for the admission of air and light should be provided with shutters, so
that the atmosphere and temperature may be under control. The floor of
the cellar should be paved or cemented, be well levelled, and
cleanliness throughout should be strictly and strenuously maintained.

But the following remarks of Signor Bragato as to what a cellar ought
not to be will perhaps be more instructive, and besides they contain a
vast amount of information on the subject. In referring to some
of the cellars he came across during his tour of inspection through one
of the Victorian districts, he writes:--

"The majority of the buildings used as cellars are nothing less than
wooden sheds, with galvanized iron roofs. Here the air has a free
circulation day and night, and the cellerman is thus rendered powerless
to control the temperature, which very often, from 100 degrees in day
time, goes down to 54 degrees or less during the night. The appliances
required for winemaking are all round badly preserved, and are covered
with mouldiness and dust. The floor of the buildings is not paved or
cemented, and it consists of earth, so that it has the power of
absorbing the wine that gets spilt and becomes the source of pernicious
germs, which will spread all over the cellar and in the air, to be
finally deposited in the must and in the wine, causing irreparable loss
in the quality of the wine. There are a few good cellars, but these,
also, are badly kept and badly used.

"The casks are neglected, and the coat of tartar is scrupulously left
in the cask, with the erroneous idea that it tends to preserve the
wine. All the empty casks I have smelt in the cellars inspected are
impregnated with bad odours, which are not detected by the majority of
the owners, in consequence of having accustomed their olfactory organs
to the predominant odour of mouldiness in their cellars, and so they
are unable to detect if the odour of their casks is healthy or not.

"With the bad cellars which the vignerons have at their disposal,
combined with the neglect of the casks and other appliances, and the
little care in the preservation of the wine, it is only natural that a
large quantity of the wine produced is spoiled, and condemned to the
still to be converted into inferior brandy of bad taste and colour,
which is often used to fortify the wines, with the result of rendering
them unfit for consumption. "Amongst the wines I have tested, I found
some really very good ones, presenting all the characteristics required
in a fine wine. But if there are good wines, there are also very bad
ones, and these, I am sorry to say, represent the bulk in every cellar
I visited. Some of the wines are cloudy, sweetish, with a good deal of
asperity. Others present tartaric, lactic, and acetic fermentations."

After some further comments on various other matters, the same
gentleman concludes his report with the following:--

"Finally, I may say that by what I have seen I cannot help expressing
the opinion that Australia is capable of producing really fine wines,
to be highly appreciated in the world's markets. But to produce
an appreciable wine, it is necessary that the vignerons should improve
in their system of wine-making, and substitute for their sheds cellars
constructed on a rational principle; and by devoting more attention to
the cleanliness of the casks and other cellar appliances. A
modification in the system of cultivation and pruning of the vines will
also be factors in improving the quality of the wine.

"There is in this country good soil, and a climate which cannot be
equalled for the successful cultivation of the vine. Capital is
plentiful, and the people very enterprising; so there remains only the
want of Technical Instruction, by the institution of practical schools
of Viticulture, without which it is doubtful if ever its vignerons will
succeed in making wines likely to be appreciated in the foreign
markets."

In the same way Mr. J.A. Despeissis, of the New South Wales Department
of Agriculture, also insists upon cellar cleanliness. And it would
seem, indeed, that there is ample justification for his deprecatory
remarks. It appears that on several occasions he has noticed fowls and
pigeons roosting in the wine cellars. Now, as he pungently observes,
the wine cellar was never intended for this sort of thing. Another way
of putting the matter would be to point out what a mad thing it would
be to use a fowl house as a cellar. Moreover, he gives minute
directions for disinfecting the cellar, in order to destroy any germs
or minute organisms which may be lurking in crevices or in odd corners.
This is best accomplished by burning some sulphur in earthenware pots,
distributed over various parts of the cellar; previously seeing that
all the windows and gaps are rendered air-tight by means of bagging.
The fumes should be left in the cellar--for a day or two, after which
the doors are opened, and a free current of air allowed to sweeten the
whole place.

Moreover, a model cellar is necessarily a very elaborate affair,
considering it is the laboratory, so to speak, in which the wine is
created. A model cellar would consist of the following six
compartments:--

* 1. The section for the first treatment of the grape.
*
* 2. The fermentation department.
*
* 3. The section for the preparation and storing, of the new wine.
*
* 4. The underground cellar for the storage of the matured wine.
*
* 5. The bottle department.
*
* 6. The distillation department and for the utilization of the refuse
of wine.
*

The cellar of Mr. Henley, near the Ovens River, in Victoria, is very
complete. It is provided with a steam lift, a steam crushing machine,
and a steam pump, while there is perfect ventilation and a uniform
temperature. His cellar is divided into three compartments: the
fermenting house in the middle, the cellar for the new wine, and the
cellar for the old wine. The building is 83 feet by 80 feet, built of
brick, with double walls 9 inches thick outside and 4 inches inside,
and between the walls there is 4 1/2 inches of space. The temperature
on the hottest days in the summer never surpasses 80 degrees Fahrenheit;
and, lastly, the floors, both of the cellars and the fermenting house, are
cemented for the purpose of absolute cleanliness.


THE MAKING OF THE WINE--THE GATHERING OF THE GRAPE.


At the very beginning one of the chief matters to be looked to is the
selection of the time at which the grapes should be picked. The proper
period is that when the interior of the grape contains its principal
components, the sugar and the acids, in the right proportions. In the
warmer districts the grapes are sometimes allowed to become too ripe.
In such a case there would be an excess of sugar and a deficiency of
acid, and a regular fermentation would be impossible. On the other
hand, it will be remembered in the course of the remarks upon
pruning that I quoted Mr. Francois de Castella to show what a mistaken
idea it is to pick the grapes before they are thoroughly ripe in order
to produce, as it is erroneously supposed, a lighter wine. It is of the
greatest consequence, therefore, to choose that particular time for
gathering the grapes when they contain the respective elements in their
strictly proper proportions.

On the eventful day for the picking of the grapes the weather should be
fine and bright, and in the warm districts they should be picked early
in the morning and late in the afternoon, so that they are not too
warm. The grapes should never be taken to the fermenting house when too
heated; indeed, it would be better not to crush the grapes at all than
to have them in such a state. As Signor Bragato observes, if they are
too warm the fermentation will start with too high a temperature in the
must, and very likely the result will be the formation of lactic and
acetic germs. In Algiers and other warm regions the grapes picked in
the day are left outside during the night; by this means the
temperature of the must is lowered.

In the picking of the grapes the greatest care should be taken to
discard the mouldy, dry, and dirty grapes, and leaf insect worms should
likewise be got rid of. Once the gathering of the grapes is commenced
it should be concluded as quickly as possible, and therefore a
sufficient number of hands must be engaged for the purpose. For
instance, with the Riesling, if the grapes are left on the vines on a
hot day twenty-four hours after they arrive at perfection, the wine
will not be nearly so good.


THE MAKING OF THE WINE--VARYING ADDITIONS TO THE MUST.


On the arrival of the grapes at the press-house, the first thing to be
determined upon is whether the stalks are to be used or not. In
the case of white wines it is not customary to separate them from the
grapes. A good deal, however, will depend upon different circumstances.
Thus, when grapes are grown in flat, damp places, or during wet
seasons, it is often advantageous to ferment the berries with part of
their stems; but, on the contrary, those grapes which contain a
sufficiency of tannin will not require the latter. For example, in the
production of white wines at Mr. Hans Irvine's ("Great Western")
vineyard in Victoria, the grapes are first crushed with the mill, the
mill consisting of two grooved wooden rollers working against each
other. After this the skins, together with the stalks, are placed in
the wine-press. In the case of red wine, however, the grapes are
separated from the stalks by means of an iron griddle, so that only the
skins are employed in the formation of the wine.

The methods pursued with regard to the elimination or retention of the
grape stalks vary in different parts of the Continent. The most careful
vignerons remove the stalks in the case of the finest growths of
Burgundy; but in the making of champagne, and also in the Rheingau,
from which part come the famous Hock wines, the stalks are allowed to
remain. In the Medoc districts, which produce the finest clarets, the
stalks are likewise put into the fermentation vat; but this is
considered to be a great mistake, since a long time elapses before the
astringent taste of the wine subsides. With the far-famed Red Hermitage
wine of France, too, the stalks are permitted to pass into the vat, and
in the case of sherry and port, as well, the stalks all take part in
the fermentation, though it is believed that better results would be
obtained by their removal. But in all these old wine-producing
countries of Europe the same customs have been followed from time
immemorial, and they are not likely to be altered at present.


THE MAKING OF THE WINE--THE MUST ITSELF.


The must--that is, the juice expressed from the grape, but in which
(juice) fermentation has not yet taken place--is a fluid of very
complex composition. It is made up of a variety of ingredients, with
which it is necessary to become familiar in order to follow, during the
process of fermentation, its change into wine. We find, therefore, that
a large part of the must consists of water; this serves to dissolve the
other constituents, and to dilute them to the required extent. For
instance, the sugar in the must needs to be considerably diluted for
the purposes of fermentation. In too concentrated a form it actually
prevents it, as we see when fruits are preserved in syrup.

Next to water, sugar is the material which exists in the largest
proportions in the must; it is, however, that peculiar kind of sugar
termed "glucose," which may be described as uncrystallisable sugar,
and as consisting of half grape sugar and half fruit sugar. It
possesses the property of being able to ferment, which cane or
crystallisable sugar cannot do, unless, indeed, it first be changed
into glucose. Now, it is a curious fact that although cane sugar can be
transformed into glucose, yet the latter form of sugar has never, so
far, been changed into cane or crystallisable sugar. As Mr. J.A.
Despeissis points out, the invention of a process that would achieve
this would be worth more than all the mines of New South Wales put
together.

In the process of fermentation the glucose is broken up into a number
of substances, which differ entirely from it; and as these different
bodies are very important they deserve much attention. Under the
influence of fermentation glucose undergoes a great change, of which
the principal products are alcohol and carbonic acid gas. The alcohol
is, of course, the one predominant feature in wine; and according to
the amount of alcohol which wine contains, so it varies in strength.

In addition to these two main products of glucose by fermentation,
namely, alcohol and carbonic acid gas, there are glycerine and succinic
acid, as well as a lesser proportion of other derivatives, very much
akin to alcohol. Of all these glycerine is by no means unimportant, as
it confers a blandness or mellowness upon the wine. The succinic acid,
also, is distinctive for this reason, that it is the source of that
characteristic flavour in wine known as "vinosity."

Besides the water and the glucose, the must likewise contains quite an
appreciable amount of those important bodies, the various acids. These
consist of tartaric acid, so frequently met with all through the
vegetable world; of malic acid, which is the acid almost distinctive of
apples; of tannic acid or "tannin," and of other acids. These different
acids play an important part in the production of wine; without them,
in truth, it would be a mere admixture of spirits and water--a
colourless, flavourless, and insipid product. By their assistance,
however, wine is endowed with the brilliancy it possesses. And more
than this, the action of the alcohol on these acids develops those
exquisitely delicate ethers--the oenanthic and other ethers--which
constitute, in fact, the bouquet of the wine. At the same time, it has
also to be remembered that while these many acids constitute the life
and soul, so to speak, of the wine, their very presence is absolutely
necessary for the process of vinous fermentation. That is to say, the
active agents of vinous fermentation are only enabled to work perfectly
in a liquid which is somewhat acid.

There is an astringent principle, named tannin, which calls for
attention in any reference to wine-making. It is almost the same body--
not quite--as the tannin obtained from galls, and so largely employed
in tanning. This vine-tannin, if it may be so termed, does not exist in
the juice of the grape, but in the stalk and the skin. The white wines,
in which the juice is almost always freed from the skins and stalks,
contain but little tannin; while, on the contrary, most red wines, in
which juice, skins, and stalks are all included together in the
fermenting-vat, contain a good deal. Some white wines derive their
tannin from the oaken casks which hold the wine; and their colour, in
consequence, subsequently deepens. Other red wines, strange to say,
gradually lose their dark colour from a certain action of the tannin.
So that tannin is the cause of some white wines deepening in colour,
while it renders other red wines of a lighter colour. Now, tannin has
the effect of preserving albuminous substances, and in this way it may
be beneficial in rendering red wines more durable. But although this
may be advisable in wines which are liable to turn, it is certain that
excess of tannin is most undesirable. In fact, the practice of placing
the stalks in the fermenting-vat is in many cases, as I have previously
stated, an unnecessary proceeding.

The mineral kingdom is not unrepresented in must, and certain saline
substances are found in it. Of these, the salts of potash are uniformly
present, and the most important is, without doubt, the acid tartrate of
potash. This is the salt so well known in commerce under the name of
cream of tartar. The lees of wine contain it in considerable quantity,
and it is also found as a crystalline deposit in the inside of the
casks. As the alcohol begins to develop in the must this salt is
precipitated, and the more so the lower the temperature. Thus it is
that a light wine of low alcoholic strength, if it be markedly acid,
will lose the acidity in a cool, underground cellar. And, as a matter
of fact, the proper maturation of a wine is impossible without a due
amount of tartar; besides this, it develops in the wine a well-defined
vigour and tonicity, which improves its taste, while it also increases
its alimentary qualities.

There are a few other ingredients in must, namely, the
colouring matters and essential oils, and the albuminoids, or
nitrogenous substances. The colouring matters and oils appear to be
contained in the cells of the inner side of the skin. Of these, the
purpose of the colouring matter is obvious; while the essential oils
are believed to contribute to the "aroma" of the wine. The albuminoids
or nitrogenous substances are of the nature of white of egg; and, when
in small proportion, are necessary for the due performance of the
fermentative process. But, in excess, they are a source of considerable
anxiety to the vigneron, in that they are the cause of much of the wine
going wrong.


THE MAKING OF WINE--FERMENTATION.


The must, as we have already seen, is the juice of the grape, which has
been squeezed out by the grape-mill or from the wine-press. The murk,
or pomace as it is called in America, on the contrary, is the mass of
grape skins, stalks, &c., left behind in the press. A clear
apprehension of these two terms is required in order that no confusion
may arise. The fermenting-vat is the cask in which what is called the
strong, stormy, or tumultuous fermentation takes place. The "cuvage" is
the length of time the contents are left in the fermenting-vat.

The whole phenomena of fermentation are too complicated and profoundly
scientific to be dealt with here. I shall do no more, therefore, than
briefly refer to the behaviour of the must in the fermenting-vat.
Fermentation sets in soon after the must is placed within the latter.
The germs of vinous fermentation are contained in abundance in the air
of the wine cellar, as well as being on the grapes themselves. M.
Pasteur, who has contributed so much to a proper understanding of
fermentation, has proved that the yeast fungi come from the external
surface of the grapes, and are not derived from the interior.
Hence it follows that the skins are to be well crushed before
fermentation begins, to ensure proper action in the must.

The temperature of the must soon begins to rise, and the fermentative
agencies break up its glucose into alcohol and carbonic acid gas. There
is a bubbling and seething in the liquid during this action, which
gradually subsides. The increase of temperature in the fermented fluid
begins to abate; the skins and husks subside to the bottom of the vat;
the liquid itself becomes slightly less turbid--and the first stage of
wine-making is at an end.

A clearer insight into this important part of the process will perhaps
be gained by noting some of the practices followed on the Continent, as
regards the duration of the vattage. The length of time the various
contents--whether they be the grape juice alone, or the grape juice
together with the skins and stalks--remain within the fermenting-vat,
varies greatly in different parts. In the Champagne country, the must
is allowed to stand for twelve or eighteen hours, during which time a
froth arises to the top and a sediment descends to the bottom. Without
disturbing either of these, the precious liquid is carefully withdrawn
into small barrels, and the fermentation is then allowed to proceed.
This purification is one of the most important matters connected with
the making of champagne.

The Medoc districts, in the Bordeaux territory, produce the finest of
the clarets. The grapes are detached from the stalks, and subjected to
pressure. The must is put into the fermenting-vat, to which is added
the murk resulting from the pressing, and the stalks which were
previously separated from the berries. The time necessary for
vinification varies; in good years it is no longer than four or five
days, and the future wine will then be at its best with regard to
taste, delicacy, and softness.

In one case, that of the Red Hermitage wine of France, the
grapes are unstalked and crushed before being placed in the vat. The
contents of the latter are then stirred twice a day, and ultimately
once a day. This is continued for about a month, and in one of the best
vineyards for forty days. This long "cuvage" appears necessary from the
fact that the large amount of sugar in the must is but slowly
transformed into alcohol.

There is a curious incident which occurs in connection with the
world-renowned wines of Burgundy, which is worth recording. As the
fermentation proceeds, the murk, as in all similar fermentations, rises
to the surface of the vat, and forms what is called the "hat," or
CHAPEAU. The fermentation proceeds till all is ready for the wine to be
drawn. At this time the "hat" is so dense that it will bear the weight
of two or three men. Each of them now begins working with one foot till
he gets it through the crust, and the whole CHAPEAU is eventually
broken up and mixed with the wine.

But to return to our subject. As soon as the stormy or seething
fermentation is over, the young wine is drawn off from the fermenting-vat
into the maturing-cask, at which time it may be quite warm and
turbid. In a cool cellar and with perfect quiet it gradually becomes
clearer; it deposits on the bottom of the cask many of the substances
it contains, and the fermentation becomes no longer visible. The time
which this "slow fermentation" takes to occur will vary with the type
of wine, with the nature of the must, and with the influence of the
season. Speaking generally, it may be said to be from two to eight
weeks after its entrance into the maturing-cask. The wine is considered
to be ready for its first racking when it has become clear and
transparent, and when its lees have subsided to the bottom of the cask.

In racking there is a withdrawal of the wine from the sediment
which it casts down, and which is known as the lees. It is an important
operation because irremediable damage is caused to wine by allowing it
to remain in contact with the dregs. A knowledge of their composition
is of great value, since it serves to explain their injurious
influence. The lees deposited from vinous fermentation consist of
mineral salts, tartaric acid, and organic matters. Of these the
'organic substances are the most to be dreaded, and for this reason,
that they are very prone to rapid decomposition. They consist of
yeast-cells, cells of other micro-organisms, of DEBRIS and minute
particles of grape stalks and skins, and of other bodies, all readily
liable to decompose. All these various materials, therefore, are
continually a source of peril, for the slightest thing may start action in
them, which spreads throughout the wine and simply ruins it. By removing
it from such undesirable company all these risks are avoided, and the best
possible qualities of the wine are afforded the opportunity to develop.
In the performance of racking definite changes take place in the vine,
which are assuredly important. For it must be remembered that the
nearly fermented young wines contain an excess of carbonic acid gas;
and this is rightly regarded as possessing great preservative
properties, in that it prevents the dangerously spreading growth of the
little micro-organisms and germs present in all new wine.

In the course of racking, however, a certain amount of the carbonic
acid gas must be lost, and fresh oxygen is absorbed from the
atmosphere. The oxygen is invaluable from the fact that it exerts a
powerful chemical influence upon the wine; as a consequence
fermentation is slightly renewed if there be any grape sugar remaining.
At the same time the colour of the wine is also modified, and any
rawness or harshness in its taste quality is enormously
increased by the development of those delicate and subtle ethers which
have so much to do with the flavour and bouquet of all wines.

The operation of racking, consequently, is one of great importance, as
it requires to be repeated from time to time. A copious deposit of lees
generally takes place after the first racking, and a second one should
speedily follow. During the first year young wines are often racked off
as many as three times, but with the older wines once a year, at the
beginning of spring, may be sufficient. But it is precisely in matters
of this kind that judgment and experience are so much needed.

Now, it has been pointed out over and over again that it is solely by a
correct treatment of Australian wines in the cellar that we can hope to
attain to excellence; in fact, the whole secret lies in this direction.
And it is very much to be regretted, therefore, that cellar management
and wine treatment have not yet been conceded their proper position,
that of being the principal factors in the success of Australian wine.
Amongst others, this very truth was pointed out by Mr. Pownall, to whom
I have previously referred. In giving evidence before the Vegetable
Products Commission of Victoria in August 1889, he observed:--"In some
of the cellars I have been horrified with the amount of wine which I
should describe as 'perished' and as 'perishing.' It is astounding, I
can hardly express the quantity. And very often the vine-grower is so
ignorant of his business that he shows one wine which is 'tart' and
'sour,' and even praises it. I find those wines are generally exceeding
three years old, and I attribute it to the lack of cellar knowledge and
treatment, because in the same cellar where I find large quantities of
bad wine I find this year's and last year's wine good, and promising
well; but if longer kept, and so treated, after a few years it will be
utterly useless."

It will only be by paying attention to all the details
connected with the cellarage of Australian wines that the victory will
be ours. I have said so before, and now say it again, that our
Australian must is quite equal to, if not superior to, any in the
world. But it is from that very time that the critical stage in the
making of our wines begins. It behoves our vignerons, therefore, to
concentrate their energies mainly upon that vastly important period
which follows onwards from the very beginning of vinification.


THE TASTING AND JUDGING OF WINES.


Of the five senses, namely, seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, and
tasting, the last is by no means the least important. It is a wise
provision, this sense of taste, in that it enables us to relish our
food, and also to select that which is suitable at the same time. If we
took no pleasure in eating we should probably cease to eat at all, and
die of starvation. And if we had no taste we might eat that which was
unsuitable. In illness, almost the first things that the sufferer will
complain about are that he has lost all desire for his food, and that
everything tastes alike to him. The true taste impressions are limited
to the following, namely, bitter, sweet, sour, and salt. The best
substances to mark these four varieties of taste are quinine for the
bitter, honey for the sweet, vinegar for the sour, and table salt for
the last. The sense of taste is closely associated with that of smell;
indeed, the sense of smell has nearly all to do with the perception of
flavour. There is an inseparable connection between the two senses of
smell and taste, for when anosmia or loss of the sense of smell occurs,
all taste, except for bitterness, sweetness, sourness, and saltness, is
completely lost, so far as ideas of flavour, &c., are concerned.

Brillat-Savarin, the high-priest of gastronomy, quaintly puts it that
smell and taste form only one sense, having the mouth as
laboratory, with the nose for the fire-place or chimney; the one
serving to taste solids, the other gases. George Dallas, too, the
gifted author of THE BOOK OF THE TABLE, also expresses the association
of taste and smell in an apt way. He makes reference to the fact that
the other senses are not dependent on each other, but that the hearing
becomes more acute in a blind man. On the contrary, taste is made for
marriage, and smell is its better half. Taste loses, as he says, all
its delicacy when it cannot mate with a fine olfactory nerve. The late
Dr. Druitt has likewise noted that the union of smell with taste is
essential for the enjoyment of wine.

From the foregoing it will be seen that when we speak of taste we refer
to a complicated and extremely delicate process. There is this also to
be remembered, that it is a sense which can be cultivated to a high
degree; and in the wine-taster it is brought to the very pitch of
excellence. Yet, notwithstanding all this, it must be a matter of
every-day experience, that people will profess to an ability to judge
wine when they know absolutely nothing of the various points, so to
speak, to be looked for. What I mean is this, that there are many
different things to be observed when a wine is tasted, and that each
one requires to have proper judgment bestowed upon it. What these are I
shall endeavour to speak of in due course.

Wine tasting is a fine art as seen with the COURTIERS or experts who
are employed by the large houses in Bordeaux. There are exceptional
qualifications required for this office, for its holders must possess a
delicate and highly trained palate, and an exquisite and perfect sense
of smell, while at the same time a lengthened experience and unerring
discrimination in the value of the wine submitted to them are also
called for. Mr. James Smith, in his prize essay, already referred to,
quotes with approval the following passage from a French
authority:-"The COURTAGE of wines is, then, a true science, which is
acquired by long observations, by numerous tastings, extensive
practice, and a correct judgment; a science which has rendered, and is
daily rendering, true and important services to our vinicole department
(that of the Gironde); for, by this means, intelligent classifications
have given to our GRANDS CRUS a universal reputation, and have made our
best wines known and appreciated throughout the civilised world. In the
judging of wines, therefore, at least four essentials are necessary:
two of the senses--the taste and the smell must be perfect--while
great experience and special knowledge must be equally present."

Now, there is an old saying, DE GUSTIBUS NON EST DISPUTANDUM, and
consequently every person has a perfect right to like what pleases him;
so that in this way anyone may prefer to drink whisky, or any other
form of spirits, and he is quite entitled to believe there is nothing
so good for him; but, on the other hand, an habitual spirit-drinker
must not claim to possess a correct judgment in estimating the
qualities of a good wine; for, as a matter of fact, the daily influence
of whisky on the palate is absolutely fatal to its delicacy of
perception. There are none of the graceful flavours, none of the
delicate ethers, none of the perfumed bouquets in whisky that belong to
a wholesome wine. No, there is only the coarse spirit which benumbs the
palatal nerves, and renders them incapable of picking out these vinous
attributes. Moreover, it would almost seem that a person's very
thoughts are controlled by his customary beverage. It is evident,
indeed, that Richard Bentley, one of the greatest scholars of modern
times, believed in this doctrine; for did he not make this memorable
remark to one of his pupils: "Sir, if you drink ale, you will think
ale"?

Is it not true, also, that with many people champagne is
regarded as the highest type of wine? This is more likely to be the
case with those who are beginning to realize the pleasures of life.
Indeed, as it has been acutely remarked, a youngster from college, when
invited to dinner, thinks himself badly treated if he does not get it.
Now, it is not to be denied that champagne is, in its way, an imperial
drink, and that it has a specially exhilarating effect. But, at the
same time, it must be remembered that it is on the other side of the
champagne stage of life that the appreciation of really great wines
begins.

Take, for instance, a comparison of the wines of Bordeaux and of
Burgundy. These are two distinct classes of wine, and, according to Mr.
Sept. Berdmore, should be imbibed different days. That they are
entirely distinct wines might only be expected, seeing that the
geographical positions of the two districts are so far apart. The
Bordeaux wines come from the south-western or Bay of Biscay side of
France, while those of Burgundy belong to her eastern portion. It is
almost universally a matter of belief that the red wines of Bordeaux
should be warmed gradually--taking some hours--before they are drunk.
The temperature of these wines should be as nearly as possible the
temperature of the dining-room itself. The finest clarets are often
utterly spoiled from the fact that this has been disregarded, and they
have been brought to table without ally preparation. In the case of
Burgundy, however, an opposite treatment is required, and by many
connoisseurs it is considered to be best when brought up from a cool
cellar shortly before use. All these are matters of considerable
importance, and show that the judging of wines requires something more
than a mere off-hand opinion. There are certain descriptions of the
different varieties of wines, given by Thudicum and Dupre, Vizetelly
and others, which are of great assistance in helping to a
knowledge of the various desiderata to be looked for. Moreover, much
will be gained by collecting them together, as their principal
characteristics will be better remembered when they are thus contrasted
with each other. It is not my wish to laud the wines of other countries
to the disparagement of Australian growths, but it is my object to show
clearly those desirable properties which all good wines should possess.
A knowledge of these lofty standards will do more to better the quality
of our Australian wines than anything I know of.

The wines of the Medoc, that district of the Gironde which produces the
finest clarets, namely, Chateau Margaux, Chateau Lafitte, Chateau
Latour, &c., possess distinguishing features peculiar to themselves.
They have a certain slight distinctive roughness; are fine, juicy,
marrowy in the mouth, and after having been in bottle some years they
acquire a very beautiful bouquet. They have, moreover, this remarkable
hygienic quality, that they can be drunk in large quantity without, as
the French say, "fatiguing" either head or stomach. But there is
another portion of the Bordeaux country, namely the GRAVES, which
produces both red and white wines. The latter include those magnificent
Sauternes, Chateau d'Yquem and La Tour Blanche, which take such high
rank; Chateau d'Yquem, indeed, has been likened to liquid gold--liquid
gold in a crystal glass--and is one of those most luscious and
delicately aromatic of wines, with an exquisite bouquet and rich,
delicious flavour.

As it has already been stated, Bordeaux and Burgundy are entirely
different wines, and this fact must be well remembered. The wines of
the latter comprise some of the most famous growths of France, and are
distinguished by the suavity of their taste, their finesse, and
spirituous aroma The red wines have a fine colour, a good deal of
bouquet, and a delicious taste. They give tone to the stomach,
and facilitate digestion. Of these red wines of Burgundy the Romanee-Conti
is among the first growths, and it is renowned for its fine
colour, its aroma, its delicacy, and the superb quality of its
delicious taste. Clos de Vougeot is another great growth, which is
slightly more alcoholic than the preceding. Chambertin, also, possesses
a good deal of seve, delicacy, perfect taste, and pleasant bouquet;
moreover, it has a softness which made it an especial favourite with
the great Napoleon. Corton, likewise, is of high colour, corse, and, as
it gets older, acquires a great deal of seve and bouquet.

The white wines of Burgundy however, must not be forgotten, for amongst
them is the renowned Chablis. This, with the oysters, the squeeze of
lemon juice, and the brown bread and butter, usually heralds in any
large dinner. Although slightly alcoholic, it is not heady, and
possesses body, delicacy, and an agreeable perfume, with that
distinguishing PIERRE A FUSIL taste--that flinty flavour--which is
its recognised characteristic.

Leaving the Bordeaux wines and the wines of Burgundy, it is next
desirable to speak of one which belongs to the South of France. It is
well known, at least by name, to most Australians, and any description
of its properties, therefore, will be the more appreciated. This is the
Muscat of Rivesaltes, in the department of the Oriental Pyrenees. By
some it is esteemed the best liqueur wine in the world. A good sample
of it possesses great finesse, a good deal of vinosity, and that
wonderful muscadine bouquet which gives to it its celebrated
characters.

There is another wine, coming from the valley of the Rhone, in the
south-eastern portion of France, whose name is equally familiar to most
Australians; this is the Red Hermitage, or, as it is perhaps more
commonly known amongst us, Shiraz, wine. A genuine wine is
distinguished by great richness, a lively purple colour, and a special
bouquet; and it becomes, by these united qualities, the best wine of
this region.

Turning to the German wines, those of the Rheingau must claim our
attention. This district borders on the Rhine, and it is said that the
river acts as a mirror, in reflecting the rays of the sun towards the
vineyards. The Rheingau must not be confused with the district of
Hochheim, which is situated on the Maine. Yet it is curious that the
first syllable of the latter district (Hochheim) has furnished the
monosyllabic English word Hock, under which are confused ALL the Rhine
wines. Amongst the wines of the Rheingau may be enumerated Steinberg,
Marcobrunner, and Johannisberg. With regard to the wines of the
Rheingau, Mr. Henry Vizetelly observes: "Although the flavour and
bouquet of the grand wines of the Rheingau are equally pronounced, it
is exceedingly difficult to characterise them with precision. After
gratifying the sense of smell with the fragrant odour which they evolve
--and which is no mere evanescent essence vanishing as soon as
recognised, but often a rich odour which almost scents the surrounding
atmosphere--you proceed to taste the vine, and seem to sip the aroma
exhaled by it. Now and then you are conscious of a refilled pungent
flavour, and at other times of a slight racy sharpness, while the
after-taste generally suggests more of an almond flavour than any other
you can call to mind. No wines vary so much in their finer qualities as
the grand growths of the Rheingau. The produce of a particular
vineyard, although from the same species of grape, cultivated under
precisely similar conditions, will differ materially in flavour and
bouquet, not merely in bad and good years, but in vintages of equal
excellence. Moreover, these wines need the most skilful cellar
treatment during the long years they are maturing. All great wines, it
should be remembered, ripen slowly, and cannot be 'pasturised' into
perfection--that is to say, cannot be rapidly matured by heating them
to a certain temperature, as ordinary wines may be."

The Hochheim vineyards are situated, as I have previously indicated, on
the banks of the Maine, several miles above its confluence with the
Rhine. There is one exceptionally fine Hochheim growth which comes from
the vineyard of the "Dechanei," or deanery. True Hochheinner is a
remarkably aromatic wine, and possesses both body and fire. Indeed, it
contains as large a percentage of alcohol as the so-called noble
Steinberger--the most spirituous of the Rhenish growths--with more
sweetness. It consequently lacks that subdued acidulous freshness of
flavour which is such a marked characteristic of the wines of the
Rheingau.

Some reference to sherry and port is necessary, because they are both
types of wines that are widely known, and consequently ally remarks
concerning, them are of value by comparison. It would appear that with
most sherry, and certainly with all port, there is an addition of
alcohol to the wine. Even the wines which are sold in England under the
name of "natural sherry" contain from 13.2 to 15.5 per cent. of
alcohol. Beyond all question, therefore, from 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 per cent.
of alcohol must have been added, for no "natural sherry" should ever
contain more than 12 per cent. of alcohol. Some sherries, however, have
been introduced with an alcoholicity of from 12 to 13.6 per cent., with
the following, characters: The taste is freely vinous, rich, pure,
mellow, and quite free from heat or the taste of added spirit. But
fashion has much to do with the type of sherry in request; thus the
colour has varied from time to time. In the same way, too, a taste for
dry sherries arose with the Manzanilla epoch, only to be
carried to excess. As with all other wines, a certain age in sherry is
desirable; the ethers become developed during this period, and impart a
rich flavour to it. In the course of time, however, sherry falls off so
much that it is only fit for giving flavour to young wine.

In the matter of port, also, it may confidently be asserted that not a
single drop is sold that does not contain a certain amount of added
brandy. That is to say, all port wine, without exception, is brandied.
The effect of the brandy is to keep the wine quiet; it prevents it from
undergoing any fermentation; and, what is more, it keeps it from
changing, no matter whether the climate be hot or cold. Messrs.
Thudicum and Dupre state that a perfectly natural port has 9 per cent.
of alcohol as the lowest, and 13.8 per cent. as the highest limit.

A sample of Alto Douro wine submitted to these gentlemen, although it
was slightly alcoholised, yet possessed the following desirable
qualities: it was fine, because it was derived from the finest and
ripest Alto Douro grapes, the Verdeilho and Bastardo; it was full,
owing to its great vinosity and high amount of natural alcohol, yet
free from adventitious syrup; and it was pure, because free from all
those faults which depreciate so many southern wines, such as the
fousel flavour, or the burning taste of distilled spirit. Besides all
these great qualities, it characteristically possessed the very essence
of an ideal port wine flavour--without the saccharine and spirituous
taste commonly found in port wine--and it had a natural smooth
astringency such as pleases the palate and imparts keeping qualities.

Moreover, it was very unlike the artificial sweet and burning products
commonly called port wine. It was thoroughly fermented, and contained
such a minute quantity of grape sugar that the latter could not be
possibly detected by the taste. It was perfectly dry, and thereby
differed entirely from ordinary port wines, which contain from 2 to 6
per cent. of sugar. Its alcoholicity was certainly below all the port
wines usually sold. With all these desirable qualities, therefore, it
possessed high dietetic and hygienic virtues, and refreshed the system
like Burgundy or Medoc wine.

It will be convenient to make reference here to two terms about which
there is a great deal of confusion. It is the difference between the
"aroma" and the "bouquet" of wine. Now, the Settimana Vinicola has
recently well observed that although these two are usually supposed to
be the same, yet they are entirely different. The aroma of a wine is
altogether distinct from those agreeable and delicate odours known by
the name of "bouquet." For instance, some American grapes have what is
called a "foxy" smell, and the wine prepared from them has this aroma,
which is perceptibly disagreeable. Aroma pre-exists in certain grapes,
and during vinification will pass into the resulting wine. On the other
hand, perfume, the bouquet of the French, as it has been pointed out by
Professor G. Grazzi-Soncini, is the complex sensation produced
simultaneously on the palate and nose, owing to the intimate connection
between these two organs, and which has already been referred to. This
bouquet is due to the action of the ethers, which are formed during the
life of the wine. The CORRIERE DEL VILLAGIO remarks, in addition to the
preceding, that there is a chemical difference between the "aroma" and
the "bouquet" of wine. The former is produced chiefly by one or more
carburets of hydrogen, and their oxidation derivatives. The bouquet,
however, results from the admixture of aldehydes with one or more
essential oils and various ethers, produced by combination of fatty and
other acids with ethylic and other alcohols, and from these
changes result the different ethers which constitute the bouquet of
wine.

One of the most valuable books published on vine-growing and wine-making
is that by the justly celebrated Dr. Jules Guyot. The greater
part of one particularly important chapter is wholly taken up with the
most graphic and lucid description of wine-tasting with which we are
acquainted. Besides this, it contains such an amount of information on
the subject, that no remarks in this connection would be complete
without reference to it. For the following vivid rendering of a good
deal of this very chapter I am very much indebted to my friend Dr. John
Steel, of Sydney:--

"Wine put upon its trial is subjected to two jurisdictions; the one
altogether belonging to the senses, the other wholly physiological. The
appreciation of wine by the senses is referred to three of our organs
of sense--the eye; the nasal chambers, in front and behind; and the
mouth, equally at its anterior and posterior part.

"WINE JUDGED BY THE SIGHT.--Wine pleases the eye by its clearness and
colour: and be it ruby, rose, amber, or white, it ought always to have
perfect clearness and freshness of colour. Neither of these latter
tones will be out of harmony in a really good wine, even in extreme old
age. If you will not take upon yourself to decide whether a wine is
good when it is attractive to the sight, you can always say that it is
not good or at least that it is not in the best condition, when its
transparency and shades of colour are questionable. Freshness of colour
and clearness are good signs. Though they are not to be regarded as
qualities, yet any appearance to the contrary betokens real defects in
the wine.

"WINE JUDGED BY THE SENSE OF SMELL; THE TWO ODOURS OF WINE.--Wine
reveals itself by two sorts of odours (the aroma and the bouquet) to
the outer organ of smell--that is to say, when that sense is exercised
by inhaling (or sniffing) the wine. The first, or aroma, is the general
and common odour peculiar to most wines. It is always strongest when
the wine is newest, but it always characterises good wine, however old
it may be. This first odour seems to be due to the volatilization of
the spirit, which holds in solution an essential oil, more or less
volatile, more or less powerful, and more or less characteristic of
each kind of wine. This aroma is a sign of real quality in the wine,
and is generally very strong and very noticeable during the first
years; it becomes concentrated, refined, and attenuated as the
wine ages. The second kind of odour the bouquet, on the contrary, is
developed with age, and would appear to be owing to the reaction of
vinous acids on the spirit, which gives rise to certain ethereal
combinations.

"WINES ARE NOT MADE CHIEFLY TO PLEASE THE SENSES OF SIGHT AND SMELL--
Aroma, like colour, is a favourable or unfavourable sign, agreeable or
disagreeable. Yet before everything wine is a nourishing beverage. It
is a very good thing that sight and smell should be gratified in this
way, but it would be puerile and ridiculous to exalt beyond measure the
importance of these organs of sense; and to pretend that the
superiority of wine rests almost exclusively on the pleasurable
impressions which are derived therefrom. I have seen many hosts bother
their guests with vexatious insistence to look at, hold up to the
light, sniff their wine, even the empty glasses, almost throughout the
whole duration of a banquet--at the risk of making them well nigh die
of thirst. The true amateur, the wine-taster, knows perfectly well how
to look at and how to smell his wine; but he knows full well also that
these two preliminaries ought to be immediately followed by the taking
of the fluid into the front part of the mouth. Colour and smell are
merely two notes introductory to a gastronomic theme; if they are only
by themselves they lose their relative value, and the theme is not
properly understood.

"WINE JUDGED BY TASTE; THAT IS, BY THE MOUTH AT ITS ANTERIOR AND
POSTERIOR PART.--Before speaking of the impression wine gives to the
sense of taste, I ought to say that this sense is the only one in the
animal organization which possesses a double apparatus for perception--
one at the tip and edges of the tongue, the other at its root and at
the soft palate. The first perceives acid or electro-positive tastes
through the two lingual nerves; the second detects alkaline tastes by
the two glosso-pharyngeal nerves. Tastes perceived by the front part of
the mouth, in the case of liquids as well as solids, are not the same
as those discriminated by the back part of the mouth. An alkaline salt,
for instance, gives to the front part an acid, styptic, salt, or sweet
taste, but communicates to the posterior part a basic, bitter, or
saponaceous taste.

"WINE-TASTING PROPERLY SO CALLED.--Wine taken into the front part of
the mouth gives rise to acid, sweet, and styptic tastes at the outer
edges and tip of the tongue. All shades, in harmony, ought to give a
pleasing sensation to the organ, when neither acidity, sweetness, nor
astringency predominates. Next we pass the wine to the posterior part
of the mouth, and delay it there by a kind of gargling. It is now that
we get the smack of the soil, the taste of cask or wood, the insipidity
of salts, or any bitterness. If the whole effect is pleasing to the
back part of the mouth, with the absence of all disagreeable
impressions, we must, to put the finishing touch on the wine-tasting,
not spit it out, but swallow it. As soon as the wine has passed over
the root of the tongue and the soft palate and its pillars, a most
pronounced odour ascends from the pharynx into the nasal cavities, and
gives forth newer and more powerful revelations, AS to the qualities or
defects of the bouquet of wine, than can ever be obtained by the
outward sense of smell. Moreover, the last contact of wine with the
mucous membrane of the pharynx and of the base of the tongue leaves a
lasting impression of taste, and when this sensation is disagreeable it
is designated under the collective name of 'after-taste.'

"GOOD AND BAD WINE JUDGED BY THE SENSES.--If, then, a wine possesses
perfect clearness and freshness of colour, if it has an agreeable
odour, if the combined effect of the acid, sweet, and astringent tastes
is gratifying to the anterior part of the mouth by a fusion, seeming to
form a unique taste like many notes in a complete harmony; if to this
harmonious impression the back part of the mouth adds a feeling of glow
and vinous richness, without alcohol being noticed; and if, at last,
the act of swallowing crowns the whole with a natural bouquet, not
followed by any 'after-taste,' we may pronounce the wine to be good as
judged by the senses. But, on the other hand, the wine is
unsatisfactory if it fail in any of these points. It will be inferior
in proportion as the acids, sugar, and the salts become individually
perceived by the tip of the tongue. Again, it is imperfect when the
chilliness, flatness, the essential oils, the taste of earth and of
cask, and above all, an excess of froe spirit, are manifestly noticed
at the base of that organ. And lastly, it is defective just as the
'ARRIERE BOUQUET' is less pleasant, and the 'after-taste' more
disagreeably prolonged.

"THE DIFFICULTY OF JUDGING BY TASTES.--In this unfolding of the
process of wine-tasting I have endeavoured to be clear, and yet I feel
I have not been sufficiently so. It will be impossible to judge by
tastes until science has laid down signs or words representative of
their quality, of their stamp, or of their harmonious relations. The
science of tastes has yet to be founded. Till then, chefs de cuisine
and the clever caterers for banquets will remain isolated geniuses or
empirics; while, as regards wine-tasters and gastronomists, they
approve or they criticise, but they do not establish any rules. It
would be a curious collection that would comprise all the expressions
used by wine-tasters, wine-merchants, commercial travellers, amateurs
(by far, indeed, the most numerous class), to express the feelings they
experience in tasting wines. I know an English traveller who only liked
a wine when it caused a 'peacock's tail in the mouth'; and
everybody knows the expression of the Auvergnian drinking a glass of
generous old wine--'It's a yard of velvet going down the throat.'

"THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF WINES.--The inhabitants of a beer-drinking
or spirit-drinking country will never possess the vivacity of
wit and the light-heartedness of those who live in a wine-producing
land. It is not by any means the alcohol in itself which constitutes
the worth and goodness of wine, for beer may contain as much, and
spirits certainly contain more. To be more or less spirituous does not
constitute good wine. All natural wine is good, whether it be strong or
weak in spirit, if it keeps its organic life. It is good, too, if it
reveals itself by a fresh odour, by a union of all its elements in a
taste harmonious to the palate, by being easily digested, and by
causing greater activity of body and mind, and a sensible augmentation
of muscular force. Be the taste of the wine fresh, sharp, or delicate;
be it soft, unctuous, or rich; be it acid or strong, the wine is good
if it supports and increases the forces of body and mind, without
wearing out the digestive Organs.

"WINE IS GOOD RELATIVELY AND NOT ABSOLUTELY. WE OUGHT TO HAVE BEFORE
EVERYTHING GOOD COMMON WINES.--A wine is good according to the use to
which we put it. Even an excellent liqueur or dessert vine is
undesirable and out of place for ordinary drinking purposes or for
nourishment. We must distinguish between wines for ordinary use, those
for side dishes (ENTREMETS), and those for dessert. And these again
should be differentiated into wines for small, medium, or large
glasses, relatively, proportional to the quantity which we can or ought
to drink. A good cake is always good if we only eat a little at a time,
and seldom take it; but bread is infinitely better and preferred by
everybody to eating cake always. It is vastly more important to have
good ordinary wines than to have good VINS D'ENTREMETS or good liqueur
wines. And, indeed, this very matter affects the total consumption
within and out of France, and the interests of producer and consumer,
as well as the interests of public hygiene. Good ordinary wine,
alimentary wine--for wine is a real and excellent food--by no means a
wine strong in spirit, nor is it a wine of great age; but it is a wine
of fine CEPAGE, not going beyond 10 per cent. of spirit, or even 6 per
cent."


UNIFORMITY IN AUSTRALIAN WINES.


This is a subject the importance of which cannot be over estimated. And
it is one markedly calling for consideration, as there have been, and
still are, grounds for complaint in this direction. It will be
advisable, therefore, to look well into the question, because it will
amply repay the trouble bestowed upon it. First of all, then, let us
refer to the remarks of Mr. Francois de Castella, the author of the
Handbook on Viticulture for Victoria. He points out that in each
district there will be one class of wine which will surpass all others
in excellence, and that this is the type which the grower should
produce. All the vine-growers in any one district should endeavour to
make their wines of the type specially adapted for that particular
district; and of course the type will vary in different districts. In
this way, and only in this way, will it be possible for the public to
obtain an unvarying article.

At the present time there are in each district a number of wines
possessing various names, such as Hermitage, Shiraz, Carbenet,
Burgundy, Chasselas, Riesling, Tokay, &c., but these names actually
mean nothing. Each district should produce a different type of wine. A
Riesling from the Yarra and a Riesling from the Murray are as distinct
as Hock and Sherry. Mr. de Castella further advises that each vine-grower
should join the Vine-Growers' Association in his locality. In
this way the members of each district can agree amongst themselves to
produce one class of wine, or at most two--say one white and one red.
Instead of the same names being applied to entirely different wines,
the nine will come to be known by the name of the district in which it
is produced. One will then be able to have some idea of the contents of
a bottle, from the label upon it. At present the name on the bottle is
no indication whatever of the wine within; indeed, the same name is on
the outside of many totally distinct wines. This change must assuredly
come, and the sooner it does the better for Australian wines.

Mr. Pownall, in the course of his evidence before the Royal Commission
on Vegetable Products in Victoria, also drew attention to this
same want of uniformity. He believed that each vineyard ought to aim at
making a standard quality of wine, so that wine-merchants might know
what to expect from that vineyard. The wines throughout Australia
should likewise, as far as possible, bear uniform names. He stated that
he had met wines in various vineyards grown from the same grape, and
called by different names; and though this might seem a trivial matter,
yet it led to endless confusion. Moreover, it should not be permitted
to continue, especially as it could be so easily rectified.

It must be said, however, that at the Great Western district, in
Victoria, a start has been made in the right direction. A report on the
vineyards of that locality referred to the gratifying fact that a
marked tendency existed towards the adoption of a rational nomenclature
of wines. Many of the leading growers were confining themselves to one
red and one white wine. Some of them called their wine by the name of
the vineyard, adding the words Hock, Chablis, Claret, &c. after them.
This is unquestionably so far an improvement, and it is to be hoped
that before long the wine will be known by the name of the vineyard or
district, and by nothing else.

Mr. James Smith has also strongly insisted upon the supreme importance
of this uniformity, especially as regards the quality of the wine. And
this is perfectly true. The quality of any particular wine is solely
dependent upon the season, but the produce of any given vineyard should
surely possess, as he remarks, a distinctive CACHET, by which the
palate is enabled to recognise it. For instance, an expert would not
fail to distinguish between a Chateau Margaux and a Chateau Lafitte,
nor between a Chateau Latour and a Haut Brion. Notwithstanding the
different vintages, there is always a uniformity and continuity of
flavour maintained through all these great growths. But in the case of
our Australian wines there is a lamentable difference. Wines of
the same denomination and from the same grower DIFFER SO MATERIALLY one
year from those bearing a similar name, and coming from the same
cellar, in another, that it is difficult to believe they are the same.
As Mr. Smith justly observes, this is an unpardonable defect in the
estimation of connoisseurs; more especially such as attach themselves
to a particular kind of wine, and naturally drink it by preference.
Constancy of type should be unremittingly aimed at by the vigneron. And
this can only be possible by continuous attention to each individual
factor concerned in vine-growing and wine-making.


THE FUTURE SUCCESS OF THE AUSTRALIAN WINE INDUSTRY--AND UPON WHAT IT
DEPENDS.


Figures help us considerably more than words in enforcing a proper idea
of the magnitude to which the Australian wine industry should develop.
It will be appropriate, therefore, to preface this portion by bringing
forward a few speculative data. In an earlier part of this chapter it
was stated that the city of Paris alone requires nearly 300,000 gallons
of wine daily, and that this single city would consume in 12 days all
the wine which the whole of Australia takes 12 MONTHS to make. The
population of Paris is nearly two and a half millions, while that of
Australia is three millions odd. By considering these together it will
be seen that the wine which it takes over three million people all the
year to make, lasts another two and a half million people only 12 days.

Now, the total annual wine yield of Australia, including both that used
here and that which is exported, is only worth about 800,000 L. It
follows from the foregoing, then, that Paris will in 12 days consume
about 800,000 L. worth of wine, and for the whole year the Parisian
figures for wine consumption will reach to something like 20,000,000 L.
Let us suppose that Australia were only a wine-drinking community, as
her climate unceasingly calls for. It would be fair to assume that her
yearly wine bill would be in accordance with the following rule of
proportion. If Paris with her two and a half millions annually consumes
wine to the amount of 20,000,000 L., then Australia with her three
millions odd would surely require for her own use at least 20,000,000
l. worth year by year. And when it is remembered in addition that the
export trade should be enormously in excess of any local requirements,
it will readily be see what a magnificent future only awaits its
calling into being.

We cannot hope that our Australian wines will take a high place amongst
those of the world as long as they are not in general use by our own
people. There can be no keener reproach than to have it said: "Why,
even the Australians themselves do not drink their own wines." And this
is regrettedly the fact. It is necessary, therefore, that first of all
our people should take a very deep interest in all the details
connected with vine-growing and wine-making, and thus give some
encouragement to those who are doing their best to establish what will
ultimately become Australia's brightest glory. And it will be a good
thing for this land when a knowledge of every point in the growing of
the grape, and every step in the making of the wine, becomes part and
parcel of our daily life. The very hoardings of our streets are covered
with advertisements of countless brands of whisky, and of numberless
varieties of ale. But those setting forth the virtues of our wines are
conspicuous by their absence. It would seem that Australia, where our
own wine should be the national beverage, is almost the last country in
which to find it.

It may be asked, what are the reasons which lead to this disregard of
the virtues possessed by our own wines? The reply to this
question is not an easy matter, but I shall endeavour to answer it to
the best of my ability. The probability is, if a dozen people were
asked, at random, why Australian wine is so little used in Australia,
that at least that number of different explanations would be
forthcoming. The truth, however, is more likely to be found in a
combination of reasons, rather than from any one single cause. These
are obviously worth considering, from the very fact that the knowing of
what they consist is of the first importance in rectifying them.

I shall begin, then, by saving that the label on the bottle has much to
answer for, in that it is misleading. It does not give any idea of what
is to be found inside. Thus the word Riesling, on one bottle, may be
attached to a wine grown on the Hunter, in New South Wales, and on
another to a wine from the Yarra, in Victoria. It is true that the wine
from these two places may be grown from the same "cepage." But while
the river Yarra wine will contain perhaps 11 per cent. of alcohol, that
from the Hunter River will have quite 20 per cent.--so much does an
increase in the warmth of the climate increase the alcoholic strength
of the wine.

And while we are on the subject of labels, I must certainly take
exception to the unattractive character of those employed on the
bottles of our Australian wines. There is no reason whatever why a
little consideration should not be paid to the artistic sense in this
respect. Our wine merchants, it would appear, fail to understand the
selling power which belongs to the "get-up" of the label on a wine
bottle. I feel sure this attractiveness has a great deal to do with the
success of many products, notably in the case of the American preserved
fruits. Some of these are labelled in a manner which is creditable in
the highest degree--and what is more, from a practical point, it is no
unimportant factor in their huge sale.

Then again, there is that want of uniformity which Mr. James Smith has
so ably descanted upon, and to which I have already referred. It is bad
enough to have a wine labelled Riesling, or whatever it may be, from
one place differing entirely from a wine of the same name which comes
from some other locality. But it is a far more serious defect when the
wine of any particular place one year differs entirely from the same
wine coming from the same locality at another. For the same variety of
wine, of the same vineyard, thus to vary, year by year, is simply
unpardonable. This must not be allowed to continue, for while it exists
Australian nines will always be subject to reproach--a reproach,
indeed, which cannot be explained away.

And while dealing with these shortcomings I propose to speak of another
matter, which is by no means unimportant. I refer to the size of the
bottle. It has frequently happened that visitors to Australia hare said
to me, "I should very much like--indeed, I am anxious--to try your
Australian wines; but unfortunately I cannot drink a whole bottle at
table, and I am unable to obtain less." Now, this is undoubtedly a
grievance, and should be overcome in some way; either by putting up a
portion of our wines in smaller bottles, or else by making some
arrangement so that a smaller quantity may be obtained. Since these
lines were written, however, it is very pleasing to record the fact
that one enterprising firm in Sydney has taken a highly commendable
step in this very direction; and already smaller bottles of Australian
wine may be obtained for the low prices of 6d. and 9d.

Up to this point I have made no remarks with regard to the knowledge of
wine possessed by the majority of Australians, and yet in many respects
it is the most important of all. They are not called upon to pronounce
an opinion upon a wine, such as would be looked for from an
expert. But I do think it is very desirable that they should know, at
least, the kind of wine that is suitable for Australian use. Once this
is accomplished, and it is by no means difficult to learn, a great deal
will have been achieved. It is quite a mistake to imagine that the
value of a wine increases with its strength, and that the stronger a
wine is, the more valuable it becomes. Even in Europe itself strong
wines are going out of fashion, and lighter ones are taking their
place. People much prefer a light wine, of which they can take a fair
amount and quench their thirst, in preference to a strong wine of the
port or sherry type, of which they can only take a small wineglassful.
But in Australia, the very place where one would expect a demand for
all lighter wines, the taste for strong wines as the rule. This is
another striking example of the same antagonism to climatic environment
which is found all through our food habits. A light wine is the wine
above all others which should be most sought after. What Australia
requires as a national beverage is a wine of low alcoholic strength. It
should be so cheap as to come within the easy every-day reach of all
classes. And finally, it should take the place of all other liquids,
since it is essentially wholesome, hygienic, restorative, and cheering.

The reputation of Australian wines in the English market has hitherto
been damaged to a considerable extent by the practices which have been
followed on the part of some of the large buyers. But before referring
to these proceedings, to which Mr. Hans Irvine, of the Great Western
Vineyard, in Victoria, has so properly and powerfully drawn attention,
it must be distinctly understood that any subsequent remarks do not
apply to all the London wine-merchants. On the contrary, there are many
whose characters are irreproachable, and whose integrity is above
suspicion. By clearing the ground in this way one is enabled to
protest against the treatment which Australian wine receives in London,
without levelling charges against estimable men, who command respect,
and who deserve the gratitude of all Australians for their fair
dealings.

Well then, most of our wines purchased by English buyers have been
those of full-bodied, crude, and coarse young wines, containing a great
amount of alcohol. Two reasons have been assigned for this proceeding;
the first being that Australian wines would not bear the voyage unless
they were sufficiently strong; and the second, that in England the
demand was more particularly for such a class of wine. But many of
these firms are utterly ignorant of any special knowledge as to
treating the finer and more delicate wines. It has suited these buyers
to deal only with the stronger wines, as they are the more secured from
any loss or trouble. For the fact is, these wines, while being of a
greater alcoholic strength, are really of most excellent character and
quality. And besides this, they release certain customers, whose idea
of a good wine--even at the present time--is a wine of great body and
strength, and not so much one with that delicacy of character and
bouquet which the finer wines possess.

Some of the merchants, having but little bother with the heavier wines,
have encouraged their sale to as great an extent as possible. From this
it follows that those who prefer and habitually drink a better class of
wine have never had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with the
magnificent wines which Australia can supply. As Mr. Irvine tells us,
the higher types of fine, light, delicate, dry wines, with a richness
of bouquet, such as most districts in Australia are capable of
producing, are the kinds of wine we must look forward to for
establishing a name and fame for our produce. It is not too much to
assert that before very long Australia will be able to supply
wines whose quality will rival the choicest vintages of the most famous
vineyards of Europe. Even as it is, the delicacy of bouquet and
excellent characters of many of the Australian red and white wines have
fairly astonished connoisseurs on being submitted to them.

It seems a thousand pities, then, that such misconception should exist
with regard to our wines. And quite undeservedly so, for as a matter of
fact these lighter wines are most unfairly neglected. They simply
require to be properly fined and carefully attended to. The casks in
which they are shipped should be thoroughly cleansed and treated before
being filled, in order to take out any taint of spirits they may
contain; or any excess of tannin, which is always present in Dew wood.
If these different matters be looked to they will improve to a
wonderful extent on the voyage, and after being allowed a week or
fortnight's rest on arrival, they will be found in a highly
satisfactory condition. After this time these delicate wines of a low
alcoholic strength require to be duly cared for. But they are worth a
little extra attention, for it is absolutely certain that through them,
and through them alone, will our Australian wines be accorded the merit
and the appreciation which they so undoubtedly deserve.

It must not be imagined, however, that the foregoing is the only
handicap which Australian wine has to carry. In other cases there are
many reprehensible proceedings adopted, which irretrievably injure the
reputation of our wines in the English market. Some of the inferior
wines are shipped home and "restored," by blending them with full,
heavy, rich wines from warmer districts. When "clothed" in this way,
their imperfections are for a time hidden, but the bad soon
contaminates the whole. It is true that a good, sound, and well-made
wine improves with age. But with these "restored" and "clothed"
wines the reverse happens, and they become worse and worse by keeping.

Then again, many of the widely advertised Australian wines in the old
country are sold too young; and unfortunately these young wines
constitute the bulk of the trade done with England. They are bottled
when too green and crude, and have not been given a sufficient time in
cask to develop into high-class wines. They must be allowed to acquire
a proper amount of cask ripeness, and if they were stored and attended
to for twelve months before being bottled they would vastly improve. In
some cases, also, wines are shipped from Australia before they are
twelve months old, and as they are usually fined, bottled, and sold as
soon as possible after arrival, it has actually happened that the
British public have repeatedly drunk wines that are hardly one year
old. Indeed, the wines are frequently bottled when in a state of
fermentation, consequently secondary fermentation goes on in the
bottle, and the bottles are often shattered by an explosion. And more
than this, they are often badly blended; they do not receive sufficient
care and attention; and they are not uncommonly in the hands of a few
men whose sole object is to make money.

There is still something further which is greatly prejudicial to the
fair name of Australian wine, and it is this: Many of the wine
merchants hold very small stocks, so that any one supply soon runs out
and is no longer obtainable. As a result it is urged against the wines
that they are not constant, and that it is impossible to procure the
same wine twice running. With larger stocks, too, there would be some
certainty that the wine was matured, as for example with a merchant
holding a three years' supply. In this case, also, the consumer would
be enabled to obtain a continued supply of any particular wine
to which he might have become attached.

My own belief, however, is that the most powerful impetus to our wine
industry will arise from the Australians themselves taking an interest
in all that concerns this great source of health, wealth, and
employment. I have said so before, and take this opportunity of saying
so again. Let our people take an active interest in every detail
connected with the growing of the grape, and with the making of the
wine! Let a light, wholesome wine, also, enter into the daily dietary
of the whole people! For the national drink for Australian use is
unquestionably a wine of low alcoholic strength; a wine of a sufficient
age to be free from any reproach of newness; and a wine possessing
those qualities which render it wholesome, beneficial, hygienic,
cheering, and restorative.

There are two other matters which require to be noticed before leaping
the whole subject of Australian wine. The first of these is a reference
to the establishment of Viticultural Colleges, and it is one of very
great importance, because it has much to do with the development of the
wine industry. Now, I am not one of those who look to the State for
everything, but it seems to me that if you recognise the necessity of
State education, you must at least equally recognise the necessity of
affording the youthful population of Australia the opportunity of
learning that which must eventually develop into the one distinctive
industry of this land. France at the present day, even with her
unrivalled reputation as the wine-growing country of the world, avails
herself of the advantages of Viticultural Colleges. Italy, also, by
means of their help is making strides in a manner actually bordering on
the miraculous. If these countries, then, in which vine-growing and
winemaking have been carried on for centuries find Viticultural
Colleges indispensable, how much more must a young country, with its
wine industry quite undeveloped, need them!

It must with confidence be said, therefore, that Australia cannot do
without these Viticultural Colleges. Something has already been done by
the establishment of Agricultural Colleges, and this is most
commendable. But what I believe is this, that a wine-grower must be a
wine-grower and nothing else. To know everything connected with the
growth of the grape and cellar management thoroughly is quite enough
for any ordinary man to attempt to master. Therefore viticulture must
either be made a distinctly separate course at the Agricultural
Colleges; or, what if better still, Viticultural Colleges must be
established for the purpose alone.

At Montpellier, in France, the course of viticultural education is
elaborately comprehensive, and includes the study of the anatomy of the
vine, its flowers, leaves, seeds, &c. The pupils become thoroughly
acquainted with every variety of wine in practical form; they see it
grow, learn the art of pruning, and of everything pertaining to the
growth of the vine. They also master all the details connected with
grafting, the laying out of vineyards, the diseases to which the vine
is liable, and the remedies which are most effectual. And, in addition,
there is minute instruction in every step in cellar management and the
after care and treatment of the wine itself, from the start to the
finish. In this way the subject is studied from a thoroughly scientific
standpoint, with a result that influences for good the whole of French
viticulture.

But if the benefits derived from the establishment of Viticultural
Colleges in France are thus remarkable, those which have followed their
introduction into Italy are nothing less than wonderful. The School of
Viticulture at Conegliano has been the means of increasing the
wine production of Italy to an incredible extent. In 1870 Italy
exported only 4,000,000 gallons of wine; yet in 1890, in the short
space of twenty years, this had risen to 88,000,000 gallons. This
school has taught the people to make good wine; it has induced people
who had never dreamt of it to plant vineyards; it hag led people to
plant them properly, since they were shown the way on a rational
principle; and lastly, they have thus learnt how to make wine on a
scientific basis. The course of study there is extremely severe, and as
a result all those who receive diplomas from it thoroughly understand
the cultivation of the vine and the management of the cellar. This
School of Viticulture has been such a phenomenal success that other
provinces of Italy brought pressure upon the Government. As a
consequence therefrom, secondary schools have been established at many
places, notably Gioia del Colle, Pozzuolo, Tmola, Avellino, Alda,
Catania, &c.

In conclusion, there is that other most important matter to which I
should like to draw attention. It is to advocate the establishment of
an Australian Wine-Growers' Association on a federal basis. The
advantage resulting from the formation of a strong Association, with a
numerically powerful membership roll, would be very great. Such an
organization would be well able to conduct a weekly paper of its own,
with contributors from all the different colonies. There would be no
dearth of literary material, for the whole subject is one teeming with
interest. Even now a substantial beginning has been made, and THE
AUSTRALIAN VIGNERON AND FRUIT-GROWERS JOURNAL is well deserving of
success, and is already doing good work in this very direction. And
besides the foregoing, an Intercolonial Wine-Growers' Congress should
meet annually at the different Australian metropolitan centres (Sydney,
Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, &c.), in rotation, where there
would be the opportunity of discussing theoretical questions, and of
tasting practical results. In all these many ways public interest in
the Australian wine industry would be continually sustained; and,
rising from its unfairly neglected position, it would speedily attain
to that pride of place which is manifestly its destiny.






PART II.





AUSTRALIAN COOKERY RECIPES AND ACCESSORY KITCHEN INFORMATION.




MRS. H. WICKEN.
Diplomee of the National Training School for Cookery, London; Lecturer
on Cookery to the Technical College, Sydney.




CHAPTER XIII. THE KITCHEN



Furnishing the kitchen is often looked upon as quite of secondary
importance; but, instead of being last and least, it ought to be first
and foremost, for a cook cannot be expected to send up a good dinner
without proper utensils, any more than a carpenter can turn out a piece
of furniture without proper tools. It is no doubt a great mistake to
have many things in use, for a bad servant will have every one dirty
before she begins to wash up, and a good servant will have a lot of
work in keeping them clean and in good order. There are a few utensils,
not at all expensive, which are a great aid to the cook and a saving of
time too, and yet from some cause or other are seldom found in an
ordinary kitchen. Before glancing at these we might consider what is
the best covering for the floor. There is no doubt that deal boards
well scrubbed look nicer than anything else, but to keep them spotless
involves a lot of labour, and as this is not always to be had, perhaps
the wisest plan is to cover it with oilcloth or linoleum; a good medium
quality can be bought for 3s. 3d. a square yard, and if properly laid
will last for years. By the way, it should not be washed, but only
rubbed with a damp cloth first and then with a piece of flannel dipped
in oil soda and scrubbing will ruin it very quickly. If the cupboard
accommodation is scanty the dresser should be bought with cupboards
underneath; in this case it will cost about three pounds, but if without
cupboards one pound ten shillings. A deal table is the best, and this must
be kept white with constant scrubbing; while the cookery is going on a
piece of oil baize might be laid over it. Pearson's carbolic sand soap
will remove any grease spots very quickly; the paste board and rolling pin
can also be kept white in the same way. It will be found an advantage
to have two or three French or butchers' knives for cooking purposes,
instead of using the dinner knives. These can be bought from 1s. 6d.
each; they are stronger and take a better edge than ordinary knives.
Wooden and iron spoons will be found cheaper and better than using
table spoons as these latter are soon ruined if used for stirring;
cookery spoons cost about 3d. each; two of each would be found
sufficient. A conical strainer is more convenient and useful than the
round ones so generally used. For mixing bowls the agate iron are the
best; they are a little more expensive in the first place than the
yellow earthenware, but they are unbreakable, and therefore cheaper in
the end; they cost about 4s. 6d. each. A small sausage machine is very
necessary, for by means of this useful contrivance many scraps of meat
and bread can be utilized; the cost of one is 10s. 6d. A pestle and
mortar, too, will be found of great use in making up odds and ends into
dainty tit-bits; these, too, cost about 10s. 6d. Wire and hair sieves
are invaluable for preparing soups and many other dishes; sieves with a
wooden rim will be found the most durable; they cost 2s. 6d. Each.
Agate iron saucepans are light and durable and very easy to keep clean;
they are much better than the blue enamelled ware, as they do not burn
so readily or chip so soon. Frying pans are nice, too, of the same
ware. A set each of wire and metal dish-covers must not be forgotten;
the latter should be of plain blocked tin, and as the fluted ones soon
get shabby, these should be well washed inside and out with scouring
soap and polished with Goddard's plate powder. A French fryer is
invaluable; it will cost 7s. 6d. Three or four pounds of dripping
clarified should be put at first; this will require straining. After
being used once or twice, the fryer should then be washed out with soda
water, well dried, and the fat put back; it can be renewed from
time to time with some fresh fat, and it will keep good for weeks. When
it looks very dark throw it away and start with a fresh lot of fat; it
can be used for fish, rissoles, fritters, &c., and one can never tell
that anything has been fried in it before, if it attains the right heat
before the FRITURE is put in. It should be between boiling water heat
(212 degrees) and boiling fat (600 degrees), 385 degrees being exactly
right, and can be tested by dropping in a small piece of bred. If it
browns instantly it is ready; whatever is put into it will fry in two or
three minutes. Food cooked in this way will not be so greasy and
indigestible as it often is if cooked in a frying pan.

And now, last and most important of all, the stove; for although we may
do without a great many things which are nice and useful to have,
without a stove it is impossible to cook well. It may be for gas, wood,
or coal, but it must act well. Gas stoves are extremely simple, clean,
and easy to use, there are no flues to get choked, and in towns where
gas is cheap it is no doubt the easiest and pleasantest heat to use. To
keep them clean and sweet they should be well washed inside and out
with soda and water at least once a week and polished with a little
Electric black lead. The flues of wood and coal stoves should be
thoroughly cleansed out once a week, and the oven cleansed with soap
and soda; this is very necessary work, for if the ovens are not clean
whatever is cooked in them will be spoilt. A little thoughtful care in
these matters will often prevent much trouble when cooking. Let a
housekeeper, therefore, thoroughly master her stove first, and
understand the flues and dampers, for only in this way will she be able
to successfully cook the dishes she has skilfully prepared. Cleanliness
and care in respect of the stove and kitchen utensils generally are as
necessary to success as knowing the right materials to use and how
to put them together, and every one who can cook a dinner
should also know how to clean and keep in good order the stove and all
culinary utensils. Order and neatness must reign in the kitchen as well
as in the drawing-room, and it will help greatly to bring about this
desirable state of affairs if all utensils are cleansed and put away
immediately they are finished with, for it is much easier to wash them
then than if left dirty for some time. As soon as the contents of a
saucepan have been dished, fill it with cold water, add a lump of soda,
and stand it on the stove till hot; it can then be washed up in a few
minutes. Plates and dishes should at once be put into a bowl of hot or
cold water; treat spoons and forks in the same way. Knives, wipe at
once, and clean as soon as possible. A damp cloth rubbed with Monkey
soap will do wonders in removing stains and dust; these, if left for a
time, are hard to get off, and the kitchen, which ought to be bright
and cheerful, soon has a greasy, dirty look.

Some of us can call to mind delightful old kitchens in country houses,
which were a pleasure and a joy to both mistress and maids, where
bright copper stewpans reflected the blazing fire on all sides, and
metal covers shone like mirrors; while as for "eating off the floor,"
one might certainly do it if so inclined, without the "peck of dirt" at
once.

How cosy and delightful everything seems in a kitchen like this, and
what visions can we not see of home-made bread and cakes, well-cooked
joints, succulent vegetables, delicious puddings, dainty dishes of all
kinds concocted with skilful fingers! And why should not these visions
turn into substantial realities? They will do so if women will consider
it a pleasure, instead of a degradation, to "look well to the ways of
her household," and establish a system of order and neatness
from cellar to garret. When this happy time comes she will be
"emancipated" from many cares and have more leisure to cultivate her
intellect than she has now. Surely "a study which helps" to make
cheerful homes and healthy, well-conducted, "prosperous citizens is
worth at least a trial."




CHAPTER XIV.



THE ICE CHEST


"An ice chest!" someone exclaims. "I should like to know how I am to
get that." Well, very easily indeed, if there is a will to have one,
for then the way is plain. A refrigerator years ago was perhaps only
obtainable by the wealthy, and regarded rightly by others as a
not-to-be-thought-of-luxury; but, thanks to the rapid development of
scientific knowledge, both ice and refrigerators are now within the
means of nearly all. The Americans in this led the way, and those in
the Central States would no more dream of being without ice during the
hot season, than they would of failure to take daily supplies of bread
and milk. In almost every home through bright and sunny Australia we
find a piano and a sewing machine, and yet either of these costs far
more than an ice chest, and perhaps as much to keep in repair as the
ice to fill it. Looking at it from many points of view, it ought to be
considered an indispensable article of furniture, and it has this great
advantage over many "household gods," that the first expense is the
last; for it never gets out of order, and lasts a lifetime; and this
cannot be said of many other pieces of furniture, which perhaps cost
more and yet are not so useful. In such a warm climate as this, where
for six months in the year our one desire is to keep cool, it must
certainly be worth while to secure a simple and inexpensive article
which will help us to attain this object. Looking at the matter from
the Domestic Economy point of view, we shall certainly decide at once
in favour of the purchase. Housekeepers, both young and experienced,
know how much food has to be thrown away because it will not
keep sweet for even a few hours in the hot season. All this waste is at
an end if there is ice about, as it will keep perishable food cool and
pleasant and ready for a second meal. Many odds and ends of vegetables,
fish, and meat can be turned into a dainty salad with the ice chest
which must have been thrown away without it. Thus the expense, not only
of the ice, but also of the chest, is soon saved, to say nothing of the
pleasure and enjoyment of the said salad, which one would so infinitely
rather have had than the chops and steaks so universally served.
Delicious little breakfast dishes can be concocted over night from the
remains of fish and meat served at tea and put down into the ice all
night. These are cooked in a few minutes in the morning, and form such
a pleasant change to the standing dish of eggs and bacon; and how proud
a good house-keeper will feel when her little dishes are enjoyed, and
she knows that they have cost nothing!--for the food would not have
kept, and must therefore have been thrown away if she had not possessed
an ice chest. This is only one instance of what may be accomplished,
but in the daily routine of work many more will be found. Think, for a
moment, of the state of the butter without ice on a hot day. Who does
not dread the sight of the liquid or greasy fat usually seen in the
butter-dish, and what a remote chance there is of enjoying a slice of
bread and butter with bread as hard and dry as a brickbat, and butter
running to oil? Put both into a refrigerator and note the difference.
Look at it, also, from the hygenic standpoint. Most people, save the
very strong and robust, lose their appetite during the hot season, and
therefore feel languid and weak. Give them dry bread and liquid butter,
and they can't touch a morsel; but with fresh bread, hard butter, and
some dainty tit-bit, kept in the ice also, placed before them, a good
meal is often enjoyed. Again, in cases of illness ice becomes
at once a necessity; and if it is at hand in the house and ready for
use much time and trouble will be saved, and suffering too, as the poor
invalid waits with what patience he can for the relief which is so
often brought with ice.

And now we come to the practical question of how we are to get it, and
how to keep it. There are several companies who undertake to deliver a
daily supply of ice in town and country at a very moderate price, about
sixpence a block of 10 lbs.; but when there is a larger demand for it,
it will very soon be supplied at even a cheaper rate. There is a very
simple little American invention which makes ice very quickly. It is
not by any means expensive, about 21. 2s. 0d., and is invaluable in
country districts away from the railway. Then for a refrigerator there
are several very simple chests which require only a small quantity of
ice to keep them charged. The smallest and cheapest is the Baldwin,
costing from 30s., and another is the Iceberg, which acts splendidly.
Unlike other machines, which are liable from their complicated
structure to get out of order, these are so simple that they require no
repairs, but only strict cleanliness to keep them in good order. They
should be well washed out with soap and soda at least once a week, and
care taken that no little bits of food are left in when the plate
containing the main part is removed, for these morsels will cause an
unpleasant smell and quickly taint anything that may be put in
afterwards. It is better not to break the ice up, but to put the whole
block in the refrigerator, and when once it is in to close the lid
securely and keep it closed. It is a good plan to put a piece of
newspaper over the block, as that forces the cold air down into the
lower chamber. The larger blocks will be found almost as cheap as the
small ones, as if carefully used they last much longer. No doubt, as
the desire for ice increases, smaller blocks, costing perhaps 2d., or
3d., will be made, or the present prices reduced to that
figure. This, to a great extent, is in the hands of the consumers, for
as soon as there is a more spirited demand some energetic firm will
arise and supply the want, and we shall have, not only cheaper ice, but
cheaper ice-chests too. Dr. Muskett has pointed out some of the
advantages of ice in his work on THE HEALTH AND DIET OF CHILDREN IN
AUSTRALIA, as will be seen from the following paragraph:--

"In our semi-tropical climate a dislike is often taken to butter, when
it is presented at breakfast in the form of semi-liquid grease. It
would require a person with the stomach of an ostrich to digest, to say
nothing of relish, such an oleaginous composition during our summer
months. But if this necessary and all-important article of diet can be
presented in an appetising form, what a desirable result is achieved!
The mass of the people--I am not referring to those who are well
endowed with wordly gifts--are apt to look upon the Ice Chest as a
luxury which is altogether beyond their means. But I am firmly
persuaded that if the price of ice were brought down to one halfpenny
per pound, and that if a company were formed to deliver such a small
quantity as six pounds per day, or every second day, it would be a
great boon, and, moreover, a wonderfully profitable speculation. A very
small and suitable Ice Chest could be constructed solely to preserve
the butter in a congealed and therefore palatable state, both to
children and to adults. The former would take it with great avidity,
and the benefit to health resulting therefrom would be incalculable.
Even in some of the better-class houses Ice is looked upon too much as
a luxury, and not as it should be, a necessity; indeed, the money saved
from gas during the summer months might well be expended on Ice."




CHAPTER XV.



THE STOCK POT.


The stock pot is indispensable to good cooking, and although many soups
and sauces can be made with water as a foundation, nearly all of them
are improved by using stock, and no cook who desires to achieve good
results should be without a basin of stock when she commences
operations in the morning. There are saucepans now called digesters,
which are most useful as stock pots, but any good-sized saucepan or
boiler will do very well indeed. This should be put on fresh every
morning with everything the larder contains that is suitable--such,
for instance, as the bones of fresh or cooked meat, poultry, or
rabbits. Never put in fat, as this can be rendered down for pastry and
frying, and only makes the stock greasy; always cover the bones with
cold water, but regulate the quantity by the material used. Put in cold
water with a teaspoonful of salt, and when it boils up, skim well; when
skimming, take an iron spoon and a basin of water, and dip the spoon in
the water each time the scum is removed; then put in the peppercorns
and vegetables. In very hot weather put peppercorns and a fagot of
herbs only, as the vegetables cause the stock to turn sour very soon;
peppercorns should always be used, as they impart a much pleasanter
flavour to soup than pepper. A fagot of herbs is made with a bay or
peach leaf, a sprig each of parsley, thyme, and marjoram tied together
with a piece of cotton. These herbs can be grown so easily if one has a
small garden, or even in a box, with very little care; they impart such
a pleasant flavour to soups and gravies. Leeks cut up with the green
tops and put into the stock pot instead of onions are very good.
Part of the onion skin left on makes a good colour, but it can
be coloured by burning half a teaspoonful of sugar in an old spoon, or
by a few drops of caramel--the recipe for which is given elsewhere.
All fresh meat and bones should be carefully trimmed and wiped with a
warm damp cloth before putting into the pot; when the stock has boiled,
stand the saucepan at the back of the stove and simmer slowly for at
least five or six hours. If strong stock is desired, leave the lid off
the saucepan for the last hour; the water will then evaporate and make
the stock richer. The stock should be strained through a hair sieve or
a colander, and should stand in a cool place till the next day. If it
has been carefully made it will be in a jelly; the fat can very easily
be removed with a spoon. It should finally be wiped with a damp cloth.
Removing the fat thoroughly is a most important item, for greasy soups
and sauces are most indigestible and unwholesome. If the stock has to
be used at once, remove the fat first with a spoon, and then pass
pieces of this paper lightly across the surface; these will absorb the
fat. A small piece of charcoal laid on top of the stock will prevent it
turning sour in the hot weather. With this basin of stock to work on,
many dainty tit-bits are possible which could not be made without it.
How often has the cookery book been searched for "something nice" and
laid down with a sigh when half a pint of gravy has been found
necessary to concoct the desired dainty! But with a basin of stock on
hand, all these things are procurable, and it certainly does not take
more than ten minutes to break up the bones, skim the pot, and strain
it, and last of all it costs nothing. In cases of sudden emergency,
when stock is wanted and is not to be had, the recipe for Quick Beef
Tea answers very well, using one quart of water instead of one pint,
and by adding a few vegetables; this is made in five minutes.
White soup is looked upon as quite a high-class soup, but it is just as
easy to make as any other kind. A piece of stewed veal or mutton, or a
boiled chicken, gives the stock at once, or the bones of mutton, veal,
or pork alone will form the foundation. Never throw away the water in
which carrots, parsnips, celery, or even cauliflowers have been boiled.
Vegetables contain a great deal of potash, which is a valuable food for
the blood. A great deal of this potash comes out in the water during
the process of cooking; if this liquor is used as a foundation for
soup, we utilize this. For this reason vegetable soups, and stews
containing plenty of vegetables, are such a good diet for anyone
suffering from or subject to diseases of the blood and bones. These
simple facts seem to be overlooked; but if Australia is to become in
the future, as we all hope it may, a power in the world second to none,
the wives and mothers of her husbands and sons must understand the
necessity of providing them with a diet which shall make them strong
and brave, and root out what now seems to be the curse of the land--
dyspepsia--brought on in a great measure by badly cooked and therefore
indigestible food. The remedy for this is in the hands of the women of
Australia, and if they will rise to their position and importance and
do their work with a high and holy motive, they will not find it the
drudgery it is often supposed to be. What does Owen Meredith say?--


"We may live without poetry, music, and art,
We may live without conscience, and live without heart,
We may live without friends, we may live without books,
But civilised man cannot live without cooks.
He may live without books--what is knowledge but grieving?
He may live without hope--what is hope but deceiving?
He may live without love--what is passion but pining?
But where is the man that can live without dining?"




CHAPTER XVI.



SOUP


Soup is a much neglected food; there are many excuses made for this--
one says it is "expensive", another it is "too much trouble" and "quite
unnecessary".

When once the principle of the stock pot is understood the first excuse
falls through, for in any ordinary households the stock can be made
from bones and trimmings of meat, and costs nothing. Neither does the
excuse of too much trouble hold good. Some little time must be devoted
to cooking, and soup will almost cook itself while other preparations
are going on, and it can be made at any time and just boiled up when
required. As for being unnecessary, that is quite a mistake. To give
the greatest amount of nourishment with the least trouble to the
digestive organs should be the study of every housekeeper, and soup is
a valuable aid in this respect. For weakly and delicate constitutions,
for the young and the aged, there is no better food, and for the busy
workers it is invaluable, for immediately after work the digestive
organs are not in a proper state to do hard work, and little soup
prepares the stomach for the more solid food to follow. It is quite a
mistake to suppose that a rich, heavy soup is necessary, and that a
large quantity must be taken. In either case, the effect would be to
take away the appetite, instead of which it is to stimulate and
encourage the appetite that the soup should be given.

Soup is a splendid restorative, and if given to any one suffering from
exhaustion or over fatigue will quickly restore strength, and be found
far better than any stimulant. Soup is often disliked because
it is greasy and served lukewarm; if the directions given in the
paragraph on the stock pot for removing the fat be carried out, it will
never be greasy, and if it is boiled up just before serving, it will be
hot. Allow half a pint of soup for each guest, have a warm tureen and
hot plates, and "try the effect".




CHAPTER XVII.



FIFTY RECIPES FOR SOUPS.



STOCK FROM BONES (FRESH BONES).

* Bones--3d.
*
* Vegetables--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
Beef bones are the best for this stock; break them up very small with a
chopper, put them into a large saucepan and cover well with cold water,
add two teaspoonsful of salt, and when it boils up remove the scum
carefully, and put in one onion, one carrot, half a turnip, a little
piece of the outside stalk of celery, and one dozen peppercorns. Boil
steadily for six hours, or longer, then strain off through a colander
or sieve, and stand in a cool place till the next day. Carefully remove
the fat by directions given elsewhere, and it is ready for use.

This stock is a good foundation for all soups, gravies, and sauces. In
very hot weather omit all the vegetables.



STOCK FROM BONES (NO. 2)

The bones from all joints of meat, whether roasted or boiled, make
excellent stock. Beef bones are the best, but very good stock can be
made from mutton and veal bones. The bones and trimmings of all kinds
of poultry, game, and rabbits are also excellent, particularly for
soups that require a special flavour. To make this stock successfully
care must be taken to remove all pieces that may be burnt, as these
give the stock an unpleasant flavour. The bones must be chopped very
small, and well covered with cold water. When the pot boils put in a
teaspoonful of salt and skim well, then boil steadily for six
hours or longer; strain off and remove the fat, and it is ready for
use, but it is much better to let it stand till the next day before
converting it into soup or gravy.



FISH STOCK

Vegetables and Peppercorns--1d.

Fish for nearly all dishes is better if boned before cooking; it is
also economy to do this, as the bones can then be used for stock for
fish soups. These soups, although not well known here at present, are a
valuable food; they are easy to make, wholesome, and nourishing. After
the fillets of fish have been removed, directions for which are given
amongst the fish recipes, take the bones, wash them well in cold water,
and cut away any black substance that may be adhering to them. Break
them up and put into a saucepan with a teaspoonful of salt; when it
boils remove the scum and put in one dozen white peppercorns, a fagot of
herbs, one onion, and one carrot; boil steadily for two hours or
longer, strain through a sieve into a basin, and it is ready for use.



POT BOILINGS

Water in which meat of fish has been boiled should never be thrown
away, as it forms an excellent foundation for many soups and sauces
which might otherwise have to be made with water.

If a large quantity of water has been used, the boilings will be poor;
therefore, when the meat has been taken up, leave the pot on the fire
and let it boil quickly, without the lid, for an hour or so, then
strain off for use.

The water in which corned beef or pork has been cooked is generally too
salt for soups, but it should be stood away till cold, when a thick
cake of fat will be found on the top. Put this into a basin and
pour over it some boiling water; when it is cold again it can be used
for cakes and pastry. It makes an excellent and wholesome substitute
for butter in cooking.



VEAL STOCK

* Knuckle of Veal
*
* Peppercorns and Vegetables
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
The butcher should chop the bones very small. Cut the meat across in
several places, lay it in a very clean stock pot, cover well with cold
water, and bring to the boil slowly; put in a dessertspoonful of salt,
and skim very carefully; draw away from the fire, place it where it
will boil steadily, put in 2 dozen white peppercorns, one onion stuck
with six cloves, and a fagot of herbs. This is made with a sprig each
of parsley, marjoram, and thyme, tied up with a bay or peach leaf; boil
steadily for six hours, and strain off.

This is the foundation for the best white soups and sauces; it is also
a very nutritious broth for invalids. The meat can be made hot again in
about half a pint of the stock and served with parsley butter sauce. A
recipe for this is given with the sauces.



BEEF STOCK

* Leg of Beef--9d.
*
* Vegetables--1d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
The bone in this meat should be chopped small by the butcher. Remove
the marrow from the bones, and cut the meat into small pieces; put all
together into a stock pot or digester, cover well with cold water, and
bring it to the boil; add a dessertspoonful of salt; this will throw up
the scum, which must be carefully removed. When this has been
done put in 2 dozen peppercorns, an onion, and two carrots, draw away
from the fire and let it boil steadily for five or six hours or longer,
then strain off through a colander and stand away in a cool place.

This is the foundation for nearly all good brown soups. The bones
boiled again will make second stock, and the meat does very well for
brawn, a recipe for which is given amongst the meat dishes.



BEEF TEA--NO. 1

* 1 lb. Gravy Beef
*
* 1 pint water
*
* 3d.
*
Remove all fat and skin from the meat and put it twice through a
sausage machine or scrape it into a pulp with a sharp knife, pour over
the cold water, and let it stand for an hour. Pour it into a brown
baking jar and put it into a cool oven, and keep it below boiling point
for an hour or longer, according to the heat of the oven. It should
look brown, thick, and rich, when sufficiently cooked. Strain through a
colander, add salt to taste, and it is ready to serve.



QUICK BEEF TEA--NO. 2

* 1 lb Gravy Beef
*
* 1 pint water
*
* 3d.
*
Pass the meat twice through a sausage machine, put it into a saucepan,
pour over the cold water, and stand on the stove; stir constantly until
it comes to boiling point, but do not allow it to boil. As soon as it
changes colour from red to brown strain through a colander, add salt to
taste, and it is ready to serve.



RAW BEEF TEA.

1/4 lb Gravy Beef and 1 gill of Water

Scrape the meat to a pulp with a sharp knife, pour over it with water;
cover over and stand away for an hour. Strain off, and it is
ready. As this is given to an invalid in small quantities, very little
should be made at a time.



BEEF ESSENCE.

1 lb Gravy Beef--3d.

Mince the meat very small, put it into a brown baking jar, and cover
down with a closely-fitting lid or with brown paper. Stand in a
saucepan of boiling water for one hour, pour off the essence, add a
little salt, and it is ready.



MUTTON BROTH

4 or 5 scrags of Mutton and Shank Bones--6d

Carefully trim the scrags of mutton, remove the pith from the bones,
and wipe with a damp cloth; break these and the shank bones into very
small pieces; put them into an enamelled saucepan, well covered with
cold water; add a teaspoonful of salt, stand on the stove, and when it
boils up remove the scum very carefully. Add 1 dozen peppercorns, and
an onion and carrot, if vegetables are allowed the patient. Boil
steadily for eight or nine hours; the liquor should then be reduced to
one quart. Strain off, and, if possible, let it stand till quite cold;
it should then be in a jelly, and can be made hot as required. When
serving this to a convalescent a spoonful of rice or pearl barley well
washed in cold water and boiled in either stock or milk may be added.



COCK-A-LEEKIE SOUP

* 9 Leeks--3d.
*
* 1 set of Giblets
*
* 2 oz. Beef Dripping
*
* 3 quarts Water or Pot Boilings
*
* Salt and Peppercorns--4d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
Wash and slice up the leeks into pieces about one inch long, put them
into a saucepan with the butter or dripping made thoroughly
hot; cover over and let them cook for half an hour, stirring
occasionally. While they are cooking clean the giblets thoroughly,
washing them first in hot and then in cold water. Cut open the gizzard,
remove the stones, and cleanse well. Cut them all up into small pieces
and put them into the saucepan with the leeks, pour over the boiling
water or liquor, put in the peppercorns tied in a piece of muslin, and
a piece of bacon rind if there is any in the larder. Let it simmer
slowly for three hours; if not brown enough add a few drops of caramel,
take out the peppercorns and bacon rind, season to taste, pour into a
hot tureen and serve.



CABBAGE AND BACON SOUP

* 1 Cabbage--3d.
*
* 1 lb. Bacon--9d.
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns
*
* 2 Turnips
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1 Onion
*
* Pieces of Stale Bread--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 1d.
*
* Time--Three Hours and a Half
*
This soup is not as expensive as it appears, for the bacon is served as
a dish of meat, either after the soup or cold for breakfast or tea. Put
two quarts of water into a saucepan; when it boils put in a pound of
bacon neither too lean nor too fat. Let it boil slowly for one hour.
The bacon must be well washed and scraped before cooking, and when it
boils skim the pot thoroughly. Well wash the cabbage and soak it in hot
water for half an hour. Take all the water away and put the cabbage
into the saucepan with the bacon and vegetables cut up, and the
peppercorns tied in a piece of muslin; let them simmer together for two
and a half hours, take up the cabbage, and cut it into quarters. Take
one quarter and cut it into small pieces and put it into a soup
tureen. Cut some stale pieces of bread into thin slices and lay on the
top, pour over the boiling liquor, and serve. Dish the bacon, pull off
the rind, and put the rest of the cabbage round the dish.



ITALIAN SOUP

* 2 oz. Macaroni--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 quarts Water or Pot Boilings
*
* 2 Tomatoes
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 2 oz. Cheese Rind--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--3 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Put the water or stock on to boil, and when it boils put in the
macaroni and boil from twenty-five to thirty minutes. While it is
boiling grate up a dry piece of cheese. Put the tomatoes into boiling
water and remove the skin, slice them up and put them into a saucepan
with the butter and some pepper and salt, and cook them for a few
minutes. When the macaroni is soft, cut it into pieces one inch long,
put a layer of tomatoes at the bottom of the soup tureen, then a layer
of grated cheese, then one of macaroni; repeat this until all the
materials are used up, pour over it boiling the liquor in which the
macaroni has been cooked, cover down for a few minutes, and serve.



POT-AU-FEU

* 3 lbs. Leg of Beef--6d.
*
* 2 quarts Water
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* 2 Onions
*
* 2 Carrots
*
* 2 Turnips
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--7 1/2 d.
*
* Time--Five Hours
*
Pot-au-feu is the national dish of France; it is cheap, nourishing and
palatable, and very simple to make. The slower it is cooked the better
it is; in fact, in this lies the whole secret of success, for
if it boils instead of simmering it is spoilt. Tie the meat up into a
nice shape with a piece of tape, put it into cold water, bring slowly
to the boil, and very carefully remove the scum; peel and slice up the
vegetables, and put them in with the fagot of herbs and the peppercorns
tied in a piece of muslin; bring to simmering point, and keep it so for
five hours. The liquor can then be served as a soup with part of the
vegetables and some sippets of toast. Take the tapes off the meat, and
serve with the rest of the vegetables round the dish as a border or
garnish. The remains of the beef can be pressed between heavy weights
till cold, or put into a brawn tin and served cold with a salad.



VERMICELLI SOUP

* 1 oz. Vermicelli--1d.
*
* Vegetables and Saffron
*
* 2 quarts Bone Stock--1d.
*
* Total Cost--2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
The stock for this soup should be good and in a strong jelly when cold.
Put it into a saucepan with three or four threads of saffron, an onion
or leek stuck with six cloves, 1 dozen white peppercorns and some salt,
and boil all together for half an hour; then strain out the vegetables
and put it back into the saucepan. It should be of a bright straw
colour; if it is not, a thread more saffron may be added before
straining. Put in the vermicelli broken small, and simmer for twenty
minutes; it is then ready to serve.



MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

* 2 quarts Stock
*
* 1 Apple
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 Carrot--1d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Curry Powder
*
* 1 oz. Flour--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
The liquor in which poultry or a rabbit has been boiled is the
best for this soup. Slice up the apple, onion, and carrot, and fry them
in the butter; sprinkle over the curry powder and flour and brown that
too; pour over the boiling stock and stir until it boils up, simmer
gently for one hour, then rub through a sieve and return to the
saucepan. Bring to the boil, flavour with salt and lemon juice. Pour
into a warm tureen and serve. Send well-boiled rice to the table with
this soup.



FRENCH SOUP

* 3 Potatoes
*
* 3 Carrots
*
* 2 Turnips--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 quarts Bone Stock
*
* Pepper
*
* 2 Onions
*
* 1/2 stalk Celery--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Peel and slice up the vegetables and sprinkle them with the sugar and
salt, and put them into a saucepan with the butter, and sweat for five
minutes. Pour over the boiling stock and stir until it boils; boil
slowly for an hour, then rub through a sieve. If it is too thick,
reduce it with a little more stock or milk, return to a saucepan, and
bring to the boil. When tomatoes are in season slice up two with the
other vegetables; these will make the soup a good colour and improve
the flavour.



SAGO SOUP

* 3 oz. Sago--1d.
*
* 1 pint Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* 2 quarts Bone Stock
*
* 1 Leek
*
* Salt and Pepper--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Wash the sago in cold water, boil the leek in the stock for ten
minutes, take it out and stir in the sago; continue stirring until the
sago is transparent and the stock quite thick, then pour in the milk
and bring up to the boil. Season with salt and pepper, and serve.



CELERY SOUP

* 2 heads of Celery--2d.
*
* 2 quarts Pot Boilings
*
* 1 pint of Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sago--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
If vegetables have been boiled with the meat the stock will be
sufficiently flavoured; if not, boil an onion and carrot in it and
strain out. Wash the celery thoroughly and cut it into pieces one inch
long, put it into the boiling stock and boil for half an hour, then
sprinkle in 1 oz of sago and stir until it is transparent. Pour in the
milk and bring to boiling point; it is then ready to serve. This is an
excellent soup for any one suffering from or subject to rheumatism or
gout.



TURNIP AND RICE SOUP

* 4 Turnips--2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Rice--1d.
*
* 2 quarts Water
*
* 1 pint Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* Onion and Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter
*
Peel and slice up the turnips, wash the rice and put into a saucepan
with the onion and 1 dozen white peppercorns. Pour over the water and
boil for an hour, rub through a sieve and return to the saucepan, with
the milk and a seasoning of salt and pepper; stir until it boils, then
pour into a warm tureen and sprinkle some chopped parsley on
top. This soup is much improved by putting one ounce of butter into the
water in which the rice and turnips are boiled.



TAPIOCA SOUP

* 2 oz. Tapioca--1d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 3 quarts Bone Stock--1/2d.
*
Boil the onion and carrot in the stock for twenty minutes. If the stock
is not a good colour put in half a teaspoonful of burnt sugar. Strain
out the vegetables, wash the tapioca in cold water and stir it in;
continue stirring until the tapioca is quite clear, flavour with salt
and lemon juice, and serve very hot. This soup should be quite
transparent and of a bright brown colour.



WATER SOUCHET

* 6 Small Fish--1s.6d.
*
* Vegetables
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* Lemon Juice--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 7d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Choose small fish of different kinds and fillet them. As only half the
fillets are wanted for the souchet, the rest may be dressed in another
way. Wash the bones in cold water and remove the black substance from
them, put them into two quarts of cold water with a teaspoonful of
salt, and when it boils remove the scum and add 1 dozen peppercorns,
one carrot, one small turnip, one onion, a small piece of celery, and a
fagot of herbs. Put the vegetables in whole. Boil this together for one
hour, then strain off through a hair sieve and return to the saucepan;
wash the vegetables that have been boiled in it, slice them up and put
them into the liquor. Cut the fillets of fish into small pieces
and put them in; simmer for half an hour, then put in a little lemon
juice, pour into a tureen, and sprinkle a little chopped parsley on the
top. Send brown bread and butter to table with it and a lemon.



OYSTER SOUP

* 1 bottle Oysters--1s.
*
* 1 pint of Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* Cornflour and Vegetables
*
* 2 quarts Fish Stock--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1 s. 3 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
If there is no fish stock, use pot boilings. As this is a white soup a
special saucepan must be used. Put the stock and the liquor from the
bottle of oysters into this stewpan with an onion stuck with six
cloves, 2 dozen white peppercorns, and a fagot of herbs, and boil
together for half an hour, then strain off and return to the saucepan
with the milk. When nearly boiling thicken with a tablespoonful of
cornflour and boil two or three minutes; put in the oysters and simmer
for five minutes. Flavour with a little lemon juice, nutmeg, and salt.
Pour into a warm tureen, and send fried bread to table with it.



BROWN MACARONI SOUP

* 1 1/2 oz. Macaroni--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Vegetables--1d.
*
* Cornflour
*
* 2 quarts Bone Stock--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter.
*
Slice up the onions or leeks, one carrot, and make a fagot of herbs;
fry them in the butter with 1 dozen peppercorns till they are quite
brown, but not burnt. Sprinkle over a tablespoonful of cornflour, and
when brown pour over the boiling stock and stir till it boils up; let
it simmer for an hour. If it is not brown enough, burn a little
sugar in a spoon and stir it in. If half a teaspoonful of sugar is
sprinkled over the vegetables when they are frying they will brown much
quicker. When the vegetables are soft rub the soup through a wire sieve
and return to the saucepan. Boil the macaroni in salt and water for
twenty minutes, strain off, and cut into pieces one inch long; put
these into the soup and simmer for a quarter of an hour. Flavour with a
little salt and pepper if necessary, and pour into a hot tureen.



HARICOT BEAN SOUP

* 1 lb. Haricot Beans--4d.
*
* 2 Onions
*
* 1/2 pint of Milk
*
* 2 quarts Bone Stock--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--5 1/2 d.
*
* Time--Four Hours
*
Soak the haricot beans for an hour or two, then put them into a
saucepan with the stock or water, the onions, and 1 dozen white
peppercorns; boil for four hours and then rub through a sieve, return
to the saucepan with the milk and seasoning of pepper and salt, stir
until it boils. It is then ready to serve. An ounce of butter stirred
in just before it is finished is a great improvement.

This is one of the most nourishing soups that can be made. It is an
excellent food for outdoor workers. When butter is dear, sweat the
haricots in 1 oz. of beef dripping.



MILK SOUP

* 2 lbs. Potatoes--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1/2 pint of Milk
*
* 3 pints of Water--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4 1/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Peel, wash, and slice up the potatoes and onions and put them into a
saucepan with the butter, and stir them about till all the
butter is dissolved and worked into the potatoes, but they must not get
brown. Pour over the boiling water and boil until they are of a pulp,
then rub them through a sieve, return to the saucepan, add the milk and
seasoning, and stir till it boils. Pour into a hot tureen, and serve
with fried bread.



ONION SOUP

* 4 Onions--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 gill of Milk
*
* 2 quarts of Stock
*
* Salt and Pepper--1d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Peel and slice up the onions and fry them in the butter till they are a
good brown colour. Sprinkle over the flour and brown that too. Pour on
the boiling stock and boil steadily till the onions are very soft, then
rub through a sieve. If there is any fat on it remove it carefully,
pour back into the saucepan, add the milk, pepper, and salt, and boil
up.

Just before serving put in a few drops of lemon juice. Send fried bread
to table with it.



PUMPKIN SOUP

* 1 small Pumpkin--4d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint of Milk--1d.
*
* 2 Onions, 1 Carrot
*
* 2 quarts of Water--1d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Peel and slice up the pumpkin, onions, and carrot, put them into a
saucepan with half the butter, and sweat the vegetables in it for five
minutes, then pour over the boiling water and boil until the vegetables
are very soft. Rub through a sieve and return to the saucepan
with the milk and some pepper and salt; stir until it boils up.

Just before serving, stir in, in tiny pieces, the rest of the butter
and a little lemon juice.



VEGETABLE SOUP

* 2 lbs. Mixed Vegetables--4d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--2d.
*
* 1/4 lb Haricot Beans--1d.
*
* Peppercorns, Salt, and Sugar
*
* 4 quarts of Water--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--7 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Take any vegetables that may be in season, such as carrots, turnips,
leeks, onions, and celery, and slice them up; put them into a saucepan
with the haricot beans and the butter, and turn them all about till the
butter is all absorbed; sprinkle over them a teaspoonful each of salt
and sugar, add the peppercorns and the water, and boil until the
vegetables are very soft.

Rub them through a sieve, return to the saucepan and make thoroughly
hot, and it is ready to serve.



SEMOLINA SOUP

* 2 oz. Semolina--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint of Milk
*
* 3 pints Bone Stock
*
* Salt and Pepper--1d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
If the stock has been made without vegetables, as it must often be in
hot weather, boil an onion, carrot, fagot of herbs, and a dozen
peppercorns in it for half an hour, then strain the stock and put it
back in the saucepan. Sprinkle in the semolina and stir until it boils;
simmer till the semolina thickens, then add the milk, pepper, and salt,
and boil up. Pour into a warm tureen, and send fried bread to table
with it.



CARROT SOUP

* 6 Carrots--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Sugar, Salt, and Pepper
*
* 3 quarts Bone Stock--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--3 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Scrape and slice up the carrots and put them into a saucepan with the
butter. Sprinkle over a teaspoonful each of salt and sugar and a
quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper; turn them about in butter for five
minutes, pour over the boiling stock and boil for an our. Rub through a
sieve, return to the saucepan and boil up, season to taste, and serve
very hot.



TOMATO SOUP

* 1 doz. Tomatoes--4d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 2 Onions, 1 Carrot
*
* 2 oz. Flour
*
* Salt and 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 2 doz. Peppercorns
*
* 3 quarts Bone Stock--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Slice up the onions and carrot, and fry them in the butter with the
peppercorns and sugar. Sprinkle over the flour and mix well together.
Cut up the tomatoes and put them in, then pour over the boiling stock
and stir until it boils. Simmer slowly for an hour. Rub through a
sieve, return to the saucepan and make thoroughly hot, pour into a warm
tureen, and serve with fried bread.



JERSEY SOUP

* 2 quarts White Stock--6d.
*
* 1 pint Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sage
*
* 1 Leek
*
* 1 Fagot of Herbs
*
* 1 doz. White Peppercorn
*
* Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Put the stock into a stewpan; slice in the leek and add the
fagot of herbs and the peppercorns. Boil them together for half an
hour, strain out the vegetables and return to the saucepan; stir in the
sage and continue stirring until it is clear and the soup is thick;
pour in the boiling milk, boil up and pour into a tureen. Sprinkle
finely chopped parsley on the top before serving.



SCOTCH BROTH

* 2 quarts of the Liquor in which Mutton has been cooked
*
* Salt
*
* 1 oz. Rice
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1/2 Turnip, and Stalk of Celery
*
* Total Cost--1 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Carefully remove all the fat from the liquor; put it into a saucepan.
Wash the rice and cut all the vegetables into dice; stir them in, and
simmer by the side of the fire for an hour. It must be cooked very
slowly and without the lid. Add salt to taste, and pour it into a
tureen. Pearl barley may be used instead of rice.



LENTIL SOUP

* 1 lb. Split Lentils--2d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 3 Onions and 2 doz. Peppercorns
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 3 quarts Water
*
* Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4 d.
*
* Time--Four Hours.
*
Wash the lentils well in two or three waters and put them into a
saucepan with the onions, peppercorns, sugar, salt, and half the
butter, and sweat them for five minutes. Pour over the boiling water
and boil steadily for four hours. If the soup gets too thick, pour in a
little more water or stock. Rub through a sieve and return to the
saucepan; stir in the butter, salt, and pepper to taste. Boil up and
serve.

Lentil soup is one of the most nourishing of all soups, and
particularly nice during the winter months.



PEA SOUP

* 1 lb. Split Peas--3d.
*
* 2 Onions and 1/4 Head of Celery--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter or Dripping--1d.
*
* 2 Carrots
*
* 2 doz. Peppercorns
*
* 3 quarts Water--1d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--Four Hours.
*
Wash the peas well in cold water, and put them into a saucepan with the
vegetables sliced up, the peppercorns and the water. Bring to the boil
and boil steadily for four hours, then rub through a sieve and return
to the saucepan. Season well with salt, and stir in 1 oz butter or
dripping. Bring to the boil and pour into a warm tureen. Send some
dried mint and fried bread to table with it. This is a very nourishing
soup, particularly if it is made with stock instead of water; it is
very suitable for the cold season.



VEGETABLE MARROW AND TOMATO SOUP

* 1 doz. Tomatoes--3d.
*
* 1 Vegetable Marrow--2d.
*
* 9 Onions
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 2 doz. Peppercorns
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 3 pints Stock
*
* Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Peel the vegetable marrow, slice it up, and take out the seeds; slice
up the tomatoes and put them, with the marrow, into the saucepan with
the butter, sugar, salt, and peppercorns; sweat them for five minutes.
Pour over the boiling water or stock, and simmer for one hour. Rub
through a sieve and return to the saucepan. Add more salt, if
necessary, bring it to the boil, pour into a tureen, and serve.



KIDNEY SOUP

* 1 Ox Kidney--4d.
*
* 2 Onions--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Cornflour--1/2d.
*
* Salt, Lemon Juice, and parsley
*
* 2 quarts Stock--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Slice up the onions and fry them in the butter, strain them out and
return the butter to the saucepan. Stir in the cornflour, and when well
mixed pour over the stock and stir until it boils. Slice the kidney up
into small pieces, and put it in; simmer very gently for one hour. Just
before serving, season with salt and a little lemon juice; pour into a
tureen and sprinkle a little chopped parsley on top.

This soup must be cooked very slowly, or the kidney will be hard and
tough.



EGG SOUP

* 1 quart White Stock
*
* 1 pint of Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* 3 Yolks of Eggs--3d.
*
* 1 oz. Sago--1/2d.
*
* 1 Onion--1/2d.
*
* Salt and Pepper--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Boil the sago, stock, and onion together till the sago is clear; then
take out the onion and season the soup with salt and pepper.

Beat the yolks of the eggs in a basin, pour over the boiling milk,
strain into the stock. Put over the fire and whisk till it comes to
boiling point, but do not let it boil, or it may curdle. Pour
into a tureen, sprinkle with chopped parsley, and send some fried bread
to table with it.



WHITE MACARONI SOUP

* 1 1/2 oz. Macaroni--1d.
*
* 1 pint Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 3 pints Bone Stock
*
* Vegetables and Flour--1d.
*
* Total Cost--5 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
The stock made from veal or mutton bones is the best for this soup, as
it must be white. Nothing is nicer than the liquor in which a piece of
veal has been stewed. If plenty of vegetables have been boiled in it
none need be added when the soup is made. If not, boil an onion or
leek, a slice of turnip, and a small piece of celery stalk in the stock
for twenty minuets, and strain them out. Put the butter into a stewpan,
and when it is melted stir in a tablespoonful of cornflour, pour over
the milk and stock, and stir until it boils. Boil the macaroni in salt
and water for twenty minutes, strain off the water, and cut it into
pieces about 1 inch long; put these into the soup, and simmer for ten
minutes. Just before serving, flavour with salt, a dust of white
pepper, and a few drops of lemon juice.



LOBSTER SOUP

* 1 Lobster, Crayfish, or Tin of Lobster--1s.
*
* 2 quarts Fish Stock
*
* 1/2 pint of Milk--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Cornflour--1/2d.
*
* Lemon Juice, Salt, and Pepper--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 2d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
The fish stock for this soup should be well flavoured with vegetables.
If a crayfish be used, remove all the white meat and boil the shells in
the stock for half an hour and strain them out; thicken with the
cornflour, pour in the milk, and boil up. Cut the lobster into
small pieces and put into the soup; simmer for ten minutes. Flavour
with lemon juice and salt, pour into a warm tureen, and serve with
fried bread. Wash the shells well in cold water before putting them
into the soup.



FISH SOUP

* 3 pints Fish Stock
*
* 1 pint Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* Cornflour--1/2d.
*
* Vegetables--1d.
*
* Fish--6d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Remove all the fat from the fish stock and put it into a saucepan with
six white peppercorns, an onion, one slice of turnip, a fagot of herbs,
and some carrot. Boil this together for twenty minutes, then strain out
the vegetables and pour back into the saucepan. Mix a tablespoonful of
cornflour smoothly with the milk and stir it in; continue stirring till
it boils. Skin and fillet the fish and cut it into dice, put these
pieces of fish into the soup, and simmer for ten minutes. Just before
serving add a few drops of lemon juice, and salt to taste. Pour into a
tureen and sprinkle a little chopped parsley on top.



CABBAGE SOUP

* 1 Cabbage--3d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 pint Milk
*
* Pepper, Salt, and Bread--3d.
*
* Total Cost--7 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Wash and strain the cabbage well, and cut it up into slices; throw it
into boiling salt and water, and cook for five minutes; strain all the
water off and put it into a saucepan with the salt, pepper, and two
quarts of boiling water, and boil for one hour. Add the milk and let it
boil up again, toast the slice of bread and cut it up into
dice. Put it into a warm soup tureen and pour the boiling soup over it.



SYDNEY SOUP

* 1/2 doz. Tomatoes--2d.
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 2 Small Onions
*
* 12 Peppercorns
*
* 1 fagot Herbs
*
* 1/2 teaspoon Salt
*
* 2 quarts Stock--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Cornflour and 1/2 oz. Tapioca--1d.
*
* 1 cup of Green Peas--2d.
*
* Curry Powder
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful of Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Put the butter into a saucepan, slice up the onions and carrot and fry
them in it with the herbs, peppercorns, and a good pinch of curry
powder. Mix the cornflour with a little stock and pour it over. Slice
up the tomatoes and add them to the boiling stock; stir until it boils,
and then simmer slowly for an hour. Rub through a sieve and return to
the saucepan. Add the salt, sugar, and the tapioca; stir until this
becomes transparent and thickens the soup. Put in a cupful of cold
boiled peas; boil up and serve.



WHITE ONION SOUP

(SOUBISE BLANCHE.)

* 1 pint of Milk--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 4 Onions
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* 1 pint White Bone Stock
*
* Dry Crusts--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Peel and slice up the onions and put them into a saucepan with the
butter; make them very hot, and then cover them down and leave them to
cook by the side of the fire for an hour, but they must not get any
colour. Break in some dry, hard pieces of bread; it should be
crust only for this soup. Boil the milk and stock together, pour it
over the onions and bread, and let it simmer very slowly, closely
covered, for an hour; rub through a sieve, season with salt and pepper
and a few drops of lemon juice. Boil up and serve with fried bread.



CRECY SOUP

* 6 Carrots--2d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--2d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Salt
*
* 1 Turnip
*
* 1 stalk of Celery
*
* 3 pints of Boiling Water--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4 1/2 d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Slice up the carrots and vegetables, put them into boiling water, and
cook for half-an-hour; strain them out of the water, which must be
saved, and put them into a saucepan with the butter and a few scraps of
bacon, if any are in the larder. Sprinkle over the sugar, make very
hot, and cover down closely until the vegetables are very soft. Rub
them through a sieve and pour on by degrees the water in which the
vegetables were boiled; mix well together, return to a saucepan, and
boil slowly for an hour. Stir in a small piece of butter and it is
ready to serve. This soup should be perfectly smooth if properly made.
A hair sieve should be used for the vegetables, and the soup should be
cooked very slowly.



LENTEN SOUP

* 6 Onions--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter or Beef Dripping
*
* 2 quarts of Water or Pot Liquor
*
* Crusts of Bread
*
* Salt and Pepper--2d.
*
* Total Cost, with Butter--3 1/2 d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Peel and slice up the onions and put them into a sauce--pan
with the butter or dripping, and brown them. Then let them cook,
covered over, for an hour. Break in some brown dry crusts of bread.
Pour over the boiling liquor the water in which some vegetables, such
as carrots, turnips, or cauliflowers, have been boiled, stir it well
and boil for an hour; rub through a sieve. If it is not thick enough,
let it boil again without the lid for ten minutes. Season well with
pepper and salt, and serve.



SOUP MAIGRE

* 1/2 lb. Rice--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--2d.
*
* 1 gill Milk--1/2d.
*
* Salt
*
* 2 Eggs
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1 Onion--2 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Wash the rice well in two waters, put into a saucepan with 2 1/2 pints
of cold water and the onion and carrot whole. As the rice begins to
swell add some more boiling water, until it is about the right
consistency. Take out the onion and carrot and stir in the butter, a
small piece at a time. Beat the yolks of the eggs in a basin, stir them
quickly in, and bring again to boiling point, but do not let it boil;
season with salt, and serve at once, with tiny rusks of bread. Make
these by cutting up a dry crust into small pieces, dipping them in
water, and baking until crisp in a moderate oven.



ARTICHOKE SOUP

* 2 lbs. Artichokes--3d.
*
* 2 Onions--1/2d.
*
* 1 1/2 pints Milk--4d.
*
* 2 quarts Bone Stock (White)
*
* 1 tablespoonful Vinegar
*
* 1 tablespoonful Lemon Juice
*
* 1 doz. White Peppercorns--1d.
*
* Total Cost--8 1/2 d
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter.
*
Peel the artichokes and lay them in vinegar and water for an
hour; this will make them a good colour. Mix up half a pint of the milk
with the stock, and boil the artichokes, onions, and peppercorns in
this for an hour. Rub through a hair sieve with a wooden spoon. Stir in
the milk and some salt, pour back into the saucepan and stir until it
boils. If the artichokes do not thicken the soup sufficiently, sprinkle
in a little sago or semolina when it is returned to the saucepan. Serve
with fried bread.




CHAPTER XVIII.



FIFTY RECIPES FOR FISH.


The consumption of fish as a daily article of food is not nearly so
large as it ought to be if we studied our health. It must be admitted
that it is much more expensive than meat, and cannot be bought so
readily. Then again, ordinary plain cooks only know how to fry and boil
it, so that very little variety can be obtained; and even these two
methods are often so badly followed as to take away rather than tempt
the appetite. Not one cook in a hundred knows how to boil fish
properly. If a little more time and attention were given to fish-cooking
we should not have so many complaints, and fish, instead of
being a neglected food, would be a much desired one. It has one or two
advantages over meat. It is easier of digestion, for one thing. It is
therefore an invaluable food for people obliged to be indoors a great
deal, or for those engaged in literary work, for it contains, besides
other good things, a good proportion of phosphorus, and this is
excellent food for the brain and organs of the chest. It is, however,
with the cooking of fish that we have to deal. In the first place, be
sure that it is perfectly fresh. The flesh should be firm and hard; if
soft and leaving the mark of the finger if pressed, it must be
rejected. It must also smell sweet; again, it must be thoroughly
cooked. It is a matter of taste whether we like well or underdone meat,
but underdone fish is the most unwholesome as it is the most repulsive
food that can be offered to us, and in no process of cooking is more
judgement required than in the cooking of fish. Fillets of fish
of all kinds, either boiled, steamed, or baked, look transparent when
raw, but are milk white when cooked sufficiently. If the French method
of frying is practised, the large quantity of fat cooks it very
quickly, and as soon as it is brown it is done. In boiling and steaming
large fish so much depends upon the quantity of water or steam used.
Never leave fish in the water after it is cooked. Put it on to a hot
dish and cover with a cloth, and stand over a saucepan of hot water
till required; if left in the water it soon becomes insipid and watery.
In all dishes of dressed fish much depends upon the sauce served with
it. Very simple directions for making several fish sauces will be found
amongst the sauce recipes, and if these are carefully studied, the art
will be easily acquired. In country districts where fish can be had for
the catching, it should form the chief item in at least one meal during
the day; and if variety in dressing it is studied, it will not be found
monotonous, as it sometimes is if only fried and boiled. The ice chest
will be found invaluable for keeping fish good and sweet.



FISH CAKES

* 1/2 lb. Cold Boiled Fish--5d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Cold Boiled Potatoes--1d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* Frying Fat
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful of Milk, Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* Total Cost--9d.
*
* Time--5 minutes.
*
Free the fish from skin and bone and flake it up; mash the potatoes
smoothly, mix together and season with pepper and salt. Put the milk
and butter into a saucepan, and when it is quite hot put in the fish
and the potatoes. Beat up the egg, and put half in, and mix together
till hot through; spread on to a plate and stand away to cool.
Add a teaspoonful each of water and oil to the egg. Make some bread
crumbs on a sieve, and put them on to a piece of paper. Shape the fish
mixture into cakes about one inch high and two inches across; brush
them over with the egg, and toss them into the crumbs. Shape again and
fry in very hot fat, arrange in the form of a wheel on a dish paper,
garnish with fresh or fried parsley, and serve hot.



BAKED BREAM AND EGG SAUCE

* 1 Bream--6d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* Parsley, Lemon Juice--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
* Time--20 minutes
*
Wash the bream, rub some dripping on to a baking sheet, lay on it the
fish, squeeze over a few drops of lemon juice; cover with a piece of
paper well rubbed with dripping, and bake in a moderate oven for about
twenty minutes or longer, if the fish is large. Remove the skin and
fins, and put them on the dish; pour over the white sauce, which should
be just thick enough to coat the fish. Chop the parsley finely, and
boil the egg hard, cut it in half, and either chop the yolk or rub it
through a sieve, and chop the white. Arrange these in alternate rows
all over the fish, and garnish with a few lemon slices.



FISH A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL

* 2 Bream--8d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce--2 1/1d.
*
* Lemon, Parsley, Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--11d.
*
* Time--20 minutes
*
Fillet the fish, wash and trim them, roll them lightly up with the skin
inside. Rub a baking sheet with some butter or dripping. Put on
the rolls of fish close together. Squeeze over them some lemon juice,
cover with a piece of buttered paper, and bake in the oven for twenty
minutes or until they look milk white. Dish them carefully, make the
white sauce by recipe given, season it with pepper, salt, and half a
teaspoonful of lemon juice. Chop half a teaspoonful of parsley very
finely and stir it in, pour over the fish, and serve.



FISH AND TOMATO SAUCE

* 2 Bream--8d.
*
* 1/2 pint of Tomato Sauce
*
* Salt, Pepper, and Parsley--3d.
*
* Total Cost--11d.
*
* Time--20 minutes
*
Fillet the bream; cut each fillet into two pieces, wash and trim them.
Make some tomato sauce by recipe given. Butter a pie dish, lay in the
fillets, and season them; pour over the sauce, and bake in a moderate
oven for twenty minutes. Garnish with a little chopped parsley, and
serve in the dish in which they were cooked.



OYSTER STEW

* 1 bottle Oysters--1s.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour--1d.
*
* Pepper, Salt, and Lemon Juice--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 2 1/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Make a sauce by directions given, using a little of the oyster liquor
mixed with the milk; flavour with salt and pepper, and a little nutmeg
and lemon juice. Stir in the oysters and simmer for five minutes, it is
then ready to serve.



AMERICAN OYSTERS

* 1 bottle of Oysters--1s.
*
* 1/2 pint of Milk--1d.
*
* 6 Soda Biscuits
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* Pepper and Salt--1 1/2d
*
* Total Cost--1s. 2 1/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Put the milk and butter into a saucepan; when it boils put in the
oysters and simmer for five minutes. Season with pepper and salt; break
up the biscuits and throw them it. Boil up and pour into a deep dish,
and it is ready to serve.



FISH AND BUTTER SAUCE

* 3 Whiting or Bream--1s.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley, Pepper and Salt 1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s 1 1/2d.
*
* Time--Three-quarters of an Hour.
*
Fillet the fish and cut them into strips, wash them well in cold water
and dry in a cloth; twist them round, and lay in a buttered soup plate,
sprinkle with white pepper and salt, and chopped parsley. Put in the
rest of the butter, cover with another soup plate, and stand over a
saucepan of boiling water for three-quarters of an hour; reserve the
plates once while it is cooking, place in a hot dish, and pour over it
the butter and parsley in which it was cooked.

This is a nice delicate way of cooking fish for an invalid.



FISH PATTIES

* 1 Small Bream--4d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* 1 teaspoonful Anchovy Sauce
*
* 1 gill Milk
*
* Pepper, Salt and Lemon Juice
*
* Flaky Pastry--6 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--11 1/2 d.
*
* Time--20 minutes
*
Bake the fish in the oven, unless there is cold fish in the
larder, which will do just as well; take away the skin and bone, and
flake it up. Make a sauce of the butter, flour, and milk; season with
anchovy, pepper, salt, and lemon juice; stir in the fish and mix well.
Line some small patty pans with flaky pastry, put a spoonful of the
mixture in the centre, cover with a round of pastry, press the edges
together, and trim into a neat shape; make a small hole in the centre
with a skewer, brush over with egg or milk, put into a quick oven, and
bake for about twenty minutes. Dish on a fancy paper, and garnish each
patty with a tiny sprig of parsley.



FISH, TO FRY

Fish requires careful preparation for successful frying; it may be
filleted or fried whole, but in either case it must be well washed in
cold water, but not soaked; dry in a cloth. Mix on a plate a spoonful
of flour, pepper, and salt. Beat on another plate an egg, with a
spoonful each of water and oil, and have plenty of dry fine crumbs on a
sheet of paper; when these things are all ready, dip the fish in the
flour and dust off again; put at once into the egg and cover well; then
drop into the crumbs, shake them all over it; next toss in the hands to
shake all the loose crumbs off; lay on a plate separately, and either
fry at once or leave in a cool place for an hour or two. Plunge into
plenty of hot fat and fry till crisp and brown; drain for a few minutes
on kitchen paper; pile on a dish, and garnish with either fresh or
fried parsley.



CURRIED FISH

* 3 Bream--1s.
*
* 1/2 pint Curry Sauce--3d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Rice--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s 4d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Make the curry sauce by recipe given elsewhere. Fillet the fish
and cut each fillet in two pieces, butter a saucepan and lay in the
fish; pour over the sauce, bring it up to the boil, and cook on the
stove very slowly for an hour. Just before serving, season with salt
and lemon juice to taste. Boil the rice and dry thoroughly; press into
little cups or moulds. Dish the fish carefully and pour the sauce over
it; garnish with the moulds of rice.



SCALLOPED FISH

* 1/2 lb. Cold Fish
*
* 2 oz. Bread Crumbs--4d.
*
* 1 gill Cold Fish Sauce, Pepper, and Salt--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--20 minutes.
*
Flake up the fish, butter a small dish, and sprinkle well with bread
crumbs; put in a layer of fish, a little sauce and seasoning, and some
bread crumbs. Continue this in layers until all the fish is used up.
Put plenty of crumbs on top and the rest of the butter in small pieces.
Bake in a moderate oven for 20 minutes. Garnish with a sprig of
parsley, and serve.



FISH PUDDING

* 1/2 lb. Blue Cod--5d.
*
* 1 lb. Potatoes--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 Egg
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Use cold fish and potatoes, if there are any in the larder; if not,
boil a piece of blue smoked cod in some water for five minutes. Flake
it up free from skin and bone and put it into a basin; mash up
the potatoes and mix them in with the pepper and salt. Bind into a
paste with an egg; rub some dripping on a baking sheet, turn the
mixture on to it and shape into the letter S, brush over with egg or
milk, and bake till brown. Slip it off on to a hot dish, and garnish
with parsley.



FISH PIE

* 2 or 3 Bream--1s.
*
* 1 gill Milk or Melted Butter--1d.
*
* Short Pastry, Pepper and Salt
*
* Parsley--3d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 4d.
*
* Time--Three-quarters of an Hour.
*
Cold fish will do very well for this dish. If fresh is used, fillet it
and cut into small pieces; if cooked, flake up into small pieces. Lay
in a buttered pie-dish, season with pepper, salt, and chopped parsley;
pour over the sauce and cover with a short pastry made with 1/2 lb
flour and 1/4 lb dripping. Brush over with egg or milk, and bake for
three-quarters of an hour; garnish with parsley, and serve.



FISH IN BATTER

* 2 Mullet--8d.
*
* Frying Batter
*
* Hot Fat--2d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Fillet the mullet and cut into small pieces; dip in flour seasoned with
salt and pepper. Cover with French frying batter, the recipe for which
is given elsewhere. Plunge into plenty of hot fat and fry until a good
colour; drain for a few minutes on kitchen paper. Pile high on a dish,
garnish with parsley, and serve hot.




FISH AU GRATIN

* 1 Sole--9d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful of Parsley
*
* 4 teaspoonful Bread Crumbs--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 Small Onion
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 gill Good Gravy
*
* 1/2 oz. Fat Bacon--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--11d.
*
* Time--20 minutes.
*
Mince the onion, parsley, and bacon very finely, and put them into a
basin with the seasoning and crumbs, and mix thoroughly. Butter a dish
in which the fish can be both cooked and served. Spread half the
seasoning on it, wash and dry the fish and lay it on this bed of
seasoning; spread the rest of the seasoning on the top, pour over
gently the gravy. Cover with a few raspings and put the butter on in
tiny pieces. Put it into a quick oven and bake from 15 to 20 minutes,
according to the thickness of the fish. Pin a paper collar round the
dish, and serve at once.



FISH HASH

* 1/2 lb. Cold Boiled Fish--4d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Cold Boiled Potatoes
*
* 1/4 of an Onion--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Fat Bacon--1d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 gill Milk or Gravy
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--7d
*
* Time--10 Minutes
*
Flake up the fish free from skin and bone, mash the potatoes and mix
them together; season with half the parsley, pepper and salt. Mince the
bacon and onion very finely; put them into a frying pan with the butter
and fry for a few minutes. Stir in the fish and potatoes and
turn about until thoroughly hot through. Pour over the gravy or milk
and again make thoroughly hot. Heap on to a dish, and garnish with the
rest of the parsley. Serve very hot.



FISH BALLS

* 1/2 lb. Cold Fish--4d.
*
* 1 gill Thick Sauce--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Anchovy--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Melted Butter--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Fat Bacon
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley--1d.
*
* 1 Egg and Pepper and Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes
*
Chop the fish, bacon, and parsley finely, and mix them together with
the seasoning. Make a thick sauce with 1 gill water, 1 oz flour, and 1
oz butter; flavour with anchovy and stir the fish in. Simmer for a few
minutes, stir in the yolk of the egg, and turn on to a plate to cool.
Make up into small balls, fill a frying pan with boiling water, put in
the balls. Cover over and simmer gently for ten minutes. Dish the balls
in a circle and pour over the melted butter, which has been nicely
flavoured with anchovy; garnish with parsley, and serve.



FISH A LA CREME

* 4 Whiting or Schnapper--1s.
*
* 1 gill Milk--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour, and Lemon Juice
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 2d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Fillet the fish, wash the bones, and put them into half a pint of white
stock, and boil them for half an hour. Strain out and mix with 1 gill
of milk. Wash the fillets and roll them up, stand them in a
stewpan and cook them in this liquor, covering them with a piece of
buttered paper; they will take about 20 minutes.

Dish them carefully, strain the liquor, and make a sauce of it with the
butter and flour by directions given. Season and flavour this and pour
it over the fillets; garnish with chopped parsley and red bread crumbs,
and serve hot.



FILLETS OF FISH AND CHEESE SAUCE.

* 3 Mullet or Bream--1s.
*
* 1/2 pint Cheese Sauce--4d.
*
* 1 oz. Dry Cheese
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* Lemon Juice
*
* Salt and Pepper--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 51/2 d.
*
* Time--25 Minutes.
*
Fillet the fish, wash and dry them; put them on to a baking sheet,
sprinkle with lemon juice. Put a few little pieces of butter over them;
cover with buttered paper and bake from 20 minutes to half an hour,
according to the thickness of the fillets. Place them carefully on the
dish in which they are to be served, pour over them the cheese sauce
nicely flavoured with pepper, salt, and parsley. Sprinkle over them
some dry cheese, brown in front of the fire, or under the grill if
using a gas stove, and serve hot.



COLLARED EELS

* 2 Eels--1s. 5d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Gelatine--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1 spoonful Vinegar
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 81/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half
*
Clean the eels, cut them into pieces 2 inches long; put them in
cold water well seasoned with salt, 2 dozen peppercorns and the
vegetables, and a spoonful of vinegar. Bring to the boil, and skim
well; then boil steadily for an hour, or longer if the eels are large.
Take out the fish, slip out the bones, and cut the meat into small
pieces. Put back the bones and boil the liquor quickly without the lid
for half an hour, then strain off.

Dissolve the gelatine in a little cold water or gravy and stir in. If a
very special dish is desired, the liquor can be clarified with the
white of an egg in the same way as jelly. Rinse a mould in cold water,
arrange in it the pieces of eel and a hard boiled egg cut into slices
with a few sprigs of parsley. Strain the liquor over and stand away
till cold. Turn out and serve with a salad.



STUFFED FLATHEAD

* 1 Flathead--9d.
*
* 2 oz. Forcemeat--2d.
*
* 1 gill Gravy
*
* 1 oz. Dripping--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Take a little veal forcemeat and season nicely. Sew this into the
flathead and truss it into the shape of the letter S. Rub some dripping
on to a baking sheet, which should only be just large enough to take
the fish. Put some dripping on the top, and bake in a moderate oven for
half-an-hour, or longer if large. Slip it on to a hot dish, draw out
the trussing string carefully, flavour and boil up the gravy and pour
round it. Serve very hot.



OYSTERS AND BACON

* 1 doz. Large Oysters--6d.
*
* 3 Rashers Bacon
*
* Pepper, Salt and Lime Juice--3d.
*
* Total Cost--9d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Mix some pepper, salt, and lemon juice together, and lay
oysters in this. The bacon should be cut very thin, and then into
strips about 1 inch broad and 3 inches long. Roll these up, and thread
on a skewer first a roll of bacon and then an oyster, until the skewer
is full; lay on a baking sheet and cook in the oven for about ten
minutes. Have ready a hot dish, slip the bacon and oysters off the
skewers on to this, and serve hot.



SCALLOPED OYSTERS

* 1 bottle Oysters--1s.
*
* 3 oz. Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter
*
* Lemon Juice, Pepper and Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--1 s. 3 d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes
*
Strain the liquor from the oysters, boil it up and pour over them,
cover down for five minutes, and strain off again. Melt the butter,
season with lemon juice, pepper, and salt.

Butter a dish, put in a layer of crumbs, then one of oysters; moisten
with the butter, then more crumbs, and continue in layers till the dish
is full. Pour over all the rest of the butter, and bake for a quarter
of an hour. Serve at once.



TO COOK DRIED FISH

Put it into hot water, and boil gently for five minutes or longer if
the fish is very thick. Take it out of water and put it on to a hot
dish, rub a small piece of cold butter over it and cook for a few
minutes either in the oven or in front of the fire. One or two soft
boiled eggs broken over it is a nice way of serving it, or a few very
thin slices of bacon well cooked may be placed round the dish as a
garnish.



FRIED CRAYFISH

* 1 Crayfish--1s.
*
* French Frying Batter--2d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Anchovy
*
* Frying Fat--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 21/2 d.
*
* Time--3 Minutes
*
Pick all the white meat from a crayfish, and cut it into pieces about
two inches long and one inch broad. Make a frying batter by recipe
given elsewhere, and season with anchovy, lemon juice, pepper, and
salt. Dip the pieces of crayfish into this and plunge into plenty of
very hot fat; fry a good colour, drain on kitchen paper for a few
minutes, pile high on a dish, and garnish with fried parsley.



BREAM PUDDING

* 2 Bream--8d.
*
* 1 gill Melted Butter--1d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Suet--1d.
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1/2 lb. Flour--1d.
*
* Total Cost--11 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Skin and fillet the fish and cut into small pieces; make a dry crust of
the suet, and flour and line a pudding basin with it. Lay the fish in
lightly, and season with the parsley, pepper, and salt. Pour over the
melted butter; this should be made with 1/2 oz butter, 1/2 oz flour,
and 1 gill of water. Cover the top of the pudding with crust, tie down
securely with a cloth and string, and plunge into plenty of boiling
water. Boil for one hour and a half, turn out of the basin, and
sprinkle with chopped parsley. Serve hot.



FISH RISSOLES

* 1/2 lb. Cold Fish--4d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 gill Milk--1d.
*
* Bread Crumbs
*
* Hot Fat
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* 1 teaspoonful of Anchovy
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful of Parsley
*
* Pepper and Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Pick the fish free from skin and bone, and chop it up. Make a smooth
thick sauce with the flour, butter, and water, by directions given
elsewhere. Flavour it with anchovy, parsley, pepper, and salt; stir in
the fish, and mix well. Turn on to a plate till cold. Make up into
small balls, cover with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat; drain
for a few minutes on kitchen paper, arrange carefully on a dish, and
garnish with parsley.



FISH A LA SAUMAREZ

* 2 Bream--1s.
*
* 2 Tomatoes--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns
*
* Lemon Juice--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 3d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Fillet the fish, put the bones in a saucepan, and just cover them with
water. When they boil, skim well, and add the tomatoes sliced up, the
peppercorns and vegetables; boil quickly without the lid for
half an hour, then strain, rubbing the pulp of the tomatoes through
with the liquor. Make a smooth sauce with half a pint of this liquor,
the butter, and the flour; if the colour is not good add a few drops of
cochineal. Fold the fillets of fish neatly, and bake in the oven with a
little lemon juice, and covered with a buttered paper. Arrange them on
a dish and pour the sauce over. Serve hot.



KEDGEREE.

* 1/2 lb. Gold Fish--4d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Boiled Rice--1d.
*
* 2 Hard Boiled Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Flake up the fish and mix it with the rice; shell the eggs and cut them
in half, put the yolks on one side. Chop the whites and mix them with
the rice and fish; season nicely and put into a saucepan with the
butter, and stir until thoroughly hot. Pile on a dish, and either chop
the yolks and sprinkle them over, or hold a sieve over the kedgeree and
rub them lightly through. Serve hot.



FISH BAKED IN VINEGAR

* 2 Mullet--6d.
*
* 1/2 pint Vinegar--2d.
*
* 1 gill Water
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns
*
* Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--81/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Wash the fish, dry them on a cloth, and rub them with a little salt.
Lay them in a deep dish, put in the herbs and peppercorns, pour over
the vinegar and water. Cover with a tin, and stand in a cool
oven, and bake very slowly for an hour. Take them out and let them get
quite cold in the vinegar, then lay them in a dish, and strain the
sauce over. Garnish with sprigs of parsley.



STUFFED CONGER EEL.

* 1 Eel--1s.
*
* 3 oz. Veal Seasoning--2d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 31/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Make the veal seasoning by recipe given elsewhere; sew it into the eel
and put it into a deep dish. Just cover it with water, and bake it in a
good oven for about one hour. Take it up and keep hot, strain the
liquor in which it has been cooked; take about one pint and make into a
brown sauce with the butter and flour. Colour it with a few drops of
caramel, let it boil for a few minutes, season with salt, pepper, and
lemon juice; pour over the fish, and serve very hot.



EEL AND TOMATO SAUCE.

* 1 Eel--1s.
*
* 6 Tomatoes--2d.
*
* 2 oz. Veal Seasoning--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1 s. 5d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Stuff and cook the eel as in the preceding recipe, and strain off the
liquor. Rub the tomatoes through a sieve; mix with half a pint of the
liquor in which the fish was cooked. Make a sauce of this of this with
butte and flour, season with pepper and salt, and pour it over the
fish. Garnish with parsley, and serve.



FRIED ROES

* 3 Roes--6d.
*
* Frying Batter
*
* Hot Fat
*
* Salt and Pepper--1d.
*
* Total Cost--7d
*
* Time--35 Minutes
*
Put the roes on in cold water and boil for about half an hour. Take
them up and let them get quite cold, then cut into slices. Make some
frying batter by recipe given elsewhere. Season it with salt and
pepper, dip in the slices, and fry a good colour. Pile high on a dish
and garnish with fried parsley. Roes may also be fried in egg and bread
crumbs; they are prepared just in the same way, only covered with egg
and crumbs instead of batter.



CODS' ROES IN TOMATO SAUCE

* 2 Roes--4d.
*
* 1 gill Tomato Sauce--2d.
*
* Cayenne
*
* 3 slices Toast
*
* 1 Egg
*
* Nutmeg and Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--40 Minutes.
*
Cods' roes are the best for this dish, but any roes will do. Wash them
well, cover with cold water seasoned with salt, and boil for half an
hour, or longer if the roes are large. Take them up and stand away till
cold, then cut into slices about half an inch thick. Make some tomato
sauce by recipe given elsewhere; when it is boiling, season with
cayenne, nutmeg, and salt; stir in the yolk of an egg, lay in the
slices of roe, cover down until hot through. Cut the toast into as many
pieces as there are slices of roe, stand them in a dish, and put on
each some roe. Make the sauce very hot, pour it over, and serve at
once.



MULLET AND TOMATOES

* 2 Mullet--8d.
*
* 6 Tomatoes
*
* Bread Crumbs
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* Salt and Pepper--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Total Cost--11d.
*
* Time--30 Minutes
*
Fillet and slice up the mullet, season each slice with parsley, pepper,
and salt. Dip the tomatoes in boiling water, skim and slice them up.
Butter a pie-dish, lay in the slices of fish and tomatoes alternately.
Cover the top with bread crumbs and little pieces of butter. Cover the
buttered paper and bake in a moderate oven for half an hour; take off
the paper, and serve hot.



AMERICAN FISH

* 1 Flathead--1s.
*
* 1/2 pint Brown Sauce--1d.
*
* 3 oz. Fish Forcemeat
*
* 1 oz. Dripping--4d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 5d.
*
* Time--30 Minutes.
*
Make a forcemeat and sew it into the fish. Rub some dripping over a
baking sheet, truss the fish into shape, and lay it on. Rub the rest of
the dripping on to a piece of paper, cover the fish carefully, bake in
rather a hot oven for half an hour or longer, according to size; take
of the paper, dish it, and pour round a nice brown sauce. A fish
forcemeat is made with 2 oz cold fish, 1 oz suet, 1 oz bread crumbs
well mixed together, with some seasoning and an egg.



COLD FISH AU GRATIN

Any scraps of cold fish may be served in this way. If any fish sauce is
left, nothing is nicer to warm it in; if not, make a little
with 1 gill of milk or water, 1 oz of butter, and 1 oz of flour. Flake
the fish up, butter a plate, put the fish in and pour the sauce over.
Sprinkle with brown bread crumbs, and bake in the oven for a quarter of
an hour.



SMALL FISH

Any kind of small fish will do for this dish. Wash and dry them; well
butter a sheet of stiff writing paper, lay the fish in, sprinkle them
with a little very finely chopped onion or shallot, parsley, pepper,
and salt. Squeeze over a few drops of lemon juice, and put a few little
pieces of butter about them; wrap them up in the paper and bake for
twenty minutes. Serve in the paper in which they were cooked.



BAKED FISH

* 4 Mullet or Jew-fish--1s.
*
* 2 oz. Bread Crumbs--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sweet Herbs
*
* 1/2 lemon
*
* 2 oz. Suet--2 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1 s. 4 d.
*
* Time--30 Minutes.
*
Split open the fish and remove the head and backbone, wash well in cold
water and dry in a cloth. Chop the parsley, herbs, and suet, and mix
these together; add half the crumbs, the rind of half a lemon, and
pepper and salt. Butter a baking tin, lay on a fish skin downwards. On
this place a layer of seasoning, a little lemon juice, and a few pieces
of butter; on this another fish with the cut part next the seasoning.
Do the rest in the same way, piling one on top of another; over all put
the rest of the crumbs and butter, bake in a moderate oven for half an
hour. Slip into a hot dish, and serve.



CODFISH AND POTATOES--BOUILLABAISSE OF COD.

* 2 lbs. Murray Cod--1s.
*
* 1 lb. Potatoes--1d.
*
* Slices of Roll
*
* 1 quart Water
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 2 Leeks or 1 Onion
*
* Pinch of Saffron
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter--3 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 41/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is hot add the leeks or
onion chopped small, and let them get a good colour without burning;
then add a quart of water, the fagot of herbs, the saffron tied in a
piece of muslin, and the potatoes peeled. Bring up to the boil, and
when they are nearly cooked cut the cod into slices and lay it in. Cook
slowly for twenty minutes, take up the fish, and put it in a hot dish
and lay the potatoes round. Season and flavour the liquor, and boil up.
Cut the bread into slices, put it into a hot dish, and strain the
liquor over; serve with the fish.



BUTTERED WHITING

* 3 Whiting--1s.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter
*
* 1 Lemon--2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 2d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes
*
Wash the whiting, dry them in a cloth, mix a little flour, pepper, and
salt together, cover the fish thoroughly with this. Butter a thin dish,
lay the whiting in and put the rest of the butter over them in small
pieces, and put them into a hot oven; baste constantly with the butter.
This must not be allowed to get black; it should be brown. When the
whiting are done, which will be in from fifteen to twenty
minutes, according to the thickness of the fish, place them in a hot
dish and pour the butter in which they have been cooked over them.



BROILED FISH

* 2 Mullet--8d.
*
* 2 teaspoonful Oil
*
* Pepper
*
* Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--81/2 d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Split the mullet open and wash away the black substance from the bones,
dry on a cloth, rub with oil and sprinkle them with pepper and salt,
and leave them in a cool place for an hour. Rub a gridiron with a piece
of suet, and when it is quite hot put on the fish and broil it
carefully, turning it two or three times whilst cooking. Lay on a hot
dish and rub over with a little butter.

To broil successfully a very clear fire is required, and it should be
made up some time before it is wanted. Broiling on a gas-stove is
equivalent to broiling over a fire.



BOILED FISH

To boil fish properly it must never really boil; and in this lies the
secret of success. If it boils it has a watery, insipid flavour, and
drops of pieces very often when it is taken out of the water. The water
must boil well before the fish is put in, and be seasoned with salt and
a teaspoonful of vinegar or lemon juice; lay the fish carefully in, and
bring the water to the boil again. Then draw it away from the fire,
cover down closely, and keep it just below the boil. The time it takes
to cook depends so much on the size and thickness of the fish that no
hard and fast rule can be given; about ten minutes to every lb., will
be sufficient. It is always done when it begins to leave the
bone. Take it out of the water directly it is cooked, and if it is not
wanted just at the time, cover it with a cloth and keep it hot. Any
kind of fish sauce can be served with it, such as plain melted butter,
parsley, or egg sauce.



SALT FISH

To cook salt fish it should be soaked in cold water for twelve hours,
then well washed in fresh water, scraped and cleaned. Lay it in a
fish-kettle, cover with cold water, then simmer very gently indeed for one
hour and a half, according to the thickness of the fish. It should be
dished on a serviette, and garnished with sprigs of parsley and slices
of lemon. Send it to table with boiled parsnips and egg sauce.



DEVILLED SARDINES

* 1 tin Sardines--6d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Mustard--1/2d.
*
* Buttered Toast
*
* Cayenne--1d.
*
* Total Cost--71/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Make the mustard with vinegar instead of water, and stir into it some
cayenne and salt. Rub the sardines over with this, and either fry them
in a little dripping or grill them. Cut the toast into fingers, lay a
sardine on each piece, and serve hot. Sardines are also very good
dipped in French batter and fried and served with fried parsley.



FISH A L'AURORE

* 1 Jew-fish--9d.
*
* 1/2 Small Onion
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* 1 Egg
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce
*
* Pepper and Salt--3d.
*
* Total Cost--1s.
*
* Time--30 Minutes.
*
Put some dripping on a tin dish, lay the fish in it, and cover
with a buttered paper and bake in the oven for twenty minutes. Take it
out, split open and take out the centre bone; sprinkle the inside of
the fish with finely chopped onion and parsley, pepper, and salt. Put
back the upper fillet, trim away some of the bones, pour over the
melted butter or white sauce, and put back into the oven for ten
minutes. Boil the egg hard, remove the shell, take out the yolk and
either chop it or rub it through a sieve, cut the white into shapes.
Take the fish from the oven and decorate the top with the yolk and
white of egg; serve hot.



FILLETS A LA ORLY

* 2 Bream--8d.
*
* Lemon Juice
*
* Parsley
*
* Half an Onion
*
* 1/2 pint Tomato Sauce
*
* Pepper and Salt--3d.
*
* Total Cost--11d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Fillet the fish and lay them in a dish; sprinkle them well with lemon
juice, pepper, salt and parsley. Lay over them some slices of onion and
leave them for an hour, then fry them either in batter or flour. Drain
them for a few moments on kitchen paper, and serve on a dish very hot
with some good thick tomato sauce in a sauce-boat.



SCANDINAVIAN PUDDING

* 2 Bream--8d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Flour
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1/2 pint Fish Sauce--2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 1d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Fillet the fish, skin and chop very find; sift the flour into a basin,
drop in the eggs, and make into a batter with the milk. Season
with salt and pepper, and stir in the chopped fish. Butter a basin,
pour in the mixture and boil for one hour; turn out of the basin and
serve with melted butter sauce, flavoured with anchovy, or with any
other fish-sauce that may be preferred.



OYSTERS AND POTATOES

* 1 bottle Oysters--1s.
*
* 4 Cold Potatoes--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Flour
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 21/2 d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes.
*
Mash the potatoes and make them into a paste with the flour and egg,
roll out and cut into small pieces. Season the oysters with lemon
juice, pepper, and salt; put three of four into each piece of potato
crust. Roll it up, brush over with milk, and bake for twenty minutes.
Pile high on a dish, and serve hot.



STEWED FISH

* 2 Fish--9d.
*
* 1/2 pint Stock
*
* 1 blade of Mace
*
* 2 Cloves
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour--1/2d.
*
* 2 tablespoonful Ketchup
*
* 1 Onion--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* Bread Crumbs
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter
*
Fillet the fish and fry them in egg and bread crumbs; slice and fry the
onion, lay this and the fish in a tin dish. Cover with stock, put in
the cloves, peppercorns, and mace, cover over, and put into a
moderate oven for an hour. Mix the flour and ketchup together and stir
it in; put back into the oven for ten minutes. Dish the fish and strain
the sauce over it.



OYSTERS AND MACARONI

* 2 oz. Macaroni--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 bottle Oysters--1s.
*
* 1 gill Milk or Melted Butter Sauce--1d.
*
* Cayenne
*
* Salt
*
* Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 31/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Boil the macaroni in the oyster liquor or in weak stock till quite
soft. Rub a little butter on a dish, cut the macaroni into pieces two
inches long and lay it at the bottom. On this place the oysters, and
season them with cayenne, salt, and a little lemon juice or nutmeg.
Pour over the milk or sauce, cover with bread crumbs, and brown it in a
quick oven. A few little pieces of butter laid on top of the crumbs
make a richer dish. It must be served very hot.




CHAPTER XIX.



FIFTY RECIPES FOR MEAT DISHES


COOKERY OF MEAT.

The principal methods of cooking meat are roasting, baking, boiling,
stewing, broiling, braising, and frying. Of these methods roasting and
baking are conducted on the same principle--dry heat; boiling and
stewing are often spoken of as if they were the same, but this is quite
a mistake. When we boil a joint we plunge it into boiling water, and
this water should cover it completely; but when meat is stewed it must
be cooked in a very small quantity of water, and never allowed to boil.
Water boils at 212, but simmering heat is 180, and meat cannot be
properly stewed if it is cooked quicker than this. One of the great
faults of English cooks is that they cook too quickly, and it is
particularly necessary in stewing to cook slowly, because we want to
extract and blend all the different flavours of the various substances,
which are necessary for a good and savoury stew. When boiling meat for
table plunge it into boiling water, and then reduce the heat; but when
broth or soup is to be made it must be put into cold water, so that the
goodness may be drawn from it. Corned beef or pork should also be
placed in cold water and heated gradually, so that some of the salt is
drawn out. The frying-pan should be discarded from the kitchen, at
least as far as steaks and chops are concerned; grilling or broiling is
by far the best method of cooking them. Meat unless it is very
carefully fried is tough and greasy, yet the same piece of meat
if grilled or stewed would be tender and nutritious. There is often a
prejudice against meat twice cooked, but the most delicate ENTREES that
are so highly esteemed by many are only re-cooked meat. It is the time
and care expended on it that makes it so delicious. Even in plain
cooking there is no reason why the homely dish of hash should not be
appetizing and wholesome. I trust that the following recipes, if
carefully carried out, will prove this to be true.



STEAK AND KIDNEY PIE

* 2 lbs. Steak--5d.
*
* 2 Kidneys--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 lb. Flour
*
* 1/2 lb. Dripping
*
* 1 gill Water
*
* Pepper and Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--81/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half
*
Mix a teaspoonful of flour in a plate with some pepper and salt, slice
up the meat into pieces about three inches long by two broad, dip each
piece lightly in the flour; skin and slice up the kidneys, and cut the
fat into small pieces. Roll a piece of kidney and a piece of fat
alternatively in the slices of meat, pile high in a dish, and pour in a
gill of water or stock. Make a short crust by directions given for
short pastry, wet the edge of the dish and line it with a strip of the
paste, wet this strip again with water and cover the dish with paste;
trim off the edge, cut a small piece out of the centre of the pie, and
ornament it with a few leaves cut out of the paste trimmings. Brush
over with water and bake in a moderate oven for one hour and a half. As
soon as the crust has acquired some colour, cover with a piece of paper
well rubbed with dripping.



STEAK AND KIDNEY PUDDING

* 2 lbs. Steak--5d.
*
* 2 Kidneys--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Suet
*
* 1/2 pint Water
*
* Pepper and Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
* Time--Three Hours
*
Make a dry crust, by directions given elsewhere, of the flour, suet,
and butter. Rub the pudding basin well with dripping, roll out the
crust, take two-thirds and line the basin, well pressing the crust in.
Slice up the meat and kidney, season with pepper and salt, pile lightly
in the basin, pour in half a gill of water, wet the edge of the crust.
Roll out the piece left, and cover the pudding securely. Dip a cloth in
boiling water, put it over the top, tie it round with string, and pin
or tie the ends of the cloth over the top. Plunge into plenty of
boiling water, and boil for three hours. Take it up, take off the
cloth, turn it out of the basin on to a hot dish, and serve hot.



STEWED KIDNEYS AND MACARONI

* 6 Kidneys--6d.
*
* 1 gill Stock
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 2 oz. Macaroni
*
* Parsley, Pepper, and Salt--2 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--81/2 d.
*
* Time--25 Minutes
*
Put the Macaroni into boiling water seasoned with salt, and boil for
about twenty minutes, or until quite soft, but not broken. When it is
boiling, skin and cut the kidneys in half, put them into a frying-pan
with the butter, and toss them over the fire for two or three minutes.
Sprinkle with parsley, pepper, and salt, pour over the stock or water.


Bring it to the boil, then cover down by the side of the fire for five
minutes. Place carefully in the centre of a hot dish, boil up the gravy
and pour over. Arrange the macaroni round the dish as a border, and
serve hot.



STEWED STEAK AND WALNUTS

* 2 lbs. Steak--5d.
*
* 1/2 pint Water or Stock
*
* 3 Pickled Walnuts
*
* 1 teaspoonful Vinegar
*
* 1 teaspoonful Cornflour
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* Total Cost--6d.--1d.
*
* Time--Three Hours
*
Cut the steak into neat pieces, put it into hot water and bring to the
boil, then keep it below boiling point, but simmering very gently for
two hours and a half. Mix the cornflour with a tablespoonful of the
vinegar from the walnuts and stir it in, add salt to taste and a small
pinch of pepper. Cut up three walnuts and put them in, bring to
simmering point again, and cook for at least another half-hour, then
dish neatly. Boil up the gravy and pour over it.



STEAK AND MACARONI

* 2 lbs. Steak--5d.
*
* 2 oz. Macaroni--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Dripping
*
* 1/2 pint Stock
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns
*
* Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--Three Hours
*
Cut the steak into neat pieces, put the butter or dripping into a
saucepan and fry the steak quickly; take it out, shred the onion and
put it in with the peppercorns, and let it get quite brown.
Pour over the stock and stir until it boils, then put back the steak
and let it simmer very gently for three hours. While it is cooking,
boil the macaroni in weak stock or water for twenty-five minutes, and
if it is ready before it is wanted keep it in hot water. When the steak
is done, dish it neatly, flavour the gravy, boil it up and pour over.
Cut the macaroni into short pieces and place it round the dish as a
garnish.



MUTTON CHOPS IN BATTER

* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 2 lbs. Chops--5.
*
* 1 pint Milk--2 1/2d.
*
* 3/4 lb. Flour
*
* Salt and Pepper--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--10d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter
*
Break the eggs into a basin, beat in the flour with a fork, then add
gradually the milk, season with a little pepper and salt. Rub some
dripping on a baking dish, pour in the batter, lay in the chops. Put
into a moderate oven and bake for about one hour and a quarter. Serve
hot.



TOMATO PIE

* 3 or 4 Tomatoes--2d.
*
* 1 lb. Chops--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 4 Cold Potatoes--1d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 tablespoonful Milk--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter
*
Skin and slice up the tomatoes, put a layer at the bottom of a pie-dish,
then lay in the chops. Season with pepper and salt, and cover
with the rest of the tomatoes; mash up the potatoes until ver smooth.
Warm the butter and milk and pour it over them and make into a paste.
Cover the dish with this crust, brush the top over with a
little milk, put into the oven and bake for about one hour and a
quarter.



KABOBS

* 1 1/2 lbs. of Steak--4d.
*
* 1 dessertspoonful Curry Powder
*
* 1 dessertspoonful Worcester Sauce
*
* 1 dessertspoonful Vinegar--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Stock
*
* 1 tablespoonful Flour
*
* 1 tablespoonful Chutney
*
* 1/4 lb. Rice
*
* Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--71/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half
*
Slice up the steak into pieces about three inches long and two broad.
Mix the curry powder, sauce, vinegar, flour and chutney together and
spread this over the steak; roll up and thread a small wooden skewers.
These skewers should be made from a very small splint of wood, just
large enough to hold one or at most two of the rolls; lay them in a
saucepan, pour over the stock, bring to the boil and simmer one hour
and a half. While they are cooking, well wash the rice in cold water
and let it soak for half an hour, throw it into boiling water for three
minutes and strain off. Put a pinch of saffron in some fresh water,
season with salt, and finish cooking in this. Strain off and dry in the
saucepan. Pile this on a dish and lay the kabobs over it; boil up the
gravy, season and flavour, and strain round the dish.



SCOTCH COLLOPS

* 1 lb. Lean Steak--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 gill Stock
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Quarter of an Onion
*
* Small Sippets of Toast--1d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Remove all the fat, and cut the meat into very thin and small
dice, mince up the onion very finely. Mix together, season with some
pepper and salt, and put into a saucepan with the butter. Stir it about
for five minutes, then pour on the stock, bring to the boil, and simmer
for one hour. Arrange neatly on a hot dish, and put the sippets of
toast round.



POOR MAN'S DISH

* 1/2 pint Poor Man's Sauce--1/2d.
*
* Slice of Toast
*
* Slices of Cold Meat--2d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Make the sauce by directions given elsewhere, pour it into a pie dish,
lay in some slices of underdone beef or mutton; cover over and stand in
the oven for a quarter of an hour. Cut the slice of toast into sippets,
lay them round, and serve.



BREAST OF MUTTON AND PEAS

* 2 Breasts of Mutton--4d.
*
* 2 Onions
*
* 1 Carrot--1/2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* Bread Crumbs--1/2d.
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 1 pint Peas
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* Hot Fat
*
* 12 Peppercorns--7d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 1d.
*
* Time--Two Hours
*
Wipe the meat with a warm damp cloth, and put it into a saucepan with
the vegetables; bring to the boil and stew very gently for two hours.
Take it up and remove all the bones, put it between two boards and
stand some heavy weights on it till quite cold. Then cut into neat-shaped
pieces, egg and bread crumb them; fry a good colour. Boil the
peas by recipe given elsewhere. Pile the mutton on a dish and
put the peas round. A breast of lamb is exceedingly nice done in this
way; it may be cut off before the quarter is roasted. The liquor in
which the meat was cooked makes excellent soup.



TRIPE AND TOMATOES

* 2 lbs. Tripe--5d.
*
* 1 doz. Tomatoes--3d.
*
* 1/2 pint Water or Stock
*
* 1 oz. Cornflour--1/2d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--9d
*
* Time--Four Hours
*
Cut the tripe into neat pieces, put it on in cold water and bring to
the boil; let it boil for five minutes, put it into cold water, and
wash and scrape it well. Slice up the tomatoes and rub them through a
sieve; mix them with the stock or water, and season with pepper and
salt. Pour this into a saucepan, slice in the onion, put in the tripe,
and let it boil up. Simmer gently for four hours, mix the cornflour
smoothly with a little water or stock, and pour it in; stir until it
boils, dish the tripe carefully, season and flavour the sauce to taste,
and pour it over. Tripe is more easily digested than any other animal
food, and is therefore good for people suffering with dyspepsia.



TRIPE IN MILK

* 2 lbs. Tripe--5d.
*
* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 2 Onions
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* 1/2 pint Water--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--71/2 d.
*
* Time--Four Hours
*
Prepare the tripe as in the preceding recipe. Mix the milk and water
together, pour it into a saucepan; lay in the tripe, slice in
the onions, bring to the boil, and let it simmer slowly for four hours.
Season with pepper and salt, thicken with the flour; after adding the
flour let it cook for fifteen minutes, then dish the tripe carefully
and pour the sauce over it.



TOMATOES AND MINCE

* 8 Tomatoes--3d.
*
* 8 pieces Toast
*
* 1/4 lb. Minced Meat
*
* Parsley--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Take any remains of cold mince or hash, add more flavouring if
necessary, and make it hot in the saucepan. Wipe the tomatoes and
scrape out the centre, fill it up with the mince, and stand in the oven
for ten minutes. Have ready some rounds of toast about the same size as
the tomatoes. When the tomatoes are cooked enough, stand them on the
toast, and serve.



BREAKFAST MEAT

* 1 lb. Cold Meat--3d.
*
* 2 oz. Macaroni--1 1/2d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 3 Tomatoes
*
* 1/2 gill Stock
*
* Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Mince up the meat, or any remains of cold hash or mince will do. If
there is any cold macaroni it can be used; if not, boil some by
directions given, and slice up the tomatoes. Butter a dish in which it
can be cooked and served. Place at the bottom a layer of meat, then one
of macaroni, then one of tomatoes, season with pepper and salt, and
continue this in layers until all the materials are used up.
Sprinkle a few bread crumbs on the top, put into the oven, and bake for
half an hour. Serve hot.



RISSOLES

* 2 lb. Cold Meat--3d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 Egg
*
* Bread Crumbs
*
* 1/2 pint Stock
*
* Quarter of an Onion
*
* Parsley
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* Hot Fat--2d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Mince up the meat and mix in some chopped parsley, pepper and salt; put
the butter into a stewpan, and when it is dissolved mince up the pieces
of onion very finely and fry that for two minutes, then stir in the
flour. Pour in the gravy and stir until it boils; mix in the meat and
let it get thoroughly hot. Turn it out on to a plate, spread it over,
and leave until quite cold. Make up into balls, cover with egg and
bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat; arrange in a circle and garnish with
fried parsley.



KIDNEY FRITTERS

* 6 Kidneys--6d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Minced Herbs--1/2d.
*
* Hot Fat
*
* 1 teaspoonful Onion
*
* Frying Batter
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--71/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Skin the kidneys and cut up each one into three or four slices.
Make a frying batter by directions given elsewhere; stir in the minced
onions and herbs, and season with pepper and salt. Dip the slices of
kidney into this and plunge into very hot fat. Fry a good colour, pile
high on a dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve very hot. Slices
of cold beef or mutton are very nice done in this way.



KIDNEY TOAST

* 2 Kidneys--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Butter--1/2d.
*
* 1 Slice Toast
*
* Parsley
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Skin and chop the kidneys small, put into a saucepan with the butter,
and cook for two or three minutes; season with pepper and salt. Spread
it on the toast, sprinkle over some chopped parsley, and serve.



BEEF TRIFLES

* 1 lb. Cold Roast Beef--3d.
*
* 4 oz. Bread Crumbs
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Onion
*
* 1 Egg
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley or Horse-radish--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d
*
* Time--Half and Hour
*
Mince the beef and onion very finely, and mix it with the bread crumbs,
pepper, and salt. Add either some chopped parsley or finely scraped
horse-radish; mix thoroughly. Moisten with an egg well beaten, and if
very dry a spoonful of gravy or milk. Butter some small cups or moulds,
fill them with this mixture, and bake for about half an hour.
Garnish with sprigs of parsley, and serve with them some horse-radish
sauce or brown gravy.



HASHED BEEF AND TOMATO SAUCE

* 1 lb. Cold Roast Beef--3d.
*
* 8 tomatoes--3d.
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* Salt and Pepper--1/2d.
*
* 1 gill Gravy
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* Toast--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Slice up the tomatoes and put them into a saucepan with the butter,
herbs, pepper, salt, sugar, and gravy. Stir about until it becomes
quite a pulp; then rub through a sieve, season to taste, and let it get
quite cold. Cut the beef into thin slices and lay it in a saucepan,
pour over the cold sauce and let it get hot through, very slowly.
Arrange on a hot dish, and garnish with fried sippets of bread or
toast.



STEWED CHOPS

* 1 lb. Chops--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 gill Gravy--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Trim some of the fat from the chops, put the butter into a saucepan,
and when it is melted stir in the flour. Mix well, and pour in the
gravy; stir until it boils, lay in the chops, and simmer very gently
for one hour. Dish the chops in a circle, boil up and season the gravy,
and pour over the stew.



BAKED CHOP

* 1 Chop
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* Total Cost--1d
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Choose a nice loin chop with an undercut. Rub a little butter in a soup
plate, lay in the chop, cover with another plate, and stand in a cool
oven for an hour. Put on a very hot plate and pour over the gravy which
has run from it. Serve very hot.



RICE CUTLETS

* 1/2 lb. Cold Meat--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Rice
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* Bread Crumbs
*
* Hot Fat--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Mince the meat finely; if there is any cold rice in the larder it will
do; if not, boil some. Mix the rice and meat well together, season and
flavour with a little nutmeg or lemon peel; if the meat is very lean
add 2 oz fat or beef suet. Shape into cutlets, egg and bread crumb
them, and fry in hot fat; dish in a circle and garnish with fried
parsley.



POTATO SAUSAGES

* 3 Cold Potatoes--1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Cold Meat--1d.
*
* Nutmeg, Pepper, and Salt
*
* 1 Egg
*
* Bread Crumbs
*
* Hot Fat--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Mash up the potatoes, and mince the meat; mix together,



season nicely, and mix into a paste with half the egg. Roll into
sausages, egg and bread crumb, and fry in hot fat. Dish in a pyramid,
and garnish with fried parsley.



BRAZILIAN STEW

* 2 lbs. Leg of Beef--5d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1 tablespoonful Vinegar
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--Three Hours
*
Cut the beef up in small pieces, dip them in the vinegar, and lay in a
jar. Slice in the vegetables, add the peppercorns, and tie a paper over
the top of the jar. Stand in a saucepan of boiling water for three
hours; dish up the meat, garnish with the carrot, strain the gravy,
season and flavour, boil up and pour over. Serve hot.



BEEF OLIVES

* 2 lbs. Rump Steak--10d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Veal Seasoning--2d.
*
* 12 Peppercorns
*
* 1/2 pint Stock
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 Carrot--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. O1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter
*
Cut up the steak into thin slices about three inches long and two
broad, shape the seasoning into small corks, roll a piece up in each
slice of steak, thread them on a skewer and lay them in a saucepan.
Pour in the stock, add the peppercorns and vegetables, bring to the
boil, simmer very gently for one hour and a half. Place the olives on a
hot dish and draw out the skewers, remove the fat, boil up the gravy,
season and flavour to taste, and pour round. Serve hot.



MACARONI PUDDING

* 3 oz. Macaroni--2d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Cold Meat--2d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy
*
* 2 Eggs
*
* 1/2 pint Milk
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley--3d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Boil the macaroni in stock or water. Mince the meat finely, and season
with parsley, pepper, and salt. Rub a pudding basin or mould with
butter, put the macaroni and meat in in layers, and season nicely. Beat
up the eggs and milk and pour them over, cover with buttered paper, and
steam for one hour. Turn out of the basin carefully, and pour round it
a little nice brown gravy or white sauce.



SHEEP'S TONGUES IN TOMATO SAUCE

* 6 Tongues--1s.
*
* 1/2 pint Tomato Sauce--2 1/2d.
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 fagot Herbs
*
* 1 Carrot--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 31/2 d.
*
* Time--Three Hours.
*
Wash the tongues in cold water, put them into a saucepan, cover them
with cold water or stock, and bring to the boil, then skim well. Either
corned or fresh tongues will do for this dish. If corned, no salt is
required; but if fresh ones are used, put in a dessertspoonful of salt.
Put in the vegetables and peppercorns and simmer gently for two hours,
then take them up, plunge them into cold water and remove the skin.
Trim them off and cut in half. Make some tomato sauce by recipe given
elsewhere. The liquor in which the tongues were boiled may be used for
this if it is not too salt. Lay the tongues in and simmer for
another hour; dish carefully, boil up the sauce and pour over. Garnish
with chopped parsley.



BROWN MINCE

* 1 lb. Cold Roast Beef--4d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 Egg
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy
*
* Nutmeg--1d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Mince up the beef finely and mix it with the bread crumbs; season with
pepper, salt, nutmeg, or parsley. Beat up the egg, mix it with the
gravy, and pour over the meat and crumbs. Butter a basin, sprinkle well
with brown bread crumbs, put in the mince. Cover over with a plate and
bake for an hour, then turn on to a hot dish and pour a little nice
gravy round it.



STEAK A LA JARDINIERE

* 1 lbs. Steak--5d.
*
* 1 gill Green Peas--2d.
*
* 1 gill French Beans--1d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1 Turnip
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy
*
* Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--91/2 d.
*
* Time--Three Hours
*
Cut the steak into neat pieces and fry very quickly in the butter; take
it out, put in the flour, and when quite smooth pour on the gravy and
stir until it boils. Put back the steak, and simmer very gently for
three hours. Cut the carrot and turnip up into thin strips, and put
them in when the steak has been cooking for two hours. Boil the
peas and beans separately, and add them to the stew five minutes before
serving. Arrange the steak on a hot dish, put the vegetables round, and
pour over the gravy. The greater the variety of vegetables used the
nicer this dish will be.



KROMSKIES

* 1/2 lb. Cold Meat--2d.
*
* 2 Rashers Fat Bacon--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Frying Butter--1d.
*
* 1/2 gill Stock
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* Parsley, Pepper, and Salt
*
* Hot Fat--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Mince the meat finely or put it through the sausage machine, season
with parsley, pepper, and salt; put the butter into a saucepan, and
when it is melted stir in the flour and the stock. Stir until it boils,
then add the meat and mix thoroughly. Turn on to a plate to cool. When
cold make up into pieces about the size of a cork. Take some very thin
rashers of fat bacon and cut into strips about half an inch wide by two
inches long. Roll the meat in this, dip in frying batter, and fry in
very hot fat; drain for a few minutes on kitchen paper, pile high on a
dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve very hot.



KOTTBULLAR

* 2 lbs. Fillet or Beef--10d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Suet--1d.
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* Hot Fat
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* Nutmeg
*
* Soda Biscuit
*
* Total Cost--1s. 21/2 d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes
*


Mince the lean of the meat very small with about a quarter of a pound
of the suet which surrounds it; season with pepper, salt, and nutmeg.
Make a little boiled custard by recipe given elsewhere, pour it over
the biscuit, which must be made into fine crumbs, then stir in the meat
and let it get quite cold. Roll into small balls with a little flour.
Put three ounces of dripping into a frying pan, and when very hot drop
in the balls and fry a good colour; drain for a few minutes on kitchen
paper, and dish in a circle. Serve hot.



BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON

* 1 Leg of Mutton--1s. 3d.
*
* 1 Rasher of Ham--2d.
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 20 Peppercorns--1/2d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 2 Carrots
*
* 1 Turnip
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 quart Stock--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 71/2 d.
*
* Time--Four Hours.
*
Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is dissolved put in the
mutton and brown it all over; then lay the ham and vegetables round it,
pour in the stock, and bring it to the boil. Cover down closely, and
stand the saucepan in a moderate oven where it will cook slowly. If the
braising is being done by a coal fire the lid of the stewpan may be
reversed and some hot coals placed in it; these will want renewing f
rom time to time. In any case cook very slowly, then dish the meat,
strain the gravy, remove the fat carefully, and boil to a sort of half
glaze; pour round the dish, serve with Julienne or plain vegetables.



PRESSED BEEF

* 10 lbs. Thick Brisket of Beef, Corned or Fresh--1s. 6d.
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 1 stalk Celery--1/2d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 2 Carrots
*
* 1 Turnip
*
* 40 Peppercorns--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 8d.
*
* Time--Four Hours
*
Bind the beef with tapes to keep it a good shape. If it is corned, put
it on in cold water; if fresh, in hot stock or water, and bring to the
boil, then skim carefully and put in the vegetables and peppercorns.
Simmer very gently indeed for four hours, then take it up. Take off the
tapes, slip out the bones, and put it into a dish; place a piece of
board on the top and some heavy weights and leave till the next day,
then turn out and serve with a salad. If fresh meat is used for this
dish the liquor may be used for soup, or the bones may be put back when
removed from the meat and boiled without the lid very quickly for an
hour. Then strain off and stand away till the next day; it should then
be in a strong jelly. This may be cut into blocks and put round the
meat.



CURRIED CHOPS

* 2 lbs. Chops--5d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Curry Powder--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Lemon Juice
*
* 1/4 lb. Rice
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy or Water--1d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 Apple
*
* 1 Onion
*
* Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--9d.
*
* Time--Three Hours.
*
Trim some of the fat away from the chops. Put the butter into a
stewpan, put in the chops and brown them quickly; take out,
chop up the apple and onion, and fry that too. Sprinkle with the curry
powder and flour, pour in the stock or water and stir until it boils,
then put back the chops, bring to the boil, and simmer very gently for
three hours. Dish carefully, boil up the gravy, and if it is not thick
enough boil quickly without the lid for some minutes. Season with salt
and lemon juice and pour over the chops. Boil the rice by directions
given elsewhere; rinse out a small mould or cup in cold water, press
the rice into it, and turn out. Serve this in a separate dish, but send
it to the table with the curry.



BEEF A LA MODE

* 6 lbs. Leg of Beef or Silverside--9d.
*
* 1 Calf's Foot--4d.
*
* 2 Onions
*
* 2 Carrots
*
* 1 Turnip--1d.
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 40 Peppercorns
*
* 1 blade of Mace
*
* 6 Cloves
*
* Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 3d.
*
* Time--Five Hours.
*
Have the foot well chopped up, put it on in cold water, bring it to the
boil. Let it boil for five minutes, then take it up and scrape and wash
it well, lay it in a stewpan with the beef cut into pieces. Cover with
cold water and bring to the boil, put in the spices tied in a piece of
muslin, and let it simmer very gently for three hours.

Slice up the vegetables and put them in, and continue simmering
altogether for about five hours. Take up the foot, take out all the
bones, and cut into pieces; put back the meat of the foot into the
saucepan, take out the spices, season with salt, remove the fat, boil
up, and serve. This dish is always better for being made the day before
it is wanted, as the fat can be more easily removed.



BEEFSTEAK ROLLS

* 1 lb. Of Beefsteak--2d.
*
* Bread and Butter--1d.
*
* 2 Cloves
*
* 1 Onion
*
* Stalk of Celery--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--Two Hours
*
Take a thick steak and split it open, cut it into strips five inches
wide by three long. Cut some very thin bread and butter the same size
seasoned with pepper and salt, lay it on the steak and roll it up,
thread on a skewer and dust with flour. Put the butter into a frying-pan,
and when it is hot put in the rolls and fry them quickly; take out
and lay in a saucepan, cut up the onion and fry in the same butter as
the rolls were fried in. Shake in a teaspoonful of flour and pour in
the gravy; stir until it boils, then pour over the rolls. Put in the
celery and cloves, and simmer very gently for two hours; take up the
rolls on a hot dish and slip off the skewers, boil up and flavour the
gravy. Remove the fat and pour round the meat. Veal or mutton is also
very good prepared in this way.



BEEFSTEAK STUFFED

* 1 1/2 lbs. Of Beefsteak--4d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Potatoes
*
* 2 oz. Dripping
*
* Salt and Pepper--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 tablespoonful Milk
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Sage--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Boil and mash the potatoes with the butter, milk, and salt (if
there are any cold ones they will do as well); lay the steak flat and
spread the potatoes over it. Chop the onion very fine and powder the
sage, and sprinkle over the potatoes; roll up and tie with a tape or
string. Rub some dripping over a baking sheet, put in the steak, and
plenty of dripping on the top. Put into a moderate oven and bake for an
hour, basting frequently. Put on to a hot dish, take off the tapes, and
pour round it some nice gravy. Send mashed potatoes to table with it.



FRICASSEE OF LIVER

* Half a Calf's Liver--3d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* Lemon Juice--1/2d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* 1 pint of Gravy
*
* Parsley
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Wash and slice up the liver, and dip in the flour; fry very lightly and
quickly in the butter and lay in a saucepan. Slice up the carrot and
fry in the same butter. Stir in the gravy, boil up, and pour over the
liver; simmer very gently for one hour, then dish carefully. Season the
gravy with salt, pepper, and lemon juice; boil up and pour over it.
Serve hot.



STEWED SWEETBREADS

* 1 pair Sweetbreads--4d.
*
* 1 pint Gravy
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* 1/2 Onion--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 Carrot--1d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*


Put the sweetbreads in cold water, bring to the boil, strain away the
water, scrape and clean them and remove the pieces of skin. Put the
butter into a stewpan and flour the sweetbreads; dry very lightly and
quickly, take them out. Slice up and fry the onion and carrot, stir in
the flour and gravy, and bring to the boil. Lay in the sweetbreads and
simmer very gently for one hour; take them up on a hot dish, season and
flavour the gravy, remove the fat, boil up and pour round them. Serve
hot. Sweetbreads are very nice served with tomato sauce.



ROULADES OF BEEF

* 1/2 lb. Fillet of Beef--9d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Cold Boiled Bacon--4d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Dripping
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy
*
* Pepper and Mustard
*
* 2 oz. Crumbs--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 3d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes
*
Trim away the fat from the fillet and cut it into very small thin
slices, and cut the bacon also into thin slices, but smaller. Spread
the side of the beef with mustard and pepper, cover with bacon, and
roll up as lightly as possible. When all are rolled beat up an egg, mix
it with a spoonful of water, brush over the rolls; cover them with
crumbs and thread on a small skewer. Put the dripping into a frying-pan,
and when quite hot lay in the rolls and fry until a good colour.
Place on a hot dish and slip out the skewers. Make the gravy hot,
season and flavour, and pour boiling round the roulades. Should there
be any brown sauce in the larder it is nicer than gravy.



VEAL SHAPE

* 2 lbs. Neck of Veal--8d.
*
* 1 Lemon
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Ham or Bacon--2d.
*
* 3 Eggs
*
* 1/2 pint Stock--3d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 11/2 d.
*
* Time--Three Hours
*
Put the meat into a saucepan with the rind of the lemon cut very
thinly, pour in the stock and simmer very gently for three hours; if
the bacon is not cooked put it in and stew it for the last half-hour,
then take up the meat and ham, cut it off the bones, and put these back
in the saucepan and let them boil quickly without the lid. Boil the
eggs hard and cut them in slices and arrange in a plain mould or dish,
then lay in the veal and ham, and season with pepper and salt. Strain
and flavour the gravy, add the lemon juice, and pour it over the meat.
Set aside until quite cold, then turn out. This is a very nice
breakfast or luncheon dish.



SWISS PATES

* Cold Roast Veal, Fowl, or Lamb--6d.
*
* Half a Stale Loaf--1 1/2d.
*
* Sweet Herbs or Parsley--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1 gill Melted Butter
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* Hot Fat--1d.
*
* Total Cost--101/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Mince the meat very finely, season with any forcemeat that may be left,
or else some grated lemon peel, parsley and sweet herbs, pepper and
salt. Make one gill of melted butter by recipe given elsewhere, stir in
the meat and let it simmer for a few minutes; cut some slices of bread
about an inch and a half thick, stamp them out with a round
cutter about two inches across. Remove the centre for about half way
through with a smaller cutter, brush them over with a raw egg beaten
up, and cover them with fine crumbs. Fry in hot fat till a good colour,
drain away the fat from them on kitchen paper. Fill these with the
mince, garnish with sprigs of parsley, and serve.



DEVILLED MEAT

* 1 teaspoonful Mustard
*
* 1 teaspoonful Worcester Sauce
*
* 2 teaspoonful Vinegar
*
* 1/2 oz. Butter
*
* 1 teaspoonful Oil
*
* 1 teaspoonful Lemon Juice
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Curry Powder--2 1/2d.
*
* Mashed Potatoes
*
* 1/2 gill Gravy
*
* Slices of Cold Meat--1d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes
*
Put the mustard, made with vinegar instead of water, into a basin; add
gradually the oil and butter, curry powder, sauce, vinegar, and lemon
juice, and mix very thoroughly, then pour in the gravy. Cut some slices
of underdone meat and lay them in a pie dish, pour over the mixture,
cover with a plate, and stand in a hot oven for ten minutes; stir
frequently. Serve with mashed potatoes.



JUGGED RABBITS

* 2 Rabbits--1s.
*
* 1/2 lb. Pickled Pork--3d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs--1/2d.
*
* 1 pint Gravy
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 tablespoonful Red Currant Jelly--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 41/2 d.
*
* Time--Two Hours
*
Wash and joint up the rabbits and cut the pork into slices; lay some of
the pork over the bottom of a baking jar, and on this some
joints of rabbit; continue in layers until all the meat is in, then put
in the onion, sliced up, the fagot of herbs, and a few peppercorns.
Cover down closely, stand in a moderate oven, and cook for two hours.
Take up the meat and arrange nicely on a hot dish, strain the gravy
into a saucepan, thicken with the flour, and when it boils stir in the
jelly. Flavour to taste, pour it over the rabbits, and serve.



BREAKFAST DISH OF BEEF

* Slices of Cold Roast Beef (underdone)--4d.
*
* 1/2 gill Melted Butter Sauce--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 gill Gravy or Water
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* 1 tablespoonful Walnut Ketchup or Vinegar--1/2d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Red Currant Jelly--1d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Cut some thin slices of beef and lay them in a saucepan or basin, mix
the melted butter sauce, gravy, jelly, and ketchup together, and pour
over them. Cover down closely and stand the saucepan in a larger one,
half full of boiling water, and steam for half an hour. Put the meat
into a dish and pour the sauce over it.



SOUBISE CUTLETS

* 1 lbs. Neck Chops--5d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* 3 Onions
*
* 1 gill Milk
*
* Pepper, Salt, and Lemon Juice--1d.
*
* Total Cost--71/2 d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes
*
Trim off the cutlets, lay them in a tin dish, cover with buttered
paper, and bake in the oven from fifteen to twenty minutes, according
to thickness, turning once while cooking. Peel the onions, put them
into cold water, bring to the boil, throw away the water. Put them on
again in cold water and boil until rather soft, then strain all
the water away, put in the butter, let it get quite hot, then cover
down and finish cooking the onions in this, but do not brown them. Stir
in the flour and pour over the milk, stir until it boils, let it boil
two or three minutes, then rub through a sieve; season with salt,
pepper, and lemon juice. Dish the cutlets in a circle, pour away some
of the fat, and rinse the tin with a spoonful of gravy. Pour this round
the dish and put the soubise sauce in the centre. Serve hot.



ROMAN RAGOUT

* 1 1/2 lbs. Gravy Beef--4d.
*
* 2 oz. Fat Bacon--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Onion--1/2d.
*
* 1 pint Milk
*
* 3 Tomatoes
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Semolina
*
* 1 oz. Dry Cheese--6d.
*
* Total Cost--1s.
*
* Time--Three Hours
*
Mince the onion and bacon very fine indeed, put them into a saucepan
and fry a good brown, then add half the gravy, and stir until a sort of
half glaze. Rub the tomatoes through a sieve and stir them in with the
rest of the gravy, bring to the boil. Cut the meat into strips and put
it in with a little salt and pepper, and simmer very gently for about
three hours. While it is cooking put the milk on to boil, mix the
semolina with a little cold milk, and stir it in; cook it until the
spoon will come out quite clean, then turn it on to a dish till cold.
Cut it into squares and lay some in a deep dish, sprinkle with grated
cheese, then more semolina and more cheese. Pour over this some of the
gravy in which the meat is cooking, and put it in the oven to get hot.
Dish up the meat and pour the sauce over it. Send the two dishes to
table together, quite hot.



MUTTON OR HAM BONE AND POTATOES

* 1 Bone of Mutton or Ham
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* 1/2 pint Water or Stock--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 lb. Potatoes--1d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is hot put in the flour;
mix together smoothly, pour in the water of stock, and stir until it
boils. Joint up a mutton or ham bone and lay it in; if it is mutton,
add a little salt. Bring it to the boil, put in the onion whole stuck
with two cloves, and simmer for half an hour or longer; then peel the
potatoes, cut them in half and put them in, and cook until they are
soft. Take out the bones and place on a dish, put the potatoes round,
and pour the sauce over. This is a very homely dish, but a very savoury
and economical one. A little meat goes a long way, and it is
nourishing, too, as all the goodness of the bone and potatoes is in the
stew.



VEAL IN WHITE SAUCE

* 2 lbs. Neck of Veal--10d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 3/4 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 fagot of Herbs
*
* 1 dozen Peppercorns
*
* Lemon Juice--1d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 31/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is melted stir in
the flour and cook well, but do not brown. Boil the onion, herbs, and
peppercorns in the milk, strain them out, pour the milk over the butter
and flour, and stir till it boils. Cut the meat into cutlets, lay them
in and simmer very gently till the meat is tender, then take it up and
arrange nicely on a dish. Beat up an egg with a drop or two of lemon
juice and a spoonful of gravy or milk. Pour into the sauce in which the
meat was cooked, and stir briskly over the fire until it thickens;
strain over the meat, and serve.

A few very small fat rashers of bacon rolled up and fried are a great
improvement to this dish.




CHAPTER XX.



FIFTY RECIPES FOR VEGETABLES


TOMATOES STUFFED

* 6 Tomatoes--2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Veal Forcemeat--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Cheese--1 1/2d.
*
* 6 pieces Fried Bread--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes
*
Choose tomatoes of a good colour, and all about the same size; scoop
out the centre. Grate up the cheese and mix it with the forcemeat, put
this into the tomatoes; place on a buttered tin, and bake in the oven
for ten minutes. Put each tomato on to a round of fried bread, and
serve.



POTATOES IN WHITE SAUCE

* 1 lb. Potatoes--1d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce
*
* Salt and Pepper--2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Peel and slice the potatoes, put them in water seasoned with salt, and
boil for five minutes; strain off the water, make some white sauce by
directions given elsewhere. Lay in the potatoes and simmer gently till
they are soft, but not broken; place them on a hot dish and pour the
sauce over.



TO BOIL POTATOES

To boil potatoes properly much care and judgement are required. They
should be peeled thinly, and well washed in cold water, but not
soaked; put them into a saucepan and kept for this vegetable only. Just
cover them with cold water seasoned with salt, and bring to a boil.
Then simmer very gently for about twenty minutes; test them with a
fork, and if soft, strain off the water and toss them in a saucepan
over the fire until they are dry. Some potatoes will not bear boiling
as long as this, but begin to break soon after they boil up. When this
is the case, pour off nearly all the water, leaving only one inch at
the bottom of the saucepan. Cook the potatoes slowly in this and then
strain off and dry. Potatoes that are very troublesome to boil often
steam well; they must be allowed from an hour to one hour and a half,
according to the quantity of water over which they are cooking.



TO BOIL NEW POTATOES

New potatoes may be either scraped while raw, or peeled after boiling;
they are a better flavour if cooked in their skins. In either case they
should be well washed in cold water, plunged into boiling water
seasoned with salt and a sprig of mint, and boiled quickly until a fork
will go through easily; then strain off the water, dry, and serve.



TO BOIL CABBAGE

The outer leaves of the cabbage should be removed, then cut it into
quarters and cut out the salt; wash it well in salt and water, and
leave in the water for half-an-hour. Then put it into a colander and
shake all the water from it. Place on the fire a large saucepan of
water, and when it boils, put in two teaspoonsful of salt and a quarter
of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. Put in the cabbage and cover
down till it boils up; then remove the lid and boil very quickly,
pressing it down into the water from time to time. It will be
done in from fifteen to twenty minutes; try it with a fork, and if soft
turn into a colander, and very carefully press all the water from it.
Slip into a vegetable dish and cut into neat pieces.



TO BOIL GREEN PEAS

Shell the peas and wash them well; just cover them with cold water,
season it with a little salt, sugar, and mint. Bring quickly to the
boil and cook for about twenty minutes. When soft, but not broken,
strain off the water and put them into a vegetable dish.



TO BOIL FRENCH BEANS

Slice up the beans and wash in cold water, put them into plenty of
boiling water, seasoned with salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of
carbonate of soda; boil quickly without the lid for about ten minutes
or a quarter of an hour. When soft, strain off and shake the water out
thoroughly; put into a hot dish, and serve plainly or with melted
butter.



TO BOIL CAULIFLOWERS

Soak the cauliflowers in plenty of salt and water, with the flower
downwards, then cook, in plenty of boiling water seasoned with salt,
putting the flower to the bottom of the saucepan. Keep uncovered all
the time of cooking; take up with a slice and strain in a colander.
Turn carefully into a vegetable dish, and serve with or without sauce.



VEGETABLE MARROW

* 1 Marrow--3d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce
*
* Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--15 Minutes
*
Peel the marrow, take out the seeds, and cut it into small
pieces; put into boiling water nicely seasoned with salt, and boil
gently for about fifteen minutes. Take up with a slice and strain in a
colander, place in a hot dish, and pour over the sauce.



BEETROOT IN SAUCE

* 3 Beetroots--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce--2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--Two Hours
*
Wash the beetroots, but do not cut them; put them in cold water, and
boil till they feel soft if pressed--the time depends upon the size;
then take them up, peel and slice them. Make the sauce by directions
given elsewhere. Put in the beetroot and simmer for about half an hour;
dish the beets and pour the sauce over. It should be of a bright red
colour.



STEWED CABBAGE

* 1 Cabbage--3d.
*
* Salt and Pepper
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--25 Minutes
*
Boil the cabbage as directed, and squeeze very dry; melt the butter in
a saucepan, season with pepper, salt, and a drop or two of lemon juice.
Put in the cabbage and cook in the butter for ten minutes, stirring
frequently; arrange neatly in a hot dish, and serve.



BAKED TOMATOES

* 1 doz. Tomatoes--4d.
*
* 1 oz. Bread Crumbs--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Mustard--1d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--15 Minutes
*
Slice up the tomatoes, spread with a very little made mustard.
Season some brown bread crumbs with pepper and salt, and sprinkle the
slices well. Put into a buttered dish and bake till soft. Serve hot.



CURRIED TOMATOES

* 1 doz. Tomatoes--4d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 gill Milk--1d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1/2 lb. Rice--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 Apple
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1 dessertspoonful Curry Powder
*
* Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--91/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Mince the onion and apple finely, and fry in the batter till a good
colour; sprinkle over it the curry power and flour, and mix well. Pour
in the milk and stir until it boils; slice the tomatoes and put them in
and simmer very gently for half an hour. Season with salt, dish
carefully and serve either in a border of rice, or with rice moulds on
a separate dish.



CURRIED VEGETABLES

Take any vegetables in season, such as potatoes, peas, carrots, beans,
and cauliflowers, very young vegetables are the best, and if there are
any cold ones in the larder they will do as well as fresh. Slice up the
potatoes and branch the cauliflowers, and, if they are not been boiled
before, boil them in water seasoned with a little salt and sugar, for
ten minutes, and strain off the water. Put one ounce or more of butter
into a saucepan according to the quantity of vegetables, and when hot
stir in half an ounce of flour, and the same of curry powder. Pour in
half a pint of milk and stir till it boils. Then put in the vegetables
and simmer very gently for about half an hour. They should not
be broken, but quite soft, and all the liquor absorbed. Pile in a hot
dish and serve with boiled rice.



BEETROOT AND ONION STEW

* 3 Beetroots--2d.
*
* 3 Onions--1d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Vinegar
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour--1/2d.
*
* Mashed Potatoes--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--71/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Boil the beetroots by directions given and slice them up; peel and
slice up the onions and fry in the butter, but do not let them brown.
Stir in the flour and the milk and bring to the boil, and when it has
boiled a few minutes stir in gradually the vinegar, salt, and sugar,
then the beetroot. Simmer slowly for one hour; make a border of the
potatoes on a hot dish, garnish with sprigs of parsley. Put the
beetroot and onion in the centre, and serve hot.



SAUTE OF TURNIPS

* 6 Turnips--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 gill Stock
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 1 teaspoonful Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Peel the turnips and cut them into pieces like the quarter of an
orange; put them into a small stewpan with the butter, sprinkle over
them the sugar and salt, and stir about till quite brown. Pour
on the stock, bring it to the boil, and simmer till soft but not
broken. Dish the turnips, season the gravy with salt and a few drops of
lemon juice, pour over, and serve.



CARROTS IN BUTTER

* 4 Carrots--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* Pinch of Salt and Sugar--1d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Scrape the carrots and slice them up, put them into boiling water
seasoned with salt and sugar, and boil for ten minutes. Strain off the
water. Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is hot stir in
the parsley and a few drops of lemon juice. Toss the carrots in this
until they are thoroughly hot, then cover down and cook slowly till
soft. Dish and pour over the butter in which they were cooked.



PARSNIPS AND PARSLEY BUTTER

* 4 or 5 Parsnips
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 gill Milk
*
* Pepper and Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Scrape and cut up the parsnips (or cold ones will do). If raw, boil
them in water seasoned with salt for three-quarters of an hour. Make
the butter, flour, and milk into a sauce by directions given, and
season nicely. Stir in the parsley, put in the parsnips, bring to the
boil and simmer for ten minutes. Arrange them on a hot dish, pour the
sauce over, and serve.



PARSNIPS FRIED

Cold boiled parsnips make a delicious breakfast dish if sliced up and
fried either in bacon fat, dripping, or butter. Pile high on a dish and
serve very hot.



POTATO BALLS

* 1 lb. Cold Boiled Potatoes
*
* Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* 2 Eggs
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* Hot Fat--3d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Rub the potatoes through a sieve or mash them smoothly. Put the butter
into a saucepan, and, when melted, season with pepper and salt; put in
the potatoes and turn them about till hot through. Drop in the egg and
mix into a paste, turn on to a plate to cool, and roll into balls. Beat
up an egg and brush over the balls, cover well with crumbs, and fry in
hot fat. The yolks of eggs will do for this dish if the whites are
wanted for other purposes.



HARICOT BEANS

Soak the haricots over night, if possible; if not, at least for two or
three hours. Put them on in plenty of cold water seasoned with salt and
an onion, and boil them steadily for three hours. Strain the water off,
put them into a vegetable dish, and pour over them some parsley butter
sauce. Haricot beans are the most nutritious of all pulse foods, and
are a particularly good food for people who work in the open air. They
are very nice eaten alone or served with meat. They make an exceedingly
delicious dish if boiled for two hours and then put into a nice brown
gravy and simmered for about an hour. Serve in the gravy with roast
mutton.



POTATO AND TOMATO PIE

* 6 Tomatoes--2d.
*
* 6 Potatoes--1d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Short Pastry
*
* Dripping
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* 1 1/2 teaspoonful Sweet Herbs
*
* Salt and Pepper--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Peel and slice up the potatoes and tomatoes; lay them alternatively in
a pie dish and sprinkle over them some parsley, herbs, salt, and
pepper. When the dish is full, cover with a short pastry and bake for
one hour; serve hot.



CAULIFLOWERS AND TOMATOES

* 2 Cauliflowers--4d.
*
* 1/2 pint Tomato Sauce--1d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes
*
Boil the cauliflowers and make the sauce by directions given elsewhere.
Dish the cauliflowers carefully and pour over them the sauce, leaving
just the centre of the flowers clear. Put into the oven for five
minutes, and serve.



STEWED CELERY

* 3 heads of Celery--3d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1/2 gill Milk
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Take only the white and best part of celery for this dish, pull it to
pieces, wash well in salt and water, and tie in a bundle. Put it into
boiling water seasoned with salt, and boil for about half an hour, or
until the fork will go through easily. Take half a pint of the
water in which it was boiled and mix it with the milk; make a sauce
with this and the butter and flour by directions given for sauces. Dish
the celery and pour the sauce over. This is an excellent food for
anyone suffering from, or subject to, rheumatism or gout. Celery is
also very nice stewed in broth or gravy and thickened with a little
butter and flour.



LETTUCE STEWED

* 4 Lettuces--3d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* Nutmeg
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Wash the lettuces very thoroughly and lay them in salt and water for
half an hour. Plunge them into plenty of boiling water seasoned with
salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. Boil quickly
without the lid from fifteen to twenty minutes, take up and squeeze all
the water from them. Chop them up and put into a saucepan with some
butter, nutmeg, pepper and salt, and a few drops of lemon juice; stir
them about and cook for about five minutes. Turn into a hot dish and
serve.



BAKED ONIONS

* 2 lbs. Onion--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Thick Gravy
*
* 1/2 pint Water
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Peel the onions, put them on in cold water, and bring to the boil.
Strain the water off, butter a baking dish, put in the onions, pour in
the water, cover with a plate, and stand in a moderate oven. Stew until
soft, place in a hot dish and pour over them, either a nice
gravy thickened with a little butter and flour, or some plain melted
butter. Serve hot.



CASSOLETTES OF VEGETABLES

Peel some turnips and scoop out the centre; boil them in salt and water
till soft, but quite whole. If there are any cold vegetables in the
larder, such as beans, peas, carrots, and parsnips, make them hot; if
not, cut some into small pieces and boil separately. Stir them into any
cold sauce that may be left, or toss them in a little butter. Fill the
turnip cups with these, arranging them on a dish, alternately red and
green. Serve hot.



VEGETABLE MARROW STUFFED

* 1 Vegetable Marrow--3d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Veal Forcemeat--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Melted Butter Sauce--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Peel a marrow and cut it in half length-ways. Prepare some veal
forcemeat by recipe given elsewhere, and make it hot in a saucepan.
Remove the seeds from the marrow and put in their place the forcemeat;
put the pieces together and bind round with tape. Have ready a fish
kettle full of boiling water seasoned with salt; lay the marrow on the
drainer and plunge into the water; boil gently for about twenty-five
minutes. Slip the marrow carefully into a dish and pour over some
melted butter sauce.



LYONNAISE POTATOES

* 1 lb. Potatoes--1d.
*
* 1/2 pint Onion Sauce--2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Peel and boil the potatoes in the usual way, slice them up and
put them into a hot dish; make some rather thin onion sauce by
directions given elsewhere, season with a few drops of lemon juice, and
pour over the potatoes; serve hot.



POTATOES SAUTE

Cut up any cold potatoes that may be left into strips, not too thin,
put some dripping into a frying pan, and when very hot put in the
potatoes and fry them a pale colour. Place them on a hot dish; melt one
ounce of butter in a saucepan; season with lemon juice, parsley,
pepper, and salt. Pour this over the potatoes, and serve very hot.



COLCANNON

Take any remains of cold boiled cabbage and potatoes, and cut them into
small pieces, season with pepper and salt. Put a small piece of butter
into a frying pan; put in the vegetables and fry them until they are
thoroughly hot through and well mixed. Turn them on to a hot dish, make
into a neat pile, and serve.



BAKED VEGETABLE MARROW

* 1 Vegetable Marrow
*
* 1/2 pint Gravy
*
* 1 oz. Dripping
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Peel the marrow and cut into pieces, remove the seeds, put on to a
baking sheet with some beef dripping, and bake till soft and rather
brown. Thicken a little gravy with some flour, and season and flavour
it nicely; dish the marrow and pour this sauce over.



STEWED LEEKS

* 1 bunch Leeks
*
* 1/2 pint Stock--2d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1/2 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* Lemon Juice--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--2 1/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Cut off the roots and green tops of the leeks and wash well. Put them
into a saucepan with the stock and stew very gently till soft; take
them up and put on to a hot dish. Put the butter into a saucepan, and
when it is dissolved stir in the flour, mix well, and strain in the
stock. Stir until it boils. Season with some pepper, salt, and a few
drops of lemon juice. Pour over the leeks, and serve.



POTATOES A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL

* Cold Potatoes--1d.
*
* 1/2 pint Maitre d'Hotel Sauce--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Make the sauce by recipe given elsewhere, flavour nicely with lemon
juice, pepper, and salt. Slice up the potatoes, and put them into it;
simmer for five minutes, dish, and serve.



LENTILS, TO BOIL

Wash the lentils well in cold water, cover them with cold water
seasoned with salt, and boil for one hour and a half. Strain all the
water off, put them into a hot dish with about half an ounce of butter,
and serve.



CURRIED LENTILS

Any cold lentils left make a very nice breakfast dish if they are
curried. If there should be any curry gravy left,



put them into that and simmer for half an hour; serve with boiled rice.
If there is no curry sauce, make a little by a recipe given elsewhere.



STEWED BEETROOT AND MASHED POTATOES

* 1 bunch Beetroot--2d.
*
* 2 Onions--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* Mashed Potatoes
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 pint Milk
*
* 1 dessertspoonful Vinegar--3d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Peel and cut the onions into dice, put them into a frying-pan with the
butter, and fry, but do not let them brown; sprinkle in the flour, pour
in the milk, and stir until it boils. Season with salt, pepper, and
vinegar. Boil the beetroot carefully, and when cold, peel and slice up.
Put it into the sauce and simmer for half an hour. Make the mashed
potatoes into a border on a hot dish, and put the beetroot in the
centre; boil up the sauce, pour it over, and serve.



CAULIFLOWERS AU GRATIN

* 1 Cauliflower--4d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Dry Grated Cheese
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--15 Minutes.
*
Boil the cauliflower and make the sauce by directions already given.
Put the cauliflower into a dish in which it can be served, put half the
cheese into the white sauce, season with pepper and salt, make it hot
and pour over. Sprinkle the rest of the cheese on the top, and put into
the oven till quite brown; it is then ready to serve.



NEW POTATOES SAUTE

* 1 lb. New Potatoes--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* Lemon Juice--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Wash the potatoes and put them into boiling salt and water, and boil
for ten minutes. Take up, peel and cut them in half. Melt the butter in
a saucepan, and when quite hot, put in the potatoes and toss over the
fire. Sprinkle over the parsley, pepper, salt, and a few drops of lemon
juice; cover down and cook gently till the potatoes are soft but not
broken. Put into a hot dish and serve.



POTATO PUFF

* 1/2 lb. Cold Potatoes--1d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 gill Milk--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Mash the potatoes, beat the butter to a cream, then beat in the eggs,
pepper, salt, and milk. Stir up the potatoes, pour into a buttered
pie-dish, and bake for about half an hour. Serve hot.



POTATOES STUFFED

* 6 Large Potatoes--2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Cold Meat--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 gill Gravy or Sauce
*
* Pepper, Salt, and Parsley--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Wash and scrub the potatoes, and bake them in the oven till quite done.
Cut them in half so that they will stand nicely. Scoop out the
inside, and mix the potato meal with some butter, pepper, and salt.
Make a little savoury meat by directions given for mince, and nearly
fill the potato skins with this. Put some of the potato on top, making
it look as rough and rocky as possible. Stand in the oven till quite
hot, and serve.



HARICOT BEANS AND BACON

* 1 pint Haricot Beans--2d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* 1/2 lb. Bacon
*
* Pepper and Salt--5d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Soak the haricot beans and boil them by directions already given. Rub
them through a wire sieve. The bacon should be in thin rashers and very
fat. Cook it carefully in a small clean frying-pan, and as the fat runs
from it, pour it on the beans. Mash them up with this and a little
pepper and salt, and put them into a hot dish. Sprinkle over with
parsley and lay the bacon rashers on top. Serve hot.



ARTICHOKES, TO BOIL

* 2 lbs. Artichokes--4d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour
*
Wash and peel the artichokes and put them into some water; add a
teaspoonful of vinegar and leave them for half an hour. Drain the water
all away and put them into a saucepan, cover with cold water; add one
gill of milk and some salt. Bring to the boil and cook slowly for about
an hour. Take half a pint of the liquor in which the artichokes were
boiled, and make a sauce; dish them and pour this over.



IMITATION SPINACH

Take the very young green shoots of the pumpkin plant. Wash them well
and put them into a large saucepan, with a very little water seasoned
with salt and a pinch of carbonate of soda; keep pressing them down
into the water and boil till soft. Turn into a colander and squeeze
very dry, put into a saucepan with one ounce of butter, pepper, salt,
and a few drops of lemon juice. Stir about till thoroughly hot through,
dish neatly, and serve.



BANANAS STEWED

* 1 doz. Green Bananas--3d.
*
* Lemon Juice
*
* 1/2 pint Brown Sauce
*
* Pepper and Salt--2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Peel the bananas and put them in boiling water to which a few drops of
lemon juice have been added; boil them for half an hour, or until soft.
Make sauce by directions already given, flavour with lemon juice,
pepper, and salt. Strain all the water from the bananas, dish, and pour
over the sauce



POTATO CHIPS

To fry potatoes successfully, two things must be carefully attended to.
First of all dry the potatoes thoroughly, and then have very hot fat.
Peel the potatoes and dry them in a cloth. Cut into any shape--slices,
strips, quarters, &c.--and dry again. Have a good quantity of very hot
fat ready, put the chips into a frying basket, and plunge into the fat.
Fry quickly, and directly they are brown enough they are done. Throw
them on to some kitchen paper to drain off the fat. Pile high on a
dish, sprinkle with salt, and serve very hot.



ITALIAN CABBAGE

* 1 Cabbage--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Dry Cheese
*
* 1 spoonful Flour
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--15 Minutes.
*
Boil the cabbage by directions given, strain away the water and press
it very dry. Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is dissolved,
chop up the cabbage and put a layer at the bottom of the saucepan.
Sprinkle over some grated cheese, pepper, and salt, then more cabbage
and cheese, until all are used up. Simmer gently for fifteen minutes,
slip it on to a hot dish, and serve.



SAVOURY POTATOES

* 5 or 6 Large Potatoes--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Cheese--1d.
*
* 1 spoonful of Milk
*
* 1 Egg
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Scrub the potatoes and bake them in the oven. Cut off the end, scoop
out all the meal; grate up some dry pieces of cheese, beat it into the
potatoes with the yolk of the egg, and some seasoning. Whip the white
till stiff and stir lightly in; fill the potatoes with this mixture.
Lay in a baking sheet and bake for about twenty minutes. Garnish with
parsley, and serve.



CAULIFLOWER FRITTERS

* Cold Cauliflower
*
* Frying Batter
*
* Hot Fat
*
* Total Cost--1 1/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Take any cold cauliflower that may be left, divide it into
branches. Make the frying batter by directions given. Dip the pieces of
cauliflower into it, and put into very hot fat. Fry a good colour and
pile high on a dish. Garnish with fried parsley and serve very hot.



FRIED TOMATOES

* 1 doz. Tomatoes--4d.
*
* 1 gill Milk
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* Pepper and Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Slice up the tomatoes, mix a spoonful of flour with some pepper and
salt; dip in the slices and fry quickly, pile on a dish. Pour the milk
into the pan in which they were fried, stir until it boils, and pour
over. Garnish with fried bread and serve hot.




CHAPTER XXI.



FIFTY RECIPES FOR SALADS AND SAUCES


CURRY SAUCE

* 1 Onion
*
* 1 Apple
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* Lemon Juice
*
* Salt--1d
*
* 1/2 oz. Curry Powder
*
* 1 oz. Butter or Dripping
*
* 1 pint Gravy--1d
*
* Total Cost--2d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Peel and chop up the apple and onion. Put the butter or dripping into a
saucepan, and when it is melted put in the apple and onion, and fry for
a few minutes; sprinkle over the curry powder and the flour. Pour over
the gravy and stir until it boils. Simmer for half an hour, then
strain, flavour with lemon juice and salt, boil up, and it is ready. If
this sauce is for fish, use milk or fish stock instead of gravy.



MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE

* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Lemon Juice
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* Pepper and Salt.--1d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is melted stir in the
flour, and mix smoothly; pour in the milk and stir until it boils. Take
the saucepan from the fire, add a few drops of lemon juice, a
pinch of pepper and salt to taste, last of all the parsley. It is then
ready to serve.



ONION SAUCE

* 3 Small Onions--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Lemon Juice
*
* 1/2 pint Milk
*
* 1 oz. Bread Crumbs
*
* Pepper and Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Peel the onions, put them into cold water, and let them boil for a
minute. Strain away the water, cover again with cold water, boil up and
cook till soft; take out the water, chop small. Put the butter and milk
into a saucepan, and when it boils put in the bread crumbs and onions.
Cook slowly for five minutes, season with pepper, salt, and a few drops
of lemon juice, and it is ready to serve.



CREAM TOAST

* 4 Slices Toast--1d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce--2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Make the toast and lay it in a dish. Make the sauce by directions given
for white sauce. Season with pepper and salt, and pour over it; serve
hot. If a richer dish is desired, a little butter may be put on the
toast.



JAM SAUCE

* 1 tablespoonful Jam--1d.
*
* 1/2 pint Water
*
* 1 oz. Sugar
*
* 1 teaspoonful Cornflour
*
* 1/2 Lemon--1d.
*
* Total Cost--2d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Put the water, jam, lemon juice, and sugar into a small
saucepan and boil it for five minutes. Mix the cornflour with a little
cold water and pour it in; stir till it boils up. Strain the jam out,
and it is ready to serve; a few drops of cochineal improve the colour.



TO CLARIFY DRIPPING

When the joint is served pour the dripping into a basin and stand away
till cold; then cut it out of the basin. The gravy that will be found
at the bottom is an excellent addition to hash or mince. Cut the
dripping into small pieces and pour over it sufficient boiling water to
dissolve it. Stir it well and leave till it is a solid cake of fat. Cut
it off the water, scrape the impurities from the bottom, and it will be
ready for use.



TO CLARIFY FAT

The fat from meat not required in dressing it, and the ends of chops,
&c., make excellent shortening for pies and cakes. Cut it into small
pieces and put it into an old saucepan with about one quart of water.
Boil until all the water is evaporated; the fat will then begin to
boil. Strain this melted fat into a basin, and continue to do so until
all the fat is extracted. This is a good substitute for butter and
lard.



MELTED BUTTER SAUCE

* 1/2 pint Water
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* Salt
*
* Total Cost--1 1/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Put half the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved
stir in the flour and mix smoothly; pour in the cold water and
stir until it boils. Take the saucepan from the fire, stir in the rest
of the butter in small pieces, and some salt, it is then ready to
serve.



TO BOIL RICE

Wash the rice well in two or three waters; have a large saucepan on the
fire full of boiling water seasoned with salt. Throw in the rice and
boil very quickly for five or six minutes. Take up a grain, and if it
feels quite soft it is done; if not, boil another minute. Strain off
the water and pour over it some clean hot water to separate the grains.
If required immediately, put it back in the saucepan and toss over the
fire till dry. If not, spread it on a sieve or dish and dry on the
stove, covered with a cloth, or in the oven with the door open.



TO FRY PARSLEY

The top or flower of parsley only should be used for frying. Pick it
carefully and rub well in a damp cloth, and then in a dry cloth. Put
into a frying basket and plunge into the fat when the fish, or whatever
it is to be served with, has been fried; leave it in not more than one
minute. Turn it on to some kitchen paper and stand for a minute on the
stove to dry; it is then ready.



FRYING BATTER

* 1/4 lb. Flour--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 gill Tepid Water
*
* White of Egg
*
* 1 dessertspoonful Oil--1d.
*
* Total Cost--11/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Sift the flour into a basin, pour over it the oil, then the water, and
beat into a smooth batter; stand away for an hour, if possible
in a cool place. Whip the white of the egg to a stiff froth, and stir
it in, and it is ready to use. This batter is useful for fritters and
many dishes both sweet and savoury.



TOMATO SAUCE

* 6 Tomatoes--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* 1/2 spoonful Sugar
*
* 1/2 spoonful Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
If the tomatoes are ripe they need not be cooked; but if at all hard,
boil them for five minutes. Then slice up and rub through a sieve. Put
the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved stir in the
flour and sugar; then pour in the tomato juice and stir until it boils;
season with salt to taste. This is tomato sauce pure and simple; but it
is often made with half stock and half tomato juice; it is suitable for
chops, steaks, &c. If made thicker it is called a puree, and is served
with braised and dressed meats.



WHITE SAUCE

* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour
*
* Salt and Pepper--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--2 1/2 d.
*
* Time Minutes.
*
Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved put in
the flour; mix well and pour on the cold milk and stir till it boils.
Let it boil for two minutes and it is ready. It may be served either as
a sweet or savoury sauce, putting either sugar or pepper and salt, as
required.



BROWN GRAVY

Brown gravy can be made from any kind of stock. If the stock is good,
put it into a saucepan and thicken every pint with 1 oz of flour. If
the stock is not very good, boil some vegetables in it with any
trimmings of meat and poultry available, and thicken with butter and
flour; a few drops of lemon juice will bring up the flavour. It should
be of a rich brown colour. It can be coloured with a little sugar burnt
in a spoon, or with a few drops of caramel, a recipe for which will be
found elsewhere.



BROWN SAUCE

* 1 pint Stock
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/2 oz. Flour--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/2 Stalk of Celery
*
* 1 Carrot
*
* 1 Onion
*
* 1/2 Turnip
*
* 1 doz. Peppercorns--1d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is quite hot, slice up the
vegetables and put them in with the peppercorns, and fry a good colour.
Stir in the flour and brown that too, then pour in the stock and stir
till it boils. Cover down and let it simmer slowly for an hour. Rub
through a sieve, return to the saucepan; season with salt and lemon
juice, boil up, and it is ready to serve.



CARAMEL

Put half a pound of sugar into a frying-pan and let it get very brown.
Pour over half a pint of water and stir till it boils; strain
into a bottle. It will keep good a long time, and is very useful for
colouring soup and gravies.



VEAL FORCEMEAT

* 2 oz. Suet (Beef)--1/2d.
*
* 3 oz. Bread Crumbs--1/2d.
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 1 Egg
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Parsley
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Sweet Herbs
*
* Half a Lemon--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
Shred the suet and mix it with the bread crumbs. Chop the parsley and
sweet herbs very finely and stir them in, then the grated rind of half
a lemon, and the pepper and salt; drop in the egg and bind into a
paste, and it is ready to use. This forcemeat is suitable for fowls,
turkeys, veal, and fish.



TO MAKE BROWN CRUMBS

Cut up some very stale bread and bake it in the oven till a nice
colour. Put these pieces through a sausage machine and then rum them
through a sieve; keep in a bottle for use. They are excellent for many
savoury dishes, and it is good way of using up stale pieces of bread.



SALAD OF COLD VEGETABLES

Take any cold vegetables that there may be in the larder--such as
potatoes, cauliflowers, peas, beans, haricots, &c. Slice up the
potatoes, branch the cauliflower, and mix in the peas and beans; put
all into a salad bowl. Take oil and vinegar in the proportion of one of
oil to two of vinegar, blend them together and season with salt and
pepper. Pour this over the vegetables, slice up one or two hard boiled
eggs into very thin slices, and lay round as a garnish.



BANANA AND ORANGE SALAD

Peel and slice up some ripe bananas and oranges, removing the pips from
the oranges, but saving the juice. Take a deep glass dish, lay at the
bottom some bananas, then a layer of oranges. Sprinkle well with sugar,
then some more bananas and oranges and sugar, until all the materials
are used up. Cover and let it stand for an hour, then serve as a sweet.



COSMOPOLITAN SALAD

Take any fruits in season, such as oranges, mandarins, passion fruit,
apricots, nectarines, pineapples, bananas, &c. Peel and slice them up,
and put them into a glass dish in layers, with plenty of sugar between
each layer. Stand in a cool place for an hour covered over, and it is
ready to serve.



POTATO SALAD

Slice up some cold boiled potatoes. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and
chopped parsley. Mix the oil and vinegar together in the proportion of
two of oil to one of vinegar; pour this over, let it stand for an hour,
and serve.



VENETIAN RICE

* 1/2 lb. Rice--1d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Cheese--2d.
*
* 1 pint Stock
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--Three-quarters of an Hour.
*
Boil some rice, or take any cold rice that may be left, put it into a
saucepan with the stock, and simmer till the stock is absorbed. Grate
up some dry, hard pieces of cheese, stir them in with the
butter, pepper and salt. Cover down by the side of the fire for about
half an hour; pile on a dish, and serve.



TOMATOES AND EGGS

* 4 Eggs--4d.
*
* 1/2 pint Tomato Sauce--2d.
*
* Fried Bread
*
* 1 teaspoonful Parsley--1d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Take some thick tomato sauce and pour it on to a hot dish. Poach the
eggs carefully and lay them on the sauce. Garnish with parsley and
fried bread, and serve hot.



MACARONI CHEESE

* 2 oz. Macaroni--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/2 pint White Sauce--1 1/2d.
*
* 3 oz. Dry Cheese
*
* Pepper and Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Put the macaroni into boiling salt and water, and boil for half an hour
or until soft; strain off the water and cut into pieces about 1 1/2
inch long. Make the sauce by directions given elsewhere. Mix in half
the cheese and some pepper and salt. Take a dish in which it can be
served, and lay at the bottom some macaroni; then some sauce and a
little of the dry cheese. Continue in this way till all the materials
are used up, leaving plenty of dry cheese for the top. Put in the oven
for five or ten minutes till a nice colour. Serve hot.



MAYONNAISE

* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 gill Oil--2d.
*
* 1/2 gill Vinegar
*
* Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--Three-quarters of an Hour.
*
Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin, sprinkle over the salt,
begin to stir them with a wooden spoon, dropping in the oil very
slowly. The sauce must be kept thick, and the oil added very slowly.
When it is quite thick and smooth, pour in the vinegar slowly, and it
is ready for use. This is considered the finest of all salad dressings.
If made some time before it is required for table, it must be kept
cool. It ought to stand in ice, and the vinegar should be added just
before serving. It may be used for any kind of salad instead of the
ordinary dressing.



HINTS ON SALAD

Salads form such a pleasant item in the menu, particularly during the
hot season, that they should be regarded as a daily dish. There are no
scraps of fish, poultry, meat, or cold boiled vegetables, but what can
be turned to account in this way. If these are utilised, a great
variety can be obtained at a very trifling cost; in fact these dainty
tit-bits can often be made of food that otherwise would be thrown away.
Cold cauliflowers, beans, peas, and potatoes are particularly nice in
salads.



FISH SALAD

* Cold Boiled Fish--4d.
*
* 1 Lettuce--1/2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* Salad Dressing, or Remoulade Sauce--4d.
*
* Total Cost--91/2 d.
*
Make a salad dressing the same as that given for lettuce salad; flake
up the fish free from skin and bone. Wash and dry the lettuce and shred
it up, mix the fish with the dressing. Put a layer of lettuce at the
bottom of the bowl, then one of fish and dressing. Do this
alternatively, leaving plenty of lettuce for the top; garnish with hard
boiled eggs cut into slices.



LETTUCE SALAD

* 2 Lettuces--1d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Condensed Milk
*
* 2 teaspoonful Mustard--1d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1/2 gill Vinegar--1/2d.
*
* 1/4 gill Oil
*
* Pepper and Salt--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
Boil the eggs hard; take the yolk of one and put it into a basin and
work it quite smooth with a spoon. Then add the mustard made with
vinegar instead of water, the condensed milk, pepper, and salt, and
then the oil slowly; last of all the vinegar. Mix it all very
thoroughly. Cut off the outside leaves of the lettuce, and pull it all
to pieces, wash in cold water and dry thoroughly in a cloth. Break into
small pieces and put into a salad bowl, pour over the dressing. Garnish
with the other egg and the white that was not used in the dressing.
These should be cut into slices and placed round. A few of the best
pieces of lettuce should be laid over the dressing.



BEETROOT AND MACARONI SALAD

* 3 oz. Macaroni--2d.
*
* 2 tablespoonsful Oil--1d.
*
* 1 bunch Beetroot
*
* Pepper and Salt
*
* 2 tablespoonful Vinegar--2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
Boil both the macaroni and the beetroot by directions given elsewhere.
When quite cold, peel and slice up the beetroot and cut the macaroni
into pieces about two inches long; arrange them in alternate layers on
a dish. Blend the oil and vinegar with the salt and pepper and pour it
over; let it stand for an hour, basting continually with the
oil and vinegar. By that time it should be of a bright red colour. It
is then ready to serve.



PRAWN SALAD

* 1 pint Prawns--9d.
*
* 6 Tomatoes--2d.
*
* Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing--4d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 3d.
*
Pick the prawns, leaving the skin on a few fine ones for a garnish.
Peel and slice up the tomatoes and arrange them on a dish; put over
them the prawns, and pour over all some mayonnaise or salad dressing.
Place the other prawns round as a garnish with a few lettuce leaves
broken up.



SALAD OF CORNED BEEF

* Slices of Corned Beef
*
* 1 Lettuce--1/2.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing--4d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
Take some slices of cold corned beef, dip them in a salad dressing, and
lay them in a dish with alternate layers of lettuce leaves. Garnish
with hard boiled eggs cut in slices.



EGG SALAD

* 6 Eggs--6d.
*
* 1 Lettuce--1d.
*
* 1 bunch Watercress--1d.
*
* Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing--4d.
*
* 1 Beetroot--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 0 1/2 d.
*
Put the eggs into boiling water and boil fifteen minutes. Plunge into
cold water till quite cold, peel and cut into quarters. Wash
and cleanse the watercress and lettuce and cut into pieces. Put a layer
of this at the bottom of the bowl, then one of eggs dipped in the
dressing, then another of lettuce and egg until all are used up,
leaving plenty of lettuce for the top. Garnish with sprigs of
watercress and slices of beetroot alternately.



CELERY SALAD

* 1 Head of Celery--1d.
*
* 1 Lettuce--1/2d.
*
* Salad Dressing--4d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
Pull the celery to pieces, wash it, and cut into small pieces; shred up
some lettuce and lay it at the bottom the dish. Stir the celery into
the dressing and lay it on the top of the lettuce. Cover with more
lettuce, and serve.



SARDINE SALAD

* 1/2 tin Sardines--4d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 Lettuce--1/2d.
*
* Salad Dressings--4d.
*
* Total Cost--101/2 d.
*
Split the sardines open and remove the bone. Break some of the lettuce
into a bowl, lay on this the sardines. Chop up one of the eggs and
sprinkle over them, pour on the dressing. Cover with the rest of the
lettuce, and garnish with the other egg cut in slices, and a little
watercress or beetroot.



OYSTER SALAD

* 1 bottle Oysters--1s.
*
* 1 Lettuce--1d.
*
* Half a Lemon
*
* Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing--4d.
*
* Total Cost--1s. 5d.
*
Strain away the liquor from a bottle of oysters; put it into a
saucepan, and when it boils put in the oysters and cook for five
minutes; let them get cold in the liquor. Wash and break up the lettuce
and put some of the bottom of a bowl. Strain the liquor from the
oysters and mix a little with the dressing, stir in the oysters and
spread over the lettuce. Cover with more lettuce and garnish with
slices of lemon and red radishes.



BLUE COD SALAD

Any remains of smoked blue cod that may have been left from a meal make
an excellent salad either with just a simple dressing of oil and
vinegar and a lettuce, or with a mayonnaise or salad dressing. Follow
the directions for fish salad, but do not put any salt, as the fish is
usually salt enough.



ITALIAN SALAD

* 1 Salt Herring
*
* Cold slices of Meat
*
* 1 teaspoonful Mustard
*
* 1 Beetroot--1 1/2d.
*
* 4 tablespoonsful Oil--1d.
*
* 3 tablespoonsful Tarragon Vinegar
*
* 1/2 oz. Capers
*
* 3 Boiled Potatoes--2d.
*
* Total Cost--4 1/2d.
*
Wash the herring in cold water and soak it in milk for an hour; cut it
open and take out the bone and slice up both the fish and the meat.
Arrange in a bowl, chop the capers and put over. Put the mustard into a
basin, add gradually the oil and vinegar; pour this, when well mixed,
over the fish and meat, and cover with slices of cold potatoes. Garnish
with any cold vegetables in the larder or with some green pickles from
a bottle of pickles, a little chopped parsley, and some small radishes.



MACARONI AND CHEESE SALAD

* 1/4 lb. Macaroni--2 1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Cheese--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful French Mustard
*
* 3 tablespoonsful Oil--1d.
*
* 3 tablespoonsful Vinegar--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 Head of Celery--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 Lettuce--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6 1/2 d.
*
Boil the macaroni, or use any cold that may be in the larder. Cut it
into pieces about three inches long, cut the cheese into very thin
slices, and cut the celery into very small pieces. Lay these
alternately in a bowl with some shredded lettuce. Make a dressing of
the mustard, oil, and vinegar, and pour it over. Garnish with a little
beetroot, and serve.



CHEESE SAVOURY

Take some dry, hard cheese and some dry crusts of bread. Pour a little
boiling milk over the bread, cover it down till quite soft, then beat
it with a fork; grate up the cheese and beat it in with the yolk of an
egg and some pepper and salt. Beat the white of the egg to a stiff
froth and stir it lightly in, pour into a buttered pie-dish and bake in
a quick oven for twenty minutes. Serve hot.



TURNIP SALAD

* 4 Young Turnips
*
* 2 Spring Onions--1 1/2d.
*
* 2 Boiled Potatoes--1/2d.
*
* Half a Lettuce--1/2d.
*
* Salad Dressing--4d.
*
* Total Cost--6 1/2 d.
*
Peel and slice up the turnips and boil them for twenty minutes,
or until soft. Let them get quite cold. Shred up very small the onions,
and slice up the potatoes. Break up half a lettuce. Arrange these
neatly in a bowl and pour over a simple salad dressing or remoulade
sauce.



EAST INDIAN SALAD SAUCE

* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Curry Powder--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 gill Oil
*
* 1/4 gill Vinegar--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
Boil the eggs hard; put the yolks into a bowl and work them till they
are quite smooth. Work in gradually the curry powder, oil, and vinegar.
Blend well, and it is ready. It may be used sometimes instead of
mayonnaise or ordinary salad dressing.



BREAD SALAD

* 5 slices Stale Bread
*
* 1/2 gill Oil
*
* 3 Pickled Onions
*
* 1 piece Pickled Cauliflower--2d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 Beetroot
*
* 2 slices Cold Mutton
*
* 1 tablespoonful Vinegar--1d.
*
* Mustard and Cress--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
Trim off the crust and cut the bread into dice, put into a bowl and
pour over the oil. Let it stand till all the oil is absorbed; then
mince up the onion, cauliflower, eggs, and meat, and strew them over.
Season with pepper and salt. Well wash the mustard and cress and
arrange on the top. Cut the beetroot into neat shapes and arrange as a
garnish.



BREAKFAST SALAD

* 2 Tomatoes--1/2d.
*
* 1 Cucumber--2d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Oil--1/2d.
*
* 1 Spring Onion
*
* Half a Lettuce
*
* 2 tablespoonsful Vinegar--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
Scald the tomatoes and take off the skin, and put them into cold water
or on to the ice until quite cold. Cut them up the same as an orange;
peel and cut up the cucumber into very thin slices and mince up the
onion. Sprinkle these with pepper and salt, pour over the oil and
vinegar. Shred up the lettuce and lay on the top, it is then ready to
serve.



CAULIFLOWER SALAD

* 1 Cauliflower--3d.
*
* Half a Lettuce--1/2d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1/2 gill Oil and Vinegar--1d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
Boil the cauliflower by directions given elsewhere and branch it
carefully. Boil the eggs hard, separate the whites from the yolks; chop
the whites small and cut the yolks in slices. Shred up the lettuce in a
bowl and put the branches of cauliflower all round it, and the slices
of yolk of egg outside as a border. Pour on the salad dressing and put
the white of egg in little heaps on the lettuce. It is then ready to
serve.



CARROT SALAD

* 2 or 3 Cold Boiled Carrots--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Cold Boiled Mutton
*
* 1 stalk Celery
*
* 6 Capers--1 1/2d.
*
* Half a teaspoonful Parsley--1/2d.
*
* Salad Dressing--3d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
Cut up some cold boiled mutton into small pieces and lay them
in a salad bowl. Mince up the celery and capers and strew over it, then
pour over the dressing. Slice up the cold carrots and lay them on top;
garnish with the chopped parsley, and serve.



CALF'S FOOT SALAD

Calves' feet that have been boiled down for jelly make a good salad.
They must, of course, be boiled very thoroughly for at least eight
hours. Strain off the stock, remove the bones, and put the meat on one
side till quite cold. Then cut up into neat pieces and put into a salad
bowl. Pour over a salad dressing or just oil and vinegar; shred over it
a nice white lettuce, and garnish with sliced beetroot.



REMOULADE SALAD DRESSING

This is a good dressing when mayonnaise is not liked. It is made in the
same way as mayonnaise, using hard boiled eggs (yolks) instead of raw
ones. Put the yolks into a basin and work very smoothly with the bowl
of a wooden spoon; add the oil gradually, using about one gill to every
two yolks. A little French mustard and vinegar may be added before
using.



SOUP MEAT SALAD

The meat which has been boiled down for soup makes a nice salad. When
the stock has been poured off, press the meat into a basin with about a
gill of jelly stock, and some salt and pepper. When cold and firm, cut
it into neat pieces and lay in a salad bowl. Pour over it some
remoulade sauce and shred on top some nice white lettuce leaves; it may
be garnished with beetroot or hard boiled eggs.



LAMB SALAD

* Cold Roast Lamb
*
* 2 Lettuces--1d.
*
* 1 Tomato--1/2d.
*
* 12 Capers--1/2d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* Remoulade Dressing--3d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
Cut the lamb into small pieces and lay it in a bowl. Cut the tomato
into thin slices and lay it over, then the capers chopped small. Pour
over the dressing, break up the lettuces and put over, and garnish with
the hard boiled eggs cut in slices.




CHAPTER XXII.



FIFTY RECIPES FOR SWEETS


APPLE AND TAPIOCA

* 6 Apples--3d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Tapioca--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 Lemon--1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar
*
* 1 1/4 pints Water
*
* A few drops of Cochineal--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour
*
Peel and quarter the apples and remove the core, put them into a
saucepan with the lemon juice, sugar, and a spoonful of water, and stew
till soft but not broken. Place them in a glass dish. Wash the tapioca
in cold water, put it in a saucepan, pour over it 1 1/4 pints of water,
and stir till it boils. Cook it till quite clear, sweeten and flavour
with a few drops of lemon juice, and colour with cochineal. Pour over
the apples and put away till cold; it is then ready to serve.



SHORT PASTRY--No. 1

* 1 lb. Flour
*
* 6 or 8 oz. Dripping
*
* 1 gill Water
*
* Total Cost--2d.
*
Sift the flour into a basin, rub in the dripping very lightly until it
is quite fine, mix into a very stiff dough with the water, turn on to a
floured board, and knead into a smooth paste. Roll out to the required
thickness, and it is ready at once. This will be found an
exceedingly nice paste for everyday pies, and it is very wholesome. The
dripping should be clarified, directions for which are given elsewhere.



SHORT PASTRY--No. 2

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 8 oz. Butter
*
* 1 gill Water
*
* Juice of Half a Lemon--6d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
Sift the flour into a basin, rub the butter lightly in, until it is
fine as bread crumbs; make a well in the centre, and strain the lemon
juice. Mix into a stiff paste with the water, knead for a few minutes
until it is quite smooth, it is then ready for use. A crust may be made
with lard just in the same way; this is much lighter of digestion than
a butter crust, and should always be given to anyone suffering from a
weak digestion.



FLAKY CRUST

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 4 oz. Butter--3d.
*
* 4 oz. Lard
*
* 1/2 pint Water
*
* Juice of Half a Lemon--2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
Sift the flour into a basin, cut about one ounce of the lard into it
with a knife, then mix into a paste with the water; it should be about
the same consistency as the butter. Roll it out evenly, and lay on it
small pieces of the butter and lard, sprinkle with flour and roll into
three; roll out again and proceed as before. It is ready for use at
once if required, but it is much improved by standing in a cool place
for an hour. This kind of pastry requires a very quick oven;
and if used for meat pies, a piece of buttered paper should be laid
over the top as soon as it has rise, to prevent it getting too brown.



SUET PASTRY--No. 1

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 10 oz. Beef Suet
*
* 1/2 pint Water--3d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
Sift the flour into a basin, and make it into a firm paste with the
water. Free the suet from skin, and put it twice through a sausage
machine. Roll the paste out, and put half over it in very tiny pieces;
sprinkle with flour and fold into three. Double the ends over till they
meet, roll out again, and put on the rest of the suet and proceed as
before. It is then ready for use, but is much improved by standing for
an hour in a cold place. This is a very wholesome pastry, and
particularly nice for meat pies. If it is properly made, it ought to
rise like the best puff pastry; it is an easy crust to make in hot
weather, when the puff crusts made with butter are troublesome.



SUET PASTRY--No. 2

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 8 oz. Suet
*
* 1/2 pint Water
*
* Pinch of Salt--3d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
Sift the flour into a basin; prepare the suet by cutting it into very
thin slices and then shredding it up very fine indeed; mix it in with
the flour. Stir in the water until it is a firm consistency, but do not
use too much water, or the paste will be tough. Suet crust should be
kept as dry as possible. Turn it on to a floured board and
knead for a few minutes. It is then ready for use; this crust is
suitable for all kinds of boiled puddings, such as meat, apple, jam, &
c. These puddings require to be boiled for a very long time. They must
always be plunged into boiling water, and kept boiling and covered with
water all the time they are cooking.



SUET PUDDING

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 8 or 10 oz. Suet
*
* 1/4 teaspoonful Salt
*
* 1/2 pint Water
*
* 2 Cold Potatoes--3d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--Two Hours and a Half.
*
Sift the flour and salt into a basin, mash the potatoes or rub them
through a sieve, and stir them in. Shred the suet finely and mix in
thoroughly with a knife; make into rather a stiff paste with the water,
dip a pudding cloth into boiling water. Put the pudding into the
centre, and tie up tightly. Plunge into boiling water and boil steadily
for two hours; turn out of the cloth carefully into a hot dish, and
serve. This pudding is delicious with roast meat, or it may be served
as a sweet; jam sauce is nice poured round it. A recipe for this will
be found elsewhere.



HASTY PUDDING SOUFFLE

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Flour
*
* 1 oz. Sugar
*
* Flavourings--1d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--40 Minutes
*
Put the milk on to boil, mix the flour smoothly with a little
cold milk; when the milk in the saucepan nearly boils stir this in and
stir until it boils. Then take off the fire and beat in the sugar,
flavouring, and the yolks of the eggs. Whisk the whites to a stiff
froth and stir them lightly in, pour into a buttered pie-dish, and bake
in a brisk oven for forty minutes; serve hot.



CHEESE CAKES

* 1 pint Sour Milk--2d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Flaky Pastry--3d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar
*
* Flavouring--1d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--15 Minutes.
*
Pour the milk through a sieve and use only the thick curd which does
not run through into the basin; beat in the sugar, yolks of the eggs,
and flavouring to taste. Roll our some flaky pastry and line some patty
pans with it; fill them with rice or crusts of bread, and bake for
about ten minutes. Then take out the rice or crusts and fill with the
cheese cake mixture. Finish baking, and stand on a sieve till cool.
Sprinkle well with sugar, and serve cold.



BANANA SOUFFLE

* 6 Bananas--2d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Choose ripe bananas, peel and slice them up, and lay them in a glass
dish, sprinkle with sugar. Make a custard with the milk and yolks of
the eggs by directions for boiled custard, flavour with a pinch
of ginger, and pour it over the bananas. Let it stand till quite cold,
then whip the whites to a very stiff froth and heap them on top;
sprinkle with sugar, and serve.



BOILED CUSTARD

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 3 Eggs--3d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Sugar
*
* Flavouring--1d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes
*
Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin and whisk them. Put the milk
into a saucepan, and when it is boiling pour it over the eggs, stirring
all the time. Strain back into the saucepan and whist well till it
comes to boiling point; draw away from the fire, but continue whisking
for a few minutes. Then pour into a basin, sweeten and flavour to
taste, and it is ready for use.



CORNFLOUR CUSTARD

* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1 dessertspoonful Cornflour
*
* Sugar and Flavouring--1d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Put the milk into a saucepan to boil, mix the cornflour with a spoonful
of cold milk, and when the milk in the saucepan is nearly boiling, stir
it in and continue stirring till it boils. Let it boil two or three
minutes, then draw the saucepan away from the fire, beat in the yolk of
the egg and flavouring. Put back on the fire and bring to boiling
point; it is then ready for use. This is a good sauce for plum or other
puddings and fruit tarts.



BACHELOR'S BUTTONS

* 5 oz. Flour--1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1 teaspoonful Cream of Tartar
*
* 6 drops Essence of Almonds--2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Rub the butter into the flour, stir in the sugar, carbonate of soda,
and cream of tartar; mix into a stiff dough with the egg and
flavouring. Roll into small balls about the size of a marble; toss in
coarse sugar, put on to a greased baking sheet, and bake from five to
eight minutes.



PRINCE OF WALES CAKES

* 1/4 lb. Flour--1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Cornflour--1d.
*
* 1 gill Milk--1/2d.
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Baking Powder--1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* Flavouring--1/2d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes.
*
Mix the flour, cornflour, and baking powder together, beat the butter
and sugar to a cream, beat in the egg, flavouring, and milk, then the
flour, &c., and continue to beat for five minutes. Butter some small
bun tins, half fill them with the mixture, put into a moderate oven and
bake for about twenty minutes; stand on a sieve till cold.



NORMANDY PUDDING

* 2 Stale Buns--2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Boil the milk and pour it over the beaten egg, sweeten to
taste. Put the buns into a pie-dish, pour over the custard, cover and
leave for an hour. Then put into a moderate oven and bake for about
half an hour. Serve hot.



RUSK PUDDING

* 1 slice of Dry Bread
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Half a Lemon--1/2d.
*
* 1 1/2 pints of Milk--4d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Jam--1d.
*
* 1/2 tablespoonful Cornflour--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--81/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Take a piece of very stale bread and cut it into small squares, bake it
in the oven till a good colour. Break the eggs into a pie-dish, beat in
the sugar and grated rind of the lemon, pour in one pint of milk, and
mix well. Drop in the rusks and put into a cool oven and bake till
firm; then spread on the top a layer of jam. Put half a pint of milk
into a saucepan, and when it nearly boils, stir in the cornflour which
has been mixed with a little lemon peel and sugar, and pour it on top
of the pudding. Put it back in the oven for a few minutes, then stand
away till cold.



BEDFORD PUDDING

* Dry Crusts of Bread
*
* 1/2 pint of Milk--1d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Jam--1d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--Three-quarters of an Hour.
*
Soak the bread in cold water till quite soft, put it into a cloth and
squeeze all the water out of it; turn into a basin and beat it smooth
with a spoon. Then beat in the yolks of the eggs, sugar, milk,
and a little grated lemon peel. Pour into a pie dish and bake till
quite firm, then take from the oven and spread the jam on the top. Whip
the whites to a stiff froth and spread over the jam; put back in the
oven for a few minutes till brown, then sprinkle with sugar and serve
either hot or cold.



DE MESTRE PUDDING

* 1/2 lb. Flour--1d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Raisins--2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Sugar--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Dripping
*
* 1 teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda
*
* 1 gill Boiling Water--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--Three Hours.
*
Put the flour into a basin; stone the raisins and cut them in half, mix
in the sugar and carbonate of soda. Dissolve the dripping in the water,
pour in and make into a dough; leave it to stand all night. Dip a cloth
in boiling water and tie the pudding up tightly. Plunge into plenty of
boiling water, and keep it boiling steadily for three hours; turn into
a hot dish. A little custard sauce served with this pudding is a great
improvement.



YANKEE PUDDING

* 1 Egg, and its Weight in Flour--1 1/2d.
*
* Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Bread Crumbs--1/2d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Marmalade--1d.
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda
*
* 1/2 gill Milk--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Mix the flour, sugar, and bread crumbs together; stir in the marmalade.
Make the milk just warm, dissolve in it the soda. Beat up the
egg and mix together, pour this over the dry ingredients, beat for a
few minutes; turn into a buttered basin. Tie over it a cloth, plunge
into boiling water, and boil one hour. Serve either hot or cold. A
spoonful of marmalade placed on the top of this pudding just before
serving is an improvement.



SPONGE ROLL

* 3 tablespoonsful Flour--1/2d.
*
* 3 tablespoonsful Sugar--1d.
*
* 3 Eggs--3d.
*
* 2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder--1d.
*
* 3 teaspoonsful Jam--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Beat the eggs and sugar together for five minutes, mix the flour and
baking powder together and stir them lightly in. Pour into a well-buttered
tin and bake in a quick oven for eight or ten minutes. Turn on
to a damp cloth and roll up directly; warm the jam in a saucepan while
the roll is cooking, and if it is very stiff mix in a spoonful of
water. Take the roll out of the cloth and lay flat on a piece of
sugared paper, spread the jam on quickly and roll up again; place on a
sieve till cold.



SEED CAKE

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 6 oz. Dripping
*
* 6 oz. Sugar--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 1/2 teaspoonsful Caraway Seeds--1/2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder
*
* 1 gill Milk or Water--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Half.
*
Sift the flour into a basin and rub in the dripping; carefully stir in
the sugar, baking powder, and caraway seeds.

Beat up the egg and milk or water, and mix the dry ingredients
into a dough; beat for two or three minutes. Turn into a cake tin which
has been well rubbed with dripping, stand on a baking sheet and place
in a moderate oven. Bake for one hour and a half or longer, test it by
running a skewer right through the centre; if it comes out clean the
cake is done. Turn it out of the tine carefully and stand on a sieve
till cold.



SCONES--No. 1

* 3/4 lb. Flour--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Rub the butter into the flour, stir in the baking powder, and make into
a very light dough with the milk; turn on to a floured board, knead for
a few minutes, roll out about half an inch thick. Cut into shapes, put
on to a floured tin, and bake in a quick oven for about ten minutes.
Serve either hot or cold.



SCONES--No. 2

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Sour Milk
*
* 3 teaspoonsful Baking Powder
*
* 1 teaspoonful Salt--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Mix the flour, baking powder, and salt together, mix into a very light
dough with the milk, adding a little more milk if necessary; turn on to
a floured board and knead till smooth, roll out half an inch thick. Cut
into small rounds and bake for about five minutes.



SCONES--No. 3

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 2 oz. Dripping
*
* 1 oz. Sugar
*
* 1/2 pint Sour Milk
*
* 1 teaspoonful Cream of Tartar
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes.
*
Rub the dripping into the flour; stir in the sugar, cream of tartar,
and soda. Mix into a very light dough with the milk, turn on to a
floured board; divide into two parts. Flatten these out into two cakes,
divide each one into four pieces, brush over with milk. Put on to a
floured tin and bake in a hot oven from fifteen to twenty minutes.



POTATO FRITTERS

* Cold Potatoes
*
* 1 Egg
*
* 2 oz. Sugar
*
* Nutmeg or Lemon Peel
*
* Hot Fat
*
* Total Cost--11/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Mash up the potatoes very smoothly, beat in the sugar and a flavouring
of nutmeg or grated lemon peel. Beat up the egg and pour over the
potatoes and mix into a paste; form into small round cakes. Fry in very
hot fat till brown; pile high on a dish, sprinkle with sugar and serve.
One egg is sufficient for about 1 lb., potatoes.



APPLE FRITTERS

* 3 Apples--2d.
*
* Frying Batter--1d.
*
* Hot Fat
*
* Sugar
*
* Lemon--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Peel and slice up the apples into rounds, take out the core
with a small round cutter. Make frying batter by directions given
elsewhere, and flavour with lemon juice. Dip in the pieces of apple,
plunge into plenty of hot fat, and fry till a good colour. Drain on
kitchen paper, pile high on a dish, and sprinkle well with sugar; serve
very hot.



SWEET OMELET

* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 1/2 oz. Butter--1/2d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Jam--1/2d.
*
* Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin and beat in half the sugar, put
the whites on to a plate with a little sugar, and whip till stiff; mix
with the yolks. Put the butter into a small frying-pan, and when it is
dissolved pour in the mixture; leave over the fire for about three
minutes. Then hold the pan in front of the fire for a minute or two to
brown the top. Put the jam on to a hot plate, slip the omelet on the
top; serve at once.



TAPIOCA MERINGUE

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Tapioca--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Whites of 2 Eggs--1d.
*
* Flavouring--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Beef Suet--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Wash the tapioca well in cold water, strain off the water, and put it
into a pie dish. Chop the suet very finely and mix it in with the
sugar; flavour with grated lemon peel or nutmeg, pour over the milk and
mix well, stand in a very cool oven for two hours. Whip the
whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth, flavour the same as the
pudding, spread these on top, sprinkle with sugar, and stand in the
oven till set; serve cold. This meringue is very much improved if a few
macaroons are broken up and laid on the top before the eggs are put on,
or if a spoonful of raspberry jam is spread over.



HASTY PUDDING

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* 3 oz. Flour
*
* 2 oz. Sugar--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Put the milk on the fire to boil, and when boiling stir in the flour
quickly; it should be rather lumpy. Pour it into a dish, melt the
butter and sugar, and pour it in the middle of the pudding. A little
flavouring of grated lemon peel may be put into the milk, or jam served
with the pudding.



QUICK PUDDING

* 1 Egg
*
* 1 tablespoonful Flour--1d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Jam
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 1 teaspoonful Baking Powder--2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Mix the flour and baking powder together, beat the egg till very light,
whisk in the sugar, and stir in the flour. Pour into a buttered tin,
and bake five minutes; turn on to a sugared paper spread with jam. Roll
up and serve. Custard sauce is nice with this.



STANLEY PUDDING

* 1 pint Milk
*
* 2 oz. Flour--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sugar--1d.
*
* 2 Eggs--2d.
*
* 2 spoonful Jam--1d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Put the milk into a saucepan, mix the flour with a little cold milk;
and when the milk in the saucepan is nearly boiling, stir it in, and
let it boil up. Pour into a basin and beat in the yolks of the eggs and
the sugar; turn into a pie dish and bake till firm. Spread a spoonful
of jam on the top; whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and
spread them over, sprinkle with sugar, and put back in the oven to set.
Serve cold.



IMITATION OMELET

* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1/2 gill Milk--1/2d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar
*
* 1 teaspoonful Jam
*
* 1 teaspoonful Flour--1d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Beat the yolk and white of egg separately; beat the flour and milk
together, and mix in the sugar and yolk of egg. Stir in the white,
butter a saucer, put the jam at the bottom. Pour in the mixture, bake
in the oven for five minutes, sprinkle with sugar, and serve.



OXFORDSHIRE PUDDING

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Rice--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sugar
*
* Rind of Half a Lemon--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--3d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Wash the rice well, strain off the water and put it into a pie-dish.
Mix in the sugar and the rind of the lemon; pour over the milk,
and let it sand for half an hour. Put it into a very slow oven, and
bake till firm. This is a very delicious pudding if properly made; it
should be firm, but not dry.



MILK BISCUITS

* 1/2 lb. Flour--1d.
*
* 1 gill Milk--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter
*
* 1/4 saltspoonful Salt--1d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Rub the butter into the flour, sprinkle in the salt, and make into a
dough with the milk; knead till smooth, roll out very thin. Cut into
small rounds, prick well with a fork, put on to a floured tin and bake
for about ten minutes. They should not get brown.



SODA CAKE

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Currants--2d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Sugar--1d.
*
* 6 oz. Dripping
*
* 1 1/2 teaspoonsful Carbonate of Soda
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Rub the dripping and the flour together; clean and stir in the currants
and sugar. Stir in the soda and mix into a dough with the milk, beat
for a few minutes. Pour into a tin which has been well rubbed with
dripping, bake in a moderate oven for two hours.



DIGESTIVE BISCUITS

* 1/2 lb. Brown Meal
*
* 1/4 lb. Flour--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 1/2 gills Water
*
* 1 oz. Butter or Lard
*
* 1 oz. Sugar--1d.
*
* Total Cost--21/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*


Mix the meal and flour together, rub in the butter or lard and the
sugar; mix into a dry paste with water, knead till smooth. Roll out
very thin, cut into rounds, and bake in rather a slow oven.



LEMON PUDDING

* 1/2 lb. Flour--1d.
*
* 3 oz. Suet--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 2 Lemons--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar
*
* 1/2 gill Water--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--41/2 d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Sift the flour, chop the suet finely, and mix together. Stir in the
sugar and the grated rind of the lemons, beat up the egg, add the juice
of one lemon, and mix the pudding into a dough with this, and a little
water if required. Dip a cloth in boiling water, tie the pudding in it;
plunge into boiling water and boil two hours. Take out of the cloth and
turn on to a hot dish, and pour round it the following sauce: Squeeze
the juice of the other lemon into a small saucepan, stir in some sugar
and a gill of water, and boil up; it is then ready.



BLACK CAP PUDDING

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 2 Eggs
*
* 1 oz. Currants--2d.
*
* 1/2 lb. Flour--1d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--One Hour.
*
Put the eggs into a basin, beat in the flour, and then the milk, pour
into a battered basin. Clean the currents and drop them in; steam for
one hour, turn out of the basin, sprinkle with sugar, and serve.



ROCK CAKES

* 1/2 lb. Flour
*
* 2 oz. Dripping--1d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Sugar--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Currants--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Peel--1d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Baking Powder--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--15 Minutes.
*
Rub the dripping and flour together, stir in the sugar, currants (well
cleaned), the baking powder, and the peel. Beat up the egg and pour it
in, and make into a very stiff dough; take up in rough pieces and lay
on a greased tin, bake in rather a quick oven for fifteen minutes.



KINGSWOOD PUDDING

* 1/4 lb. Flour--1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Raisins--2d.
*
* 6 oz. Suet--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Sultanas--2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Sugar--1d.
*
* 2 Apples--1d.
*
* Total Cost--9d.
*
* Time--Six Hours.
*
Mix the flour and bread crumbs together. Any dry pieces of bread will
do if put through the sausage machine; shred the suet finely and mix it
in with the sugar. Stone the raisins and pull them in half, and clean
the sultanas; mix these in. Peel and core the apples; put in the pips,
chop the apples finely, and add them. Let it stand for an hour, and
then mix it into a paste; the juice from the applies and the sugar will
be found sufficient. Press into a basin, tie down tightly, and boil at
least six hours. This will be found an excellent pudding if
well boiled.



DELHI PUDDING

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Almonds--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Arrowroot--2d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Blanch and chop the almonds very small, mix them with the sugar and
arrowroot. Put the milk on to boil, and when it boils pour it on to the
arrowroot and stir; if it does not get thick enough, pour back into the
saucepan and boil for a minute. Turn into a wet mould and stand away
till firm; then turn out and serve with jam or custard sauce, or it may
be served plainly.



ROTHSAY PUDDING

* 1/4 lb. Flour--1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Bread Crumbs--1d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Suet--1d.
*
* 1 oz. Sugar
*
* 1 tablespoonful Vinegar--1/2d.
*
* 1 gill Milk--1d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Raspberry Jam--2d.
*
* 1 Egg
*
* 1/2 teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda--1d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Mix the flour, crumbs, finely chopped suet, and sugar in a basin, then
stir in the jam. Beat up the egg and milk, and stir it in. Mix up the
carbonate of soda and the vinegar together; beat it in, and when well
mixed pour it into a buttered basin. Tie up carefully, and boil for two
hours; turn out on to a hot dish, and serve either with sifted sugar or
custard sauce.



RHUBARB MOULD

* 1 bundle Rhubarb--3d.
*
* 6 oz. Sugar--1 1/2d.
*
* 1/4 lb. Sago
*
* 1/2 pint Water--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--6d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes
*
Wipe and cut up the rhubarb and put it on to boil with one gill water,
and boil for about ten minutes. Wash the sago and soak it in one gill
warm water, then add to the rhubarb. Stir in also the sugar, and boil
for about ten minutes or longer, stirring constantly. Pour into a basin
or mould which has been dipped in cold water, and stand away till cold
and firm, then turn out and serve. A little boiled custard is a great
improvement to this dish.



APPLES AND RICE

* 3 Large Apples--2d.
*
* 2 oz. Rice--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Jam--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* Total Cost--61/2 d.
*
* Time--Half an Hour.
*
Peel the apples and scoop out the core and fill in with jam; put into a
pie-dish and bake till the apples are soft. While they are baking, boil
the rice and milk together till the rice is soft and the milk absorbed.
Beat in the egg and sugar, pour over the apples; brush over with milk,
and bake till a nice colour. Serve either hot or cold.



RICE BLACMANGE

* 1 pint Milk--2d.
*
* 1 1/2 oz. Ground Rice--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sugar
*
* Flavouring--1d.
*
* Total Cost--31/2 d.
*
* Time--5 Minutes.
*
Put the milk on to boil with a strip of lemon peel in it; when
nearly boiling mix the rice in a spoonful of cold water and pour it in.
Stir till it boils, and let it boil two or three minutes; pour into a
mould which has been dipped in cold water, and stand away till firm.
Turn out when cold, and serve with jam, stewed fruit, or custard sauce.



DEVONSHIRE JUNKET

* 1 quart Milk--4d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Rennet
*
* 1 oz. Sugar--1d.
*
* Nutmeg--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--51/2 d.
*
* Time--Two Hours.
*
Make the milk tepid, stir in the sugar and a spoonful of rennet or a
rennet tablet; pour into a dish and stand on the stove till solid.
Grate a little nutmeg on top and serve cold. Rennet can be bought at
the chemist's ready for use; but rennet tables, which answer very
nicely, can be used instead. These can be bought in many places, and
keep good a long time.



BANBURY CAKES

* 1/2 lb. Pastry--5d.
*
* 1 oz. Currants
*
* 1 oz. Raisins
*
* Half a Lemon
*
* Half an Orange--2d.
*
* 1 oz. Cake or Bread Crumbs--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Sugar--1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--8d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes.
*
Stone the raisins and chop them lightly, put them into a basin with the
currants cleaned, the sugar, and the cake or bread crumbs. Mix
together, grate over the rind of half a lemon, and half an orange.
Strain in the juice, and let it stand for an hour. Roll out the pastry
and cut into rounds about three inches long. Lay a little of the
mixture in the centre, close over the pastry, turn the cake
over, flatten it out in the middle. Brush over with sugar, and bake in
rather a quick oven. Serve warm.



LEMON BISCUITS

* 1/2 lb. Flour
*
* 3 oz. Dripping--1d.
*
* 1 teaspoonful Baking Powder
*
* 3 oz. Sugar--1d.
*
* 1 Lemon--1d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* Total Cost--4d.
*
* Time--10 Minutes.
*
Rub the dripping into the flour, stir in the sugar and baking powder,
and grate over the rind of the lemon. Beat up the egg and strain in the
lemon juice; add these to the dry ingredients, mix into a stiff dough,
and knead for a few minutes. Roll out, cut into small biscuits, and
bake in a quick oven for about ten minutes.



YORKSHIRE TEA CAKES

* 3/4 lb. Flour--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 1 1/2 gills Milk--1d.
*
* 1 tablespoonful Yeast
*
* 1/2 tablespoonful Sugar--1/2d.
*
* 1 oz. Butter--1d.
*
* Total Cost--5d.
*
* Time--One Hour and a Quarter
*
Rub the butter and flour together, make a well in the centre, sprinkle
in the sugar, and drop in the egg. Mix the yeast and sugar in a basin,
make the milk just tepid, and pour it over the yeast. Strain into the
flour and egg and work into a light dough, divide into two parts. Rub a
little butter over two small tins, and put one cake in each tin. Cover
with thin paper, and stand the tins near the stove for an hour,
or until they have risen to at least three times their original size;
then bake in a quick oven for fifteen minutes. Serve either plain, or
toasted and buttered.



TEA CAKE

* 1 lb. Flour--2d.
*
* 1/2 pint Milk--1d.
*
* 2 oz. Butter--1 1/2d.
*
* 1 Egg--1d.
*
* 2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder
*
* 1 teaspoonful Sugar--1 1/2d.
*
* Total Cost--7d.
*
* Time--20 Minutes.
*
Rub the butter into the flour, stir in the sugar and baking powder.
Beat up the egg and milk, and mix the dry ingredients into a dough with
them; divide into two pieces and form each into a flat cake. Cut
lightly across into four with a knife, put on to a buttered tin, and
bake twenty minutes. Cut open, butter, and serve.





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Written and maintained by
Ronald Hunter
           
  Copyright © Ronald Hunter, 2005. All rights reserved.
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