With Fifty Illustrations of Original Dishes
Janet McKenzie Hill
Editor of "The Boston Cooking-School Magazine"
Author of "Practical Cooking and Serving"
WITH ADDITIONAL RECIPES
Little, Brown, and Company
Copyright, 1899, 1903
By Janet M. Hill.
S. J. Parkhill & Co., Boston, U. S. A.
Mrs. William B. Sewall,
President of the Boston Cooking=School Corporation,
IN GRATEFUL RECOGNITION OF THE OPPORTUNITY
PRESENTED BY HER FOR CONGENIAL WORK IN A
CHOSEN FIELD OF EFFORT, THIS LITTLE BOOK
IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED
By the Author.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The favor with which the first edition of this little book has been received by those who were interested in the subjects of which it treats, is eminently gratifying to both author and publishers. It has occasioned the purpose to make a second edition of the book, even more complete and helpful than the first.
In making the revision, wherever the text has suggested a new thought that thought has been inserted; under the various headings new recipes have been added, each in its proper place, and the number of illustrations has been increased from thirty-seven to fifty. A more complete table of contents has been presented, and also a list of the illustrations; the alphabetical index has been revised and made especially full and complete.
JANET M. HILL.
April 10, 1903.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
There is positive need of more widespread knowledge of the principles of cookery. Few women know how to cook an egg or boil a potato properly, and the making of the perfect loaf of bread has long been assigned a place among the "lost arts."
By many women cooking is considered, at best, a homely art,—a necessary kind of drudgery; and the composition, if not the consumption, of salads and chafing-dish productions has been restricted, hitherto, chiefly to that half of the race "who cook to please themselves." But, since women have become anxious to compete with men in any and every walk of life, they, too, are desirous of becoming adepts in tossing up an appetizing salad or in stirring a creamy rarebit. And yet neither a pleasing salad, especially if it is to be composed of cooked materials, nor a tempting rarebit can be evolved, save by happy accident, without an accurate knowledge of the fundamental principles that underlie all cookery.
In a book of this nature and scope, the philosophy of heat at different temperatures, as it is applied in cooking, and the more scientific aspects of culinary processes, could not be dwelt upon; but, while we have not overlooked the ABC of the art, our special aim has been to present our topics in such a simple and pleasing form that she who attempts the composition of the dishes[x] described herein will not be satisfied until she has gained a deeper insight into the conditions necessary for success in the pursuit of these as well as other fascinating branches of the culinary art.
Care has been exercised to meet the actual needs of those who wish to cultivate a taste for light, wholesome dishes, or to cater to the vagaries of the most capricious appetites.
There is nothing new under the sun, so no claim is made to absolute originality in contents. In this and all similar works, the matter of necessity must consist, in the main, of old material in a new dress.
Though the introduction to Part III. was originally written for this book, the substance of it was published in the December-January (1898-99) issue of the Boston Cooking-School Magazine. From time to time, also, a few of the recipes, with minor changes, have appeared in that journal.
Illustrations by means of half-tones produced from photographs of actual dishes were first brought out, we think, by The Century Company; in this line, however, both in the number and in the variety of the dishes prepared, the author may justly claim to have done more than any other has yet essayed. The illustrations on these pages were prepared expressly for this work, and the dishes and the photographs of the same were executed under our own hand and eye. That results pleasing to the eye and acceptable to the taste await those who try the confections described in this book is the sincere wish of the author.
JANET M. HILL
Our taste for salads—and in their simplest form who is not fond of salads?—is an inheritance from classic times and Eastern lands. In the hot climates of the Orient, cucumbers and melons were classed among earth's choicest productions; and a resort ever grateful in the heat of the day was "a lodge in a garden of cucumbers."
At the Passover the Hebrews ate lettuce, camomile, dandelion and mint,—the "bitter herbs" of the Paschal feast,—combined with oil and vinegar. Of the Greeks, the rich were fond of the lettuces of Smyrna, which appeared on their tables at the close of the repast. In this respect the Romans, at first, imitated the Greeks, but later came to serve lettuce with eggs as a first course and to excite the appetite. The ancient physicians valued lettuce for its narcotic virtue, and, on account of this property, Galen, the celebrated Greek physician, called it "the philosopher's or wise man's herb."
The older historians make frequent mention of salad plants and salads. In the biblical narrative Moses wrote: "And the children of Israel wept again and said, We remember the fish which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlick."
In his second Eclogue, Virgil represents a rustic maid, Thestylis, preparing for the reapers a salad called moretum. He wrote, also, a poem bearing this title, in which he describes the composition and preparation of the dish.
A modern authority says, "Salads refresh without exciting and make people younger." Whether this be strictly true or not may be an open question, but certainly in the assertion a grain of truth is visible; for it is a well-known fact that "salad plants are better tonics and blood purifiers than druggists' compounds." There is, also, an old proverb: "Eat onions in May, and all the year after physicians may play." What is health but youth?
Vegetables, fish and meats, "left over,"—all may be transformed, by artistic treatment, into salads delectable to the eye and taste. Potatoes are subject to endless combinations. First of all in this connection, before dressing the potatoes allow them to stand in bouillon, meat broth, or even in the liquor in which corned beef has been cooked; then drain carefully before adding the oil and other seasonings.
Of uncooked vegetables, cabbage lettuce—called long ago by the Greek physician, Galen, the philosopher's or wise man's herb—stands at the head of salad plants. Like all uncooked vegetables, lettuce must be served fresh and crisp, and the more quickly it is grown the more tender it will be. When dressed for the table, each leaf should glisten with oil, yet no perceptible quantity should fall to the salad-bowl. Watercress, being rich in sulphuretted oil, is often served without oil. Cheese or eggs combine well with cress; and such a salad, with a sandwich of coarse bread and butter, together with a cup of sparkling coffee, forms an ideal luncheon for a picnic or for the home piazza. Indeed, all the compound salads,—that is, salads of many ingredients,—more particularly if they are served with a cooked or mayonnaise dressing, are substantial enough for the chief dish of a hearty meal. Their digestibility depends, in large measure, on the tenderness of the different ingredients, as well as upon the freshness of the uncooked vegetables that enter into their composition.
A salad has this superiority over every other production of the culinary art: A salad (but not every salad) is suitable to serve upon any occasion, or to any class or condition of men. Among bon vivants, without a new salad, no matter how the other courses may be, the luncheon, or dinner party, of to-day does not pass as an unqualified success.
While salads may be compounded of all kinds of delicate meats, fish, shellfish, eggs, nuts, fruit, cheese and vegetables, cooked or uncooked, two things are indispensable to every kind and grade of salad, viz., the foundation of vegetables and the dressing.
|"Four times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown,|
|And twice with vinegar procured from town."|
Aromatic vinegars, a few drops of which, used occasionally, lend piquancy and variety to an every-day salad, can be purchased at high-class provision stores; but the true salad-maker is an artist, and prefers to compound her own colors (i.e., vinegars); therefore we have given several recipes for the same, which may be easily modified to suit individual tastes.
Indeed, the dressing of a salad, though in the early days of the century considered a special art,—an art that rendered it possible for at least one noted Royalist refugee to amass a considerable fortune,—is entirely a matter of individual taste, or, more properly speaking, of cultivation. On this account, particularly for a French dressing, no set rules can be given. By experience and judgment one must decide upon the proportions of the different ingredients, or, more specifically, upon the proportions of the oil and acid to be used. Often four spoonfuls of oil are used to one of vinegar. Four spoonfuls of oil to two, three or four of vinegar may be the proportion preferred by others, and the quantity may vary for different salads.
Though in many of the recipes explicit quantities of oil, vinegar and condiments are given, it is with the understanding that these quantities are indicated simply as an approximate rule; sometimes less and sometimes more will be required, according to the tendency of the article dressed to absorb oil and acid, or the taste of the salad dresser.
The dressings in most common use are the French and the mayonnaise. A French dressing is used for green vegetables, for fruit and nuts, and to marinate cooked vegetables, or the meat or fish for a meat or fish salad. Mayonnaise dressing is used for meat, fish, some varieties of fruit, as banana, apple and pineapple, and for some vegetables, as cauliflower, asparagus and tomatoes. Any article to be served with mayonnaise, after standing an hour or more in a marinade,—i.e., French dressing,—should be carefully drained, as, by the pickling process, liquid will drain out into the bottom of the vessel and, mixing with the mayonnaise, will liquefy the same.
In the arrangement of salads there may be great display of taste and individuality. By a judicious selection from materials that may be kept constantly in store, and with one or two window boxes, in which herbs are growing, any one, with a modicum of inventive skill, can so change and modify the appearance and flavor of her salads that she may seem always to present a new one.
Mayonnaise dressing is composed largely of olive oil. A small amount of yolk of egg is used as a foundation. The oil, with the addition of condiments, is slightly acidulated with vinegar and lemon juice, one or both, and the whole is made very light and thick by beating. Mayonnaise forms a very handsome dressing, and it is much enjoyed by those who are fond of oil.
Pure olive oil is almost entirely without flavor, and a taste for it can be readily acquired; and, when we consider that it contains all the really desirable qualities of the once-famous cod-liver oil, except the phosphates, and that these may be supplied in the other materials of the salad, it would seem wise to cultivate a taste for so wholesome an article. By the addition of cream, in the proportion of a cup of whipped cream to a pint of dressing, those to whom oil has not become agreeable can so modify its "tone" that they too will enjoy the mayonnaise dressing.
For the French and mayonnaise dressings—particularly for the latter—we sometimes substitute a boiled and sometimes a cream dressing. In the first, butter, or cream, is substituted for oil, and the materials are combined by cooking. In the latter, as the name implies, cream is the basis, and this may be either sweet or sour.
(1) The green vegetables should be served fresh and crisp.
(2) Meat and fish should be well marinated and cold.
(3) The ingredients composing the salad should not be combined until the last moment before serving.
As a rule, subject, however, to exceptions, light vegetable salads, dressed with French dressing, are served at dinner; while heavy meat or fish Salads are reserved for luncheon, or supper, and are served with mayonnaise or cream dressing.
A fruit salad, with sweet dressing, is served with cake at a luncheon, or supper, or in the evening; that is, it may take the place of fruit in the dessert course. A fruit salad, with French or mayonnaise dressing, may be served as a first course at luncheon, or with the game or roast, though in the latter case the French dressing is preferable.
The rightful place of salads is with the roast or game. Here the crisp, green salad herbs, delicately acidulated, complement and correct the richness of these plats.
Occasionally when the game is omitted and an acid sauce accompanies the roast, a simple salad combined with cheese in some form, preferably cooked and hot, is selected to lengthen the menu. This same combination of hot cheese dish and salad should be a favorite one for home luncheons, when this meal is not made the children's dinner. The salad too in this combination, aided by the bread accompanying it, corrects by dilution the over concentration and richness of the cheese dish. In England neatly trimmed-and-cleansed celery stalks and cheese often precede the sweet course; but by virtue of its mission as a digester of everything but itself and of the common disinclination to have the taste of sweets linger upon the palate, the place of cheese as cheese is with the coffee.
Cover the eggs with boiling water. Set them on the back of the range, where the water will keep hot without boiling, about forty minutes. Cool in cold water, and with a thin, sharp knife cut as desired.
Turn the whites of the eggs into a well-buttered mould or cup, set upon a trivet in a dish of hot water, and cook until firm, either upon the back of the range or in the oven, and without letting the water boil. Turn from the mould, cut into slices, and then into fanciful shapes; or chop fine.
Beat together one whole egg and three yolks; add one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of mace, salt and paprica, and, when well mixed, add half a cup of cream. Bake in a buttered mould, set in a pan of water, until firm. When cold cut in thin slices, then stamp out in fanciful shapes with French cutters. Use in decorating a mould for aspic jelly.
The salad-bowl may be rubbed with the cut surface of a clove of garlic, or a chapon may be used. A chapon, according to gastronomic usage, is a thin piece of bread rubbed on all sides with the cut surface of a clove of garlic and put into the salad-bowl before the seasonings. It is tossed with the salad and dressings, to which it imparts its flavor. It may be divided and served with the salad. Oftentimes, instead of one piece, several small cubes of bread are thus used.
After a slice of onion has been removed, the cut surface of the onion may be pressed with a rotary motion against a grater and the juice extracted; or a lemon-squeezer kept for this special purpose may be used.
Score the shell of each nut, and put into a frying-pan with a teaspoonful of butter for each pint of nuts. Shake the pan over the fire until the butter is melted; then set in the oven five minutes. With a sharp knife remove the shells and skins together.
Put the nut meats over the fire in cold water, bring quickly to the boiling-point, drain, and rinse with cold water, then the skins may be easily rubbed from the almonds; a small pointed knife will be needed for the walnuts.
Pluck the leaves close, discarding the stems; gather the leaves together closely with the fingers of the left hand, then with a sharp knife cut through close to the fingers; push the leaves out a little and cut again, and so continue until all are cut. Now gather into a mound and chop to a very fine powder, holding the point of the knife close to the board. Put the chopped herb into a cheese-cloth and hold under a stream of cold water, then wring dry. Use this green powder for dusting over a salad when required.
Cut a thin slice from the leaf end of each; cut off the root end so as to leave it the length of the pistil of a flower. With a small, sharp knife score the pink skin, at the root end, into five or six sections extending half-way down the radish; then loosen the skin above these sections. Put the radishes in cold water for a little time, when they will become crisp, and the points will stand out like the petals of a flower.
A short time before serving cut off the roots and freshen the vegetable in cold water. Then break the leaves from the stalk; dip repeatedly into cold water, examining carefully, until perfectly clean, taking care not to crush the leaves. Put into a French wire basket made for the purpose, or into a piece of mosquito netting or cheese-cloth, and shake gently until the water is removed. Then spread on a plate or in a colander and set in a cool place until the moment for serving.
Pick over the stalks so as to remove grass, etc. Wash and dry in the same manner as the lettuce, but without removing the leaves from the stems, except when the stems are very coarse and large.
Let stand head downwards half an hour in cold salted water, using a tablespoonful of salt to a quart of water.
Put into cold water with a bit of ice and a slice of lemon. When ready to use, dry between folds of cheese-cloth and let stand exposed to the air a few moments.
Cut the vegetables as desired, in cubes, lozenges, balls, juliennes, etc. Put over the fire in boiling water, and, after cooking three or four minutes, drain, rinse in cold water, and put on to cook in boiling salted water to cover. Drain as soon as tender.
Select small cucumber pickles of uniform size. With a sharp knife cut them, lengthwise, into slices thin as paper, without detaching the slices at one end; then spread out the slices as a fan is spread.
Cut the stalks into pieces about two inches in length. Beginning on the round side at one end, with a thin, sharp knife, cut down half an inch as many times as possible; then turn the stalk half-way around and cut in the opposite direction, thus dividing the end into shreds, or a fringe. If desired, cut the opposite end in the same manner. Set aside in a pan of ice water containing a slice of lemon.
Wash the lettuce leaves carefully, without removing them from the stalk; shake in the open air, and they will dry very quickly; fold in the middle, crosswise, and cut through in the fold. Hold the two pieces, one above the other, close to the meat-board with the left hand, and with a sharp knife cut in narrow ribbons not more than a quarter of an inch wide.
Many green vegetables—celery in particular—discolor or rust, if allowed to stand longer than a few hours after being wet. When brought from the market they may be put aside, in a tightly closed pail, or in a paper bag, in a cool, dry place. By thus excluding the air they will keep fresh several days. A short time before serving put them into ice-cold water to which a slice or two of lemon has been added.
Remove the thin outer skin or membrane and soak in cold water, changing the water often, an hour or more. Cover with salted boiling water, acidulated with lemon juice and flavored with vegetables, and cook, just below the boiling-point, twenty minutes. They are then ready for preparation in any of the ways mentioned. Tie the brains in a cloth before cooking.
As the seeds are gathered wash and dry them; then put them into vinegar to which salt (half a teaspoonful to a pint) has been added. When a sufficient quantity has been collected, scald fresh vinegar, add salt as before, and the seeds from which the first vinegar has been drained. Pour scalding hot into bottles, having the seeds completely covered with vinegar.
Fill a quart jar loosely with nasturtium blossoms fully blown; add a shallot and one-third a clove of garlic, both finely chopped, half a red pepper, and cold cider vinegar to fill the jar; cover closely and set aside two months. Dissolve a teaspoonful of salt in the vinegar, then strain and filter.
Fill a fruit jar with fresh tarragon leaves or shoots, putting them in loosely; add the thin yellow paring of half a lemon with two or three cloves, and fill the jar with white wine or cider vinegar. Screw down the cover tightly, and allow the jar to stand in the sun two weeks; strain the vinegar through a cloth, pressing out the liquid from the leaves; then pass through filter paper, and bottle for future use. If a quantity be prepared, it were better to seal the bottles.
Method.—Mix the ingredients in a pint fruit jar, cover closely, and set in the sun; after two weeks strain, pass through filter paper and store in tightly corked bottles.
Method.—Prepare as in preceding recipe.
Make the dressing very thick by the addition of oil, or use "jelly mayonnaise." Put the dressing into a pastry bag with star tube attached; twist the large end of the bag with the left hand, pressing the mixture towards the tube, and with the right guide the tube as in writing, to produce the pattern desired. To form stars, hold the bag in an upright position, point downward, press out a little of the dressing, then push the tube down gently, and raise it quickly to break the flow.
|"Just, as in nature, thy proportions be,|
|As full of concord their variety."|
Method.—Mix the condiments, add the oil and mix again; then add the acid, a few drops at a time, and beat until an emulsion is formed; then pour over the vegetables, toss with the spoon and fork, and serve. In Chicago a method has obtained that is well worth a trial: Put a bit of ice into the bowl with the condiments, and, by means of a fork pressed against or into this, use in mixing.
Second Method.—Pour the oil over the vegetables, toss, until the oil is evenly distributed, and dust with salt and pepper; then add the acid and toss again. When the salad is prepared at the table, the vegetables may be dressed in a bowl, then arranged on the serving-dish; or, if but one vegetable is used, it is preferable to serve from the dish in which it is dressed.
Put all the ingredients into a fruit jar, fit on one or more rubbers and the cover; then shake the jar vigorously, until a smooth dressing is formed.
Mix half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, white or paprica, and four tablespoonfuls of oil; add gradually one tablespoonful of claret and one tablespoonful of lemon juice or vinegar.
Method.—An amateur will probably find it helpful to have all the utensils and ingredients thoroughly chilled, but the professional salad-maker thinks it expedient to have the ingredients and utensils of the same temperature as the room in which the dressing is to be served. Beat the yolks with a small wooden spoon or silver fork, add the condiments and mix again; then add one teaspoonful of vinegar, and, when well mixed with the other ingredients, add the oil, at first drop by drop. When the mixture has become of good consistency the oil may be added faster. When it is too thick to beat well, add a little of the lemon juice, then more oil, and so on alternately, until the ingredients are used. If a very heavy dressing is desired, as when it is to be put on with forcing-bag and tubes for a garnish, an additional half a cup of oil may be added without increasing the quantity of acid.
In preparing mayonnaise, there is absolutely no danger of curdling, if the eggs be fresh and the oil be added slowly, especially if the materials and utensils have been thoroughly chilled. If the yolks do not thicken when beaten with the condiments, but spread out over the bowl, you have sufficient indication that they will not thicken upon the addition of the oil, and it were better to select others and begin again. Take care to add the teaspoonful of acid to the yolks and condiments before beginning to drop in the oil, as this lessens the liability of the mixture to curdle.
If four quarts or more of dressing be required, make the full amount at one time; cut down the number of yolks to one for each pint of oil, but keep the usual proportions of the other ingredients. Use a Dover egg-beater from the start; after a little a teaspoonful of oil can be added instead of drops, and, very soon, a much larger quantity.
Occasionally a mayonnaise will assume a curdled appearance; under such circumstances, often the addition of a very little of white of egg or a few drops of lemon juice, with thorough beating, will cause the sauce to resume its former smoothness. In case it does not become smooth, put the yolk of an egg into a cold bowl, beat well, and add to it the curdled mixture, a little at a time.
Mix a level teaspoonful of Italian tomato pulp with a teaspoonful of mayonnaise dressing, and when well blended beat very thoroughly into a cup or more of the dressing, or add dressing until the desired tint is attained.
Pound dried lobster coral in a mortar, sift, and add gradually to the dressing, to secure the shade desired. Or, after the salad is arranged in the bowl, or in nests, mask the top with mayonnaise of the usual color, and sift the coral over the centre, leaving a ring of yellow around the edge.
Make a mayonnaise dressing, using tarragon vinegar. To each cup of dressing add one shallot, chopped fine, two tablespoonfuls, each, of finely chopped capers, olives and cucumber pickles, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and one-fourth a teaspoonful of powdered tarragon.
Skin and bone three sardines and pound them to a pulp; sift the cooked yolks of three eggs and add to the pulp; work until smooth, then add to one cup of mayonnaise dressing.
To a cup of mayonnaise dressing beat in gradually from two tablespoonfuls to one-third a cup of chilled but liquid aspic. More seasoning may be needed. Apply to a cold surface, or chill before using with forcing-bag.
To a cup of mayonnaise dressing add a grating of nutmeg, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley and the pulp of eight anchovies.
To prepare the anchovies, wash, dry, remove skin and bones and pound to a pulp in a mortar.
Method.—Simmer the liquor in which a fowl has been cooked, until it is well reduced. Put the stock, vinegar and mustard into a double boiler, and add the salt and pepper. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add carefully to the hot mixture, cooking in the same manner as a boiled custard. When cold and ready to serve, beat in with a whisk the oil, and then fold in the cream, beaten stiff with a Dover egg-beater. Melted butter, added before the dressing is cold, may be substituted for the oil.
Method.—Mix together the mustard, salt and paprica, and add the yolks of eggs; stir well and add slowly the butter, vinegar and lemon juice, and cook in the double boiler until thick as soft custard. When cool and ready to serve, add the cream, beaten stiff with the Dover egg-beater.
Method.—Add the seasonings to the cream and beat with a Dover egg-beater until smooth and light. Add a scant fourth a cup of grated horseradish, for a change. The radish should be freshly grated, and added to the cream after it is beaten.
Beat the yolks of three eggs with half a teaspoonful of made mustard, a dash of pepper and one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt; add one-third a cup of vinegar and two tablespoonfuls of butter, and cook over hot water until slightly thickened. Set aside to become cold before using.
Heat five tablespoonfuls of bacon fat; cook in it two tablespoonfuls of flour and a dash of paprica; add five tablespoonfuls of vinegar and half a cup of water; stir until boiling; then beat in the beaten yolks of two eggs, and a little salt if necessary. Do not allow the sauce to boil after the eggs are added. Add to salad after it has become thoroughly cold. Good with dandelion, endive, chicory, corn salad or lettuce.
Beat half a cup of butter to a cream; add the yolks of four eggs, one at a time, beating in each thoroughly; add one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of paprica or cayenne, and half a cup of boiling water. Cook over hot water until thick, adding gradually the juice of half a lemon. Chill before using. This is good, especially for a fish salad, in the place of mayonnaise.
Use tarragon instead of plain vinegar, omit the water, with the exception of one tablespoonful, and the hollandaise becomes bernaise sauce. Oil may be used in the place of butter. The sauce resembles a firm mayonnaise, and, as it keeps its shape well, is particularly adapted for garnishing with pastry bag and tube.
Wash and drain the lettuce leaves; toss lightly, so as to remove every drop of water. Sprinkle them with oil, a few drops at a time, tossing the leaves about with spoon and fork after each addition. When each leaf glistens with oil (there should be no oil in the bottom of the bowl) shake over them a few drops of vinegar, then dust with salt and freshly ground pepper. The cutting of lettuce is considered a culinary sin; but, when the straight-leaved lettuce, or the Romaine, is to be used, better effects, at least as far as appearance is concerned, will be produced, if the lettuce be cut into ribbons. To do this, wash the lettuce carefully, without removing the leaves from the stem; fold together across the centre, and with a sharp, thin knife cut into ribbons less than half an inch in width.
Prepare as lettuce salad, first rubbing over the bowl with a clove of garlic cut in halves. A few sprigs of chives, chopped fine, are exceedingly palatable, sprinkled over a lettuce, endive, string-bean, or other bean salad.
Dress each vegetable separately with the dressing; then arrange upon the serving-dish. Or, have the salad arranged upon the serving-dish and pour the dressing over all; then toss together and serve. About three tablespoonfuls of oil, with other ingredients in accordance, will be needed for one pint of vegetable.
1. Lettuce, tomatoes cut in halves, sprinkled with powdered tarragon, and parsley or chives.
2. Lettuce, moulded spinach and fine-chopped beets.
3. Lettuce, Boston baked beans and chives.
4. Lettuce and peppergrass.
5. Lettuce, shredded sweet peppers or pimentos, and sliced pecan nuts or almonds.
6. Lettuce, tomatoes stuffed with peas or string beans cut small, and chives chopped fine.
7. Lettuce, asparagus tips and sliced radishes. Arrange the lettuce at the edge of dish, inside a ring of radishes sliced thin, without removing the red skins; centre of asparagus tips, with radish cut to resemble a flower.
8. Lettuce, shredded tomatoes and shredded green peppers.
9. Shredded lettuce, English walnuts, and almonds or cooked chestnuts, sliced.
10. Lettuce, Neufchatel cheese in slices and shredded pimentos.
11. Lettuce, cauliflower, string beans and shredded pimentos.
12. Lettuce or cress, artichoke slices and powdered tarragon.
13. Shredded cabbage and shredded green peppers.
14. Cauliflower broken into flowerets, string beans cut into small pieces, and beets cut in fancy shapes or chopped. Arrange each vegetable in a mass by itself; surround with lettuce.
15. Cucumbers and new onions, sliced.
16. Watercress, diced boiled beets, and olives in centre.
17. Lettuce, Brussels sprouts and chopped pepper.
Soak the lentils over night; wash and rinse thoroughly, then cook until tender, adding hot water as needed. Drain, and when cold mix with each pint of lentils about five tablespoonfuls of oil, two tablespoonfuls of tarragon vinegar and one teaspoonful, each, of capers, parsley, chives and cucumber pickles, all, save the capers, chopped fine. Serve in a mound, on a bed of lettuce leaves. Garnish with heart leaves of lettuce at the top and sections of tomato, or diamonds of tomato jelly, at the base.
Toss one pint of white beans, cooked, with one tablespoonful of vinegar and three tablespoonfuls of oil, a little salt and a dash of cayenne or paprica. Arrange in a mound on a bed of shredded lettuce, and sprinkle with chives, parsley and pimentos, all finely chopped. Finish the top of the salad with a large pim-ola.
Method.—Mix the potatoes and nuts, add the oil and mix again; add the other seasonings, and, when well mixed, set aside in a cool place an hour or more. Remove the coarse stalks from two bunches of watercress that have been well washed and dried. Season with French dressing and arrange in a wreath about the edge of the salad.
Method.—Cut the potatoes into dice and chop the eggs fine. Chop the onions, or slice them very thin. Sprinkle the potatoes, eggs and onions with the salt and pepper, and mix thoroughly. Pour the oil gradually over the mixture, stirring and tossing continually; lastly, mix with the other ingredients the vinegar, in which the sugar has been dissolved. Sprinkle chopped parsley over the top.
Method.—To the potato cubes add the salt, pepper and oil, and mix thoroughly; add the vinegar and mix again. Pile the cubes in a mound in the salad-bowl. Mark out the surface of the mound into quarters with capers; fill in two opposite sections with chopped beet; use chopped whites of eggs in a third, and sifted yolks of eggs in the fourth section. Finish with a border of parsley.
Method.—Mix the potatoes, gherkins, nasturtium shoots and seeds in a bowl rubbed over with garlic; add the oil, vinegar and seasonings, and mix again. Pile in a mound on a serving-dish, dust with chopped parsley, and garnish with a wreath of nasturtium blossoms and leaves.
Boil new beets, of even size, until tender. Set aside for some hours, or over night, covered with vinegar. When ready to serve, rub off the skin, scoop out the centre of each to form a cup, and arrange the cups on lettuce leaves. For each five cups chop fine a cucumber. Make a French dressing of two tablespoonfuls of oil, half a tablespoonful (scant) of vinegar, one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of paprica and salt. Stir the dressing into the cucumber and fill the beets with the mixture. Of the beet removed to form the cups, cut slices and stamp out from these stars or other fanciful shapes, and use to decorate the top of each cup.
Chopped radish, cress, olives or celery are all admissible for a filling.
Soak the sprouts in salted water; then drain and cook in salted boiling water about fifteen minutes, or until tender; drain and cool. Dress with French dressing and pile in a mound. Finish the top with a fanciful-shaped figure cut from a slice of pickled beet, and place a wreath of cooked beet, chopped and seasoned with French dressing, about the whole.
Cut pieces of carrot and turnip one inch long and half an inch thick. Put over the fire in boiling water and bring quickly to the boiling-point; drain, cover with fresh water, and cook until tender; score the top of each piece and insert an asparagus point. Dip the pieces in a little melted gelatine and set alternately in a circle on the serving-dish. Have carrots cut in small cubes or straws, turnips and beet root the same, green string beans cut in small pieces, asparagus and peas, all cooked separately until tender. Mix with French dressing and dispose inside the circle. Each vegetable may be massed by itself, or all may be mixed together. Finish the top with half a dozen short stalks of asparagus.
Peel and shred four tomatoes; slice thinly a very mild onion and separate into rings; dress freely with oil and tarragon vinegar, and season with salt and pepper. Serve on lettuce leaves, sprinkling the whole with fine-chopped parsley and green peppers.
Dress the well-blanched stalks of a head of endive, three tomatoes, peeled, cut in halves and chilled, and a cup of cold cooked string beans, separately, with French dressing, using in the dressing tarragon vinegar and a few drops of onion juice; then arrange on a serving-dish.
Pare large cucumbers and cut them into thin slices; cut each slice round and round so as to form a long, narrow curling strip. Let these strips stand two hours in salted ice water, drain, and dry in a soft cloth. Serve with French dressing. Toss first in the oil, then add the condiments, and lastly the vinegar. Americans would prefer to omit the salt from the ice water, as it softens the cucumber.
With a handy slicer remove the outside rind from the cucumbers, cut in thin slices, and let stand in ice-water to chill. Wipe dry, and arrange the slices in the salad bowl in the form of a Greek cross. Make a French dressing, in the proportion of three tablespoonfuls of cider vinegar to six tablespoonfuls of oil, half a teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of paprica. Rub the inside of the salad bowl with the cut side of an onion before the salad is disposed in it.
Dress cooked kidney beans, peas, and balls cut from potatoes, each separately with French dressing, to which a few drops of onion juice have been added. Dispose upon a serving-dish and let stand in a cool place an hour or more. Garnish at serving with heart leaves of lettuce.
Method.—Boil the potatoes without paring. German potatoes, which are waxy rather than mealy, may be procured in large cities especially for salads. Peel the potatoes and cut them while hot into slices or cubes; pour over them as much beef broth as they will readily absorb and sprinkle with the salt and pepper, the oil and onion; mix lightly and set aside for some hours. Then add the whites of the eggs chopped fine, the yolks passed through a sieve, and mix with the rest of the oil, stirred with the vinegar into the mustard and sugar. After disposing in the dish, sprinkle with the parsley. If mushrooms be at hand, simmer ten or fifteen minutes in broth, break in pieces, and add to the salad with the egg.
Soak the cauliflower in salted water an hour; cook in boiling salted water until tender; drain and chill, then sprinkle with French dressing and set aside for half an hour. Sever the flowerets partly from the stalk, but so as not to change their relative positions, and place on a serving-dish; put heart leaves of lettuce between the flowerets and about the base of the vegetable; pour a cup of mayonnaise dressing over the whole, and sprinkle with pimentos or fine-chopped parsley. In serving, separate the flowerets with a sharp knife.
Peel the tomatoes; cut out a circular piece at the stem end of each and scoop out the flesh so as to form cups. Chill thoroughly, then fill with English walnut or pecan meats, broken into pieces, and celery, cut into small pieces and mixed with mayonnaise. Serve on lettuce leaves.
Method.—Remove a round piece from the stem end of the tomatoes and scoop out the seeds and centre. Chill thoroughly. When ready to serve, mix together the solid part removed from the tomatoes, cut fine, and the other ingredients; season to taste with salt and pepper, adding also mayonnaise to hold the mixture together. With this fill the tomatoes, put them in nests of lettuce or cress, and force a star of mayonnaise on the top of each tomato.
Plunge the tomatoes, placed in a wire basket, into a kettle of hot water; remove at once and rub off the skin; chill thoroughly and cut in halves. Serve on lettuce leaves with a star of cream dressing, seasoned with grated horseradish, on the top of each slice.
Cook two sweetbreads as directed on another page, or braise with vegetables. Cool between two plates bearing a weight. When cold cut into slices and stamp into rounds of suitable size to use with slices of tomato. Cover the slices of sweetbread with chaud-froid sauce and decorate with fine-chopped parsley or sifted yolk of egg; pour over a little melted aspic. When the aspic is set, trim neatly, and arrange each round of sweetbread on a slice of chilled tomato. Serve inside a border of lettuce around a salad made of the trimmings of the sweetbreads and a cucumber cut in cubes and dressed with mayonnaise.
Wash the cress and shake dry; arrange as a bed on a serving-dish, discarding the coarse stems; above this make a smaller bed of cucumbers, cut in slices or dice and dressed with French dressing, using three tablespoonfuls of oil and one of vinegar or lemon juice to a pint of cucumber. Arrange peeled tomatoes, chilled and cut in pieces, upon the cucumbers. Serve with French, cream or mayonnaise dressing.
Peel five tomatoes, cut off the stem ends and scoop out the pulp, thus forming cups; set, turned upside down, in a cool place. Chop fine the solid pulp from the tomatoes and one cucumber, chilled before chopping; stir into a cup of cream dressing and fill the tomatoes with the mixture. Salt and pepper will be needed in addition to that in the dressing. If at hand, a pimento may be chopped with the other ingredients, or two tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish may be used. Serve at once on lettuce leaves.
Chop one sweetbread and one cucumber fine. To each cup (solid and liquid) add one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt and paprica, a few drops of onion juice and a tablespoonful of capers; add also half a tablespoonful of granulated gelatine, soaked in two or three tablespoonfuls of cold water and melted over hot water. Stir until the mixture begins to congeal, then fill into tomatoes prepared as above. Set aside on the ice for half an hour, at least; then serve on lettuce leaves with either mayonnaise, boiled or cream dressing. Calf's brains, chicken, veal, tongue or ham may be substituted for the sweetbread.
Method.—Scoop out the centres of the tomatoes, after removing the skin, and chill thoroughly. Pass the yolks through a sieve, add to the lobster, with the capers, half a cup of mayonnaise and half a cup of chicken aspic, thick and cold, but not set; stir these in a dish standing in ice water until nearly set; then fill the cavities in the tomatoes with the mixture. Brush over the outside of the tomatoes with half-set aspic; when the aspic is set, repeat twice, then set aside on ice for some time before serving. Serve on a bed of lettuce seasoned with French dressing. Garnish each tomato with a sprig of parsley and the salad-dish with blocks of aspic. Anchovies or any cooked fish may be substituted for the lobster. Serve with mayonnaise.
Soak three-fourths a box of gelatine in half a cup of cold water. Cook a can of tomatoes, half an onion, a stalk of celery, a bay leaf, two cloves, a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of paprica ten minutes. Add two tablespoonfuls of tarragon vinegar and the gelatine, stir till dissolved, strain, and mould in a ring mould. When cold turn from the mould and fill the centre with
Cut fine tender stalks of celery and English walnuts and mix with French dressing. Garnish the centre of the salad and the border of the jelly with tender leaves of lettuce and bits of curled celery.
Make the jelly and mould as before. Fill in the centre of the ring with shredded cabbage, pimentos and pecan nuts, mixed with boiled dressing.
Cook tiny string beans until tender in boiling salted water; season while hot with onion juice, salt, pepper and tarragon vinegar. When cold add oil and toss the beans about until each bean is coated with the oil. Fill the centre of the jelly, fashioned in a ring mould, with the beans, and sprinkle over them a fine-chopped pimento. Garnish with lettuce leaves. Fine-chopped chives may be used in the place of the onion juice; they are particularly appropriate in any bean salad. If the beans are large, cut in halves lengthwise and the halves crosswise.
Tomato jelly may be served in a ring mould with turkey, oyster, plain chicken, French chicken, and other salads. The oysters should be scalded and drained, then marinated with French dressing. Chicken and turkey should also be marinated before mixing with celery and the mayonnaise or boiled dressing.
Choose medium-sized tomatoes, firm and smooth skinned. Peel them, cut a slice from the stem end and remove the seeds with a small spoon. Sprinkle the interior of these cups with salt and set on ice. When ready to serve, wipe them dry and fill with artichokes cut into dice and mixed with mayonnaise. Serve on lettuce leaves. Use tarragon vinegar in preparing the dressing. Cook the artichoke hearts until just tender,—no longer,—in salted boiling water, then drain and cool.
Peel three oranges, remove the pith and white skin and slice lengthwise; use an equal amount of tender blanched celery stalks cut into inch lengths. Mix together lightly with two tablespoonfuls of olive oil, one tablespoonful of lemon juice, half a teaspoonful of salt and a quarter a teaspoonful of paprica. Heap together lightly on a serving-dish and surround with cooked hearts of artichokes cut into quarters; wreathe with blanched celery leaves.
Cut boiled artichokes into quarter-inch slices and stamp out with a French vegetable cutter. To half a pint add one tablespoonful of olive oil, half a tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar and one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt; toss lightly together and let stand one hour; drain, and arrange as a border with an outer layer of tiny blanched lettuce leaves.
2. Scoop out the centres of the artichokes and fill with mayonnaise, or with ravigote, tartare or tyrolienne sauce. Serve on lettuce leaves as a border to a meat or fish salad.
3. Fill the centres with walnut meats, sliced, or tender celery stalks, cut fine and mixed with mayonnaise.
Cut cold cooked asparagus into pieces an inch long, mix lightly with cream dressing and serve, in individual portions, on curly lettuce leaves.
Mix cold cooked salmon with mayonnaise, form in a mound and encircle with a wreath of cold cooked asparagus tips dressed with French dressing.
Break the cooked cauliflower into its flowerets, dispose in the centre of the serving-dish and surround with a wreath of cooked asparagus tips. Pour over the whole a mayonnaise, a boiled or a cream dressing, and sprinkle with chopped capers or pimentos.
Cook the turnips in boiling salted water until tender; drain, and cut out the centres, forming cups. Sprinkle the inside with oil and a few grains of salt, and, when the oil is absorbed, pour over the cups a little lemon juice or vinegar. Set aside to become cool. When ready to serve, arrange the cups on shredded lettuce and fill with cooked asparagus tips, cold and mixed with mayonnaise or French dressing, as desired. Peas, flageolets or wax beans, cut fine, may be used instead of the asparagus. Garnish with radishes.
Mix the peas with a cream dressing; serve in nests of lettuce; garnish the top of each nest with a little chopped beet, or a fanciful figure cut from a pickled beet or pimento.
Mix equal parts of cold cooked peas and potatoes cut in very small cubes; season with salt and pepper, and serve as green-pea salad.
Scrape the scales from the stalks, and cook, standing upright in boiling salted water, until tender; drain and chill thoroughly. Serve on lettuce leaves with French dressing. Garnish the lettuce with hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters lengthwise.
Dress one cup, each, of cooked carrots and turnips, cut in dice, string beans, cut small, green peas, and half a cup of cooked beets, cut small, with French dressing; add two tablespoonfuls of chopped gherkins; drain, and mix with sufficient jelly mayonnaise to hold the vegetables together. Arrange in dome shape and cover with more jelly mayonnaise. Set a row of sliced gherkins near the top, and fill in the space to the top with string beans or asparagus tips. Surround the base with alternate rounds of beet and potato overlapping one another. Decorate the space above with slices of potato and beet cut in diamonds, and surround the base with light-green aspic cut in diamonds. One pint of aspic will be sufficient; use chicken stock, and tint with color paste.
Select two moulds of suitable shape and size (tin basins or earthen bowls will do) and chill in ice water. Have ready cooked balls, cut from carrots and turnips, and cooked string beans and cauliflower, all marinated with French dressing. Drain the vegetables, dip them into half-set aspic, and arrange against the chilled sides of the moulds; then fill the moulds with aspic jelly. When set, with a hot spoon scoop out the aspic from the centre of each mould and fill in the space with a mixture of the vegetables and jelly mayonnaise, leaving an open space at the top to be filled with half-set aspic. When thoroughly chilled and set, turn from the moulds, the smaller mould above the other. Garnish with flowerets of cauliflower, dipped in aspic and chilled, and lettuce. Serve with mayonnaise.
Pare a short cucumber and cut it lengthwise in two parts; remove the seeds and let chill in ice water for an hour. Chop together the solid part of a peeled and seeded tomato, half a slice of new onion, a stalk of celery and a sprig of parsley; mix with mayonnaise or a boiled dressing and use as a filling for the well-dried halves of cucumber. Serve on cress or lettuce.
Cook the cowslip leaves until tender in boiling salted water, reserving a few choice leaves with blossoms for a garnish. Chop fine, season to taste with salt and paprica, press into a mould, and set aside to become chilled. Slice chilled cream cheese (Neufchatel or cottage) in uniform slices, and arrange at the sides of the mound. Serve with French or mayonnaise dressing.
Separate a cauliflower into flowerets and boil in salted water until tender, not longer. Drain carefully. Season with oil, vinegar, salt, pepper, and a sprinkling of chopped tarragon leaves (or use tarragon vinegar). Arrange symmetrically in an earthen bowl, having the upper surface level. Let stand to become thoroughly chilled, then turn on to a serving-dish; the shape of the mould will be retained. Cover with mayonnaise dressing or Sauce Tartare, and surround with lengthwise quarters of hard-boiled eggs.
Boil the potatoes and let cool without paring. Then remove the skins and cut into slices, balls, or cubes. Squeeze over them a little onion juice, sprinkle with fine-chopped parsley, and let stand in a French dressing several hours. Mix the dressing after the usual formula, and use enough to moisten well the potato. When ready to serve, make nests of heart leaves of lettuce, put a spoonful of the potato in each, with a teaspoonful of mayonnaise above, sprinkle the mayonnaise with capers, and press the quarter of a hard-boiled egg into the top of the mayonnaise. Or add the chopped white of egg to the potato before marinating, and sift the yolk over the mayonnaise.
|"Some choice sous'd fish brought couchant in a dish,|
|Among some fennel."
|"Of what complexion?|
|Of the sea water green, sir."|
Ever, and justly, fish have taken high rank in the list of salad ingredients. No wonder, when we consider that nothing excels in delicacy of flavor many a variety of fish; and, while fish are not necessarily expensive in any locality, in many sections of the country their cost is merely nominal. Then, too, salad-making appeals largely to one's artistic nature, and the products of sea and fresh water are constantly furnishing opportunities for studies in many and varied shades of color. The lobster's vivid red, the brilliant tints of the salmon and red snapper, the delicate pink of shrimps, the dull white of scallops and halibut, and the bluish gray of mackerel and bluefish, each, in its season, may be made to contrast most effectively with fresh green herbs and yellow dressings.
Oysters, scallops and little-neck clams are frequently served in salads without cooking. These should be carefully washed, then drained and set aside in a marinade for an hour. When cooked, they should be heated to the boiling-point in their own liquor, then drained and cut in halves. The adductor muscle of the oyster—the white, button-shaped part that connects the animal with its shell—is often discarded. Other fish than shellfish, when used in salads, are boiled, broiled or baked; they present the best appearance, however, when boiled. Thudichum recommends sea water, whenever it is available, for boiling fish; lacking this, hot water, salted (an ounce of salt to a quart of water), and acidulated pleasantly with lemon juice or vinegar, is the proper medium of cooking. The addition of a slice or two of onion and carrot, a sprig of parsley, a stalk of celery, with aromatic herbs or spices, provided they be not used so freely as to overpower the delicate savor of the fish, is thought to improve the dish.
The quantity of water should be adjusted to the size of the fish; in no case should it be larger than will suffice to produce the desired result. At the moment the fish is immersed in the water the temperature should be at the boiling-point, and thereafter the vessel should be permitted to simmer during the process of cooking.
The fish may be cooked whole, or cut into small pieces, similar in shape and size. In the latter case a wire basket is of service, as, by this means, the fish may be easily removed from the water and drained. If the fish is to be served whole, remove the skin and fins, and, when thoroughly cold, mask with jelly mayonnaise or with a fancy butter. After chilling again, the mask may be decorated with capers, olives, eggs, etc. If the fish is to be used in flakes, the flakes will separate more easily while the fish is still hot. In marinating fish, let the proportions of oil and acid vary with the kind of fish; i.e., according to the oily nature of the flesh.
Dress the trout without removing the heads; boil as previously indicated. Remove the backbone without destroying the shape of the fish. Serve, thoroughly chilled, on crisp lettuce leaves dressed with claret or French dressing. Prepare the latter with tarragon vinegar.
Pour a little chicken aspic into a pickle or other dish of suitable shape and size for a single fish; when nearly set, lay a trout, prepared as above, upon the aspic, add a few spoonfuls of aspic, let it harden so that the fish may become fixed in place, then add aspic to cover. Slices of cucumber pickles, capers, or other ornaments, may be used. When the aspic is thoroughly set and chilled, remove from the mould and serve on two lettuce leaves, with any dressing desired.
Flake the fish and marinate with French dressing (three tablespoonfuls of oil, one tablespoonful of lemon juice or vinegar, a dash of salt and pepper, for each pint of fish); drain, and add half as much boiled potato, cut in small cubes and dressed with French dressing. Serve on a bed of lettuce leaves. Garnish with sardine dressing. Shredded lettuce or peas may be used in place of the potato.
Method.—Flake one pound of cooked halibut while hot, and marinate with the oil, lemon juice, onion juice, salt and pepper. When cold drain and mix with the pimentos, shredded, after cutting from the same a few star-shaped or other fanciful figures. Arrange heart leaves of lettuce in an upright position in the centre of a serving-dish, the fish and pimentos around the lettuce, and, around these, one large or two small cucumbers, cut in small cubes and mixed with French dressing. With salmon use capers instead of pimentos. Use enough dressing to moisten the cucumbers thoroughly.
Steam a thick slice of chicken halibut, until the flesh separates easily from the bone. Remove the skin and bones without disturbing the shape of the fish. Marinate, while hot, with three tablespoonfuls of oil, one tablespoonful of vinegar or lemon juice, and salt and pepper. When cold put the fish on a serving-dish, and, using endive or Boston Market lettuce, put the ends of the leaves beneath the fish, so that the tops of the leaves will fall over upon the fish. Garnish the top with stars of mayonnaise. Between the leaves dispose sliced pim-olas and fans cut from small gherkins. Serve mayonnaise with the salad.
Method.—Remove the skin and bone from the halibut, thus securing eight fillets. Season with salt, pepper, onion and lemon juice. Chop the lobster meat fine; melt the butter, cook in it the flour and seasonings, add the cream and lobster stock, and, when cooked, stir in the chopped lobster. When cool spread upon one side of the fillets, roll up the fillets and fasten with wooden toothpicks that have been dipped in melted butter. Bake on a fish-sheet about fifteen minutes, basting with butter melted in hot water.
Set a plain border-mould in ice water; decorate the bottom and sides with pim-olas or gherkins cut in slices and dipped in half-set aspic; cover the decoration on the bottom with aspic, and, when set and the decorations on the side are "fixed" in place, arrange on the aspic the cold fillets of fish and fill the mould with more aspic. When cold turn from the mould and fill the centre with diced cucumbers and sliced radishes dressed with French dressing. Pass mayonnaise or French dressing in a separate dish. Surround the aspic with shredded lettuce if desired.
Use a generous half-pint of oysters in the place of the lobster, parboiling and draining before chopping, and fill in the centre of the aspic with coleslaw.
Marinate one pint of cold cooked fish—salmon, cod, haddock, halibut, etc.—with three or four tablespoonfuls of oil, half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice. Marinate, separately, one pint of cold potatoes, cooked in their skins and cut in cubes, with the same quantity of dressing, adding also one teaspoonful of onion juice. Let stand in a cool place one hour or more. Have ready six hard-boiled eggs; cut a thin slice from the round end of each egg, that it may stand upright, then cut in quarters lengthwise. Dip into a little aspic jelly or melted gelatine and arrange the quarters in the form of a circle, with the yolks outside. Toss together the fish, potato and three tablespoonfuls of capers, and fill in the centre of the circle. Dust with fine-chopped parsley or beets; add a tuft of lettuce at the top and a few heart leaves of lettuce above the crown of eggs.
Cover the bottom of a mould with aspic to the depth of one-fourth an inch. Set the mould in ice water, and, when the aspic is set, arrange upon it a decoration of cooked vegetables cut in shapes with French cutter, or fashion a conventional design or some flower. Dogwood blossoms provide a simple pattern, and one easily carried out. Cut the four petals from a thin slice of cooked turnip and the centre of the blossom from carrot or lemon peel. Fasten each piece in place with liquid jelly, and, when set, cover with more jelly. To decorate the sides of the mould, take the figures on the point of a skewer, dip in jelly, then set in position against the chilled sides of the mould, and they will remain in place. After the jelly covering the figures on the bottom of the mould has "set," place a smaller mould in the centre of the aspic in the first, and fill this with ice and water. Pour in aspic to fill the space about the smaller mould, and, when this aspic is firm, dip out the water and ice. Fill with warm water and quickly remove the mould. Separate a pound of cooked fish into flakes, add half a cup of cold cooked peas, three or four gherkins, cut very fine, and three tablespoonfuls of capers. Mix together and then mix with one cup of mayonnaise made with jelly; with this fill the vacant space in the mould. When ready to serve, dip the mould very quickly into warm water, letting the water rise to the top of the mould, and invert over a serving-dish; remove the mould, and garnish with lettuce, tiny gherkins cut to resemble fans, blocks of aspic, or aspic moulded in shells, and mayonnaise.
Decorate the mould as before; then put in a layer of the fish and dressing; when set, add a layer of aspic; alternate the layers until the materials are used or the mould is filled. Individual moulds may be prepared in the same way.
Separate a cooked fish into flakes and mix with the chopped whites and sifted yolks of three hard-boiled eggs. Season with French dressing, mix lightly and turn on to a bed of lettuce or cress, also seasoned with the dressing. Garnish with fans cut from small gherkins, or with pickled beet cut in fanciful shape or chopped.
Freshen the fish carefully before cooking. Use equal parts of fish, flaked, and cold boiled potatoes. If potatoes are specially prepared for the purpose, cut them in cubes or balls, blanch, and cook in well-seasoned beef stock; drain, and add, when cold, to the fish. Season with French dressing. Arrange on a bed of cress and sift the yolk of an egg over the whole.
Cook two shad roes with an onion, sliced, and a bay leaf, in salted, acidulated water twenty minutes; drain, and marinate with about two tablespoonfuls of oil, one tablespoonful of lemon juice and a dash of pepper and salt. When cold cut in small cubes. Rub the salad-bowl with a clove of garlic cut in halves. Cut a thoroughly chilled cucumber in dice; put the cucumber on a bed of lettuce leaves in the bottom of the bowl, and the roe, well drained, above; mask with mayonnaise,—nearly a cup will be required,—in the top insert a few heart leaves of lettuce, and place around the centre of the mound a circle of cucumber slices overlapping one another; or alternate these with lozenges cut from pickled beet.
Butter four small dariole moulds, or small cups; sprinkle the butter with chopped parsley. Select four small pieces of cooked salmon, dry on a soft cloth so as to remove all oily liquor, and put a piece in each mould. Beat two eggs (or, better, one egg and the yolks of two) slightly, season with one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of paprica and a few drops of anchovy essence or onion juice; add half a cup of milk, and, when well mixed, pour into the moulds around the fish. Set the moulds in a pan of hot water and bake until the custard is set. Do not let the water boil. Chill thoroughly, then turn from the moulds on to lettuce leaves. Serve with a star of mayonnaise dressing on the top of each boudin.
Method.—Marinate the carrots and potatoes, cut in small pieces, also the peas and beans, with French dressing. Arrange on a dish in four sections, having lettuce for the foundation of each. Cover each vegetable with mayonnaise. Strew the tops of two sections with small pieces of smoked salmon; on a third section strew the sifted yolk of the egg, and on the fourth, the white of the egg, cut rather coarsely. Outline the inner side of each section with shrimps, by lightly pressing the ends of the shrimps into the mayonnaise. Finish with a tuft of lettuce in the centre of the dish.
In the centre of a flat serving-dish arrange a mound of endive. Peel tomatoes, divide into sections or cut in slices, and arrange these around the endive. Shell cold, hard-boiled eggs; cut in halves, crosswise, and in points; remove the yolks and pound to a paste with an equal amount of the flesh of lobster, shrimp, anchovies or salmon. With this paste, seasoned to taste with oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper, fill the cups fashioned from the whites of the eggs, and arrange them around the tomatoes. Strew chopped shallot and sweet pepper over the endive. Mix equal portions of oil and vinegar, add salt and pepper to taste, and pour over the salad. Serve at once.
Method.—Cut the eggs into halves lengthwise; cut a thin slice from the round ends, that the pieces may be set upright; dip lightly in the gelatine dissolved over hot water, and arrange miroton fashion around an oval serving-dish. Set aside, that the eggs may become fixed in position. Marinate the vegetables, separately, with French dressing; cook the salmon by the directions previously given; remove the skin and cover the sides with jelly mayonnaise or fancy butter. When cold decorate with whites of eggs and capers. Use the trimmings from the eggs, and fix them in place by dipping in jelly mayonnaise. Set aside for the decorations to become fixed. Drain the vegetables and arrange inside the border, higher in the centre. Lay the decorated slices of fish upon opposite sides of the mound, and serve either with or without mayonnaise.
Method.—Prepare the eggs and fasten to the plate as in salmon salad. Dip diamond-shaped pieces of pickled beet in the dissolved gelatine and place upon the front and top of each half of egg. Spread the edge of the fish, after removing the skin, with jelly mayonnaise, or green butter, and, when set, decorate with figures cut from the cooked white of an egg. With forcing-bag and tube shape a pattern around the upper edge of the fish. Place the fish in the centre of the crown or miroton of eggs, with the peas seasoned with French dressing around it; cover the place from which the bone was taken with the centre of a head of lettuce, cut in halves, and two fine olives. Serve with a bowl of mayonnaise.
Cut cold fish—salmon, halibut, lobster, etc.—into small cubes, mix with one-third in measure of cooked mushrooms, also cut small, and add for each cup of mushrooms and fish one tablespoonful of gherkins cut fine. Season with French dressing and let stand one hour; then drain, and mix with jellied mayonnaise. Fill chilled shells with this preparation, rounding it on the top. Make smooth, and mask with jellied mayonnaise. Decorate with gherkins and the white of a hard-boiled egg cut in fanciful shapes, and with stars of mayonnaise.
Parboil, drain, cool, and wipe dry one quart of oysters. Make a pint of mayonnaise sauce with aspic jelly and coat the well-dried oysters with the sauce. Prepare a quart of chicken aspic. Dip in half-set aspic the white of egg, poached and cut in fanciful shapes, and small gherkins cut in thin slices, and decorate the bottom and sides of a charlotte or cylindrical mould standing in ice water. Pour in jelly to the depth of half an inch; when set, arrange the oysters on it in a circle, one overlapping another; pour in more jelly, and, when set, dispose upon it another circle of oysters. Continue this order until the mould is filled. When removed from the mould, garnish with chopped aspic and fans cut from gherkins and lettuce. Serve with the remainder of the pint of mayonnaise.
Parboil the oysters (heating them to the boiling-point in their own liquor), drain, and, if large, halve each; marinate with a French dressing (i.e., toss the bits of oyster in oil enough to coat them nicely; then toss them in a little lemon juice, dust with salt and pepper, and set aside to become thoroughly chilled). When ready to serve, drain again and add about one-third as much in bulk of fine-chopped celery and one or two tablespoonfuls of pickled nasturtium seeds or capers; then mix with mayonnaise or a boiled dressing. Serve on a bed of lettuce leaves. Cabbage, sliced as for slaw, may be used in the place of celery. Garnish with small pickles cut in thin slices and spread to resemble a fan.
Cut a pair of cold cooked sweetbreads into cubes. Parboil one pint of oysters, drain, cool, and cut in halves; marinate the sweetbreads and oysters with French dressing, and allow them to stand at least half an hour; drain, mix with mayonnaise, and serve on a bed of lettuce or cress. Or, surround with a circle of chopped cucumbers seasoned with French dressing.
Pare the cucumbers, which should be rather short, and cut them in halves lengthwise; remove the seeds and steam until tender; chill, and arrange on lettuce leaves, or on a bed of watercress. Clean and marinate the shrimps. If large, divide into two or three pieces. Mix with mayonnaise and place in the cucumbers. Decorate with stars of mayonnaise and whole shrimps.
Set a border mould in ice water; dip hard-boiled eggs, cut in halves lengthwise and trimmed to fit the mould, in aspic jelly, and press against the sides of the mould alternately with small vegetable balls, or peas dipped in half-set aspic; fill gradually the empty space in the mould with partly cooled jelly, adding vegetables here and there if desired. Dip in hot water and turn from the mould. Fill in the centre with lettuce, torn in pieces, and one pint of shrimps, broken in pieces and dressed with French dressing. Smooth the mound and mask with jelly mayonnaise. Decorate with shrimps and small heart leaves of lettuce.
Decorate the sides of a ring mould, chilled, with hard-boiled eggs cut in halves, alternated with hearts of lettuce cut in halves; dip the egg and lettuce in half-set aspic, and they will adhere to the sides of the mould. Then proceed as above.
Take the shrimps from the shells, reserve the most perfect for garnishing, and break the others into pieces; marinate with French dressing. When ready to serve, drain, and mix with shredded lettuce, or celery cut fine, and mayonnaise. Shape in a mound on a bed of lettuce leaves and mask with mayonnaise. Use capers or olives, chopped very fine, to mark out five or six designs on the mound; a scroll effect is always pretty. Fill in the designs with shrimps and the rest of the mound with capers, sifted yolks or chopped whites of cooked eggs; or fill the designs with the capers or eggs and the rest of the mound with shrimps. Finish with a tuft of lettuce at the top.
Soak the scallops in salted water (a tablespoonful of salt to a quart of water) one hour; rinse in cold water, cover with boiling water, and let simmer five or six minutes. Rinse again in cold water, drain, and when cold cut into slices. Cut white stalks of celery into small pieces. Mix the celery and scallops—half as much celery as scallops—with mayonnaise or boiled dressing, and shape in a mound. Mask the mound with a thin coating of mayonnaise. With large-sized capers outline a design on each of the four sides of the mound, fill these with whites of eggs, cooked and chopped fine. Ornament with figures cut from slices of boiled beets. Fill in the spaces around the designs with capers, and garnish with green celery leaves and white stalks of celery, fringed.
Lay the sardines upon soft paper, that they may be freed from oil. Scrape off the skin and remove the bones; squeeze over them a little lemon juice. Arrange upon a bed of crisp lettuce leaves, or upon shredded lettuce, and dress with either French or mayonnaise dressing. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs cut in slices.
Arrange a pint of cold cooked fish, flaked, on a bed of lettuce leaves and cover with sardine dressing. Carefully split six selected sardines; remove the bones and arrange the halves on the top of the salad, with the heads at the centre. Garnish with slices of lemon.
Skin and bone a dozen sardines and put them in a mortar; remove the shells from an equal number of hard-boiled eggs and cut them into halves crosswise, so as to form cups with pointed edges; put the yolks into the mortar with the sardines, add a tablespoonful, or less, of chopped parsley, a dash of pepper and salt, and work to a smooth paste; moisten with salad dressing and season to taste with salt and pepper. Cut a thin slice from the ends of the egg cups, that they may be set upright on the serving-dish, and fill with the mixture, making it round on the top like a whole yolk. Arrange these on a bed of watercress, or shredded lettuce, and sprinkle plentifully with French dressing.
Cut lobster meat in dice and marinate with French dressing. Keep on ice until ready to serve, then drain carefully. Make cups of the inside leaves of lettuce, put a spoonful of the lobster meat in the centre of each cup, and press mayonnaise dressing through a pastry bag with star tube attached on the top of the lobster in each nest. Or, arrange the lobster in a mound on a bed of lettuce leaves, and mask the mound with mayonnaise. Finish the centre with a little bouquet of the heart leaves of lettuce; sift dried coral in a circle about it, and below that arrange circles of sifted yolk or chopped white of egg alternately with the coral. Garnish with the fans and feelers of the lobster. Or, arrange as before, then finish the centre with a bouquet of heart leaves of lettuce and the head of the lobster. Garnish with stars of mayonnaise and fans from the tail.
Remove the flesh carefully from the shell of a lobster, so as to keep the shell of body and tail intact; wash and dry the shell and arrange on a bed of lettuce leaves. Marinate the flesh, cut into cubes, with French dressing. After an hour drain, mix with an equal quantity of shredded lettuce, and replace in the shell. Garnish with mayonnaise and the lobster coral. Dry the coral thoroughly, after which it may be passed readily through a sieve.
Method.—Make a white sauce of the butter, flour, seasonings and milk; add the coral and butter, after pounding until smooth in a mortar, also the yolk of egg, beaten and diluted with the lemon juice, and the lobster meat chopped rather coarsely. When cold shape into cutlets, dust over with sifted coral, and insert a bit of feeler or claw into the small end of each. Pour a little aspic into a dish, and, when it sets, arrange the cutlets upon it a little distance apart; pour over each a few spoonfuls of aspic, and when set cover with more aspic. When cold and very firm cut out the cutlets, giving a border of aspic to each.
Marinate the flesh of the other lobster, cut into cubes, with French dressing; pile in a mound on a bed of lettuce leaves. Insert a tuft of leaves in the top, and arrange the cutlets against the mound. Garnish with feelers and claws. Serve mayonnaise or sauce tartare with the salad.
Set a ring mould in ice water. In the bottom of the mould arrange pitted olives or pim-olas an inch apart. Dip figures, cut from slices of royal custard, or from cooked carrot or turnip, into liquid aspic, and place them on the sides of the mould, to which they will adhere; dip large-sized capers (a larding-needle or skewer is of assistance in this work) in aspic and with them ornament the mould; then fill with aspic and set aside to become fixed. When ready to serve, dip the mould in hot water and invert on a serving-dish. Cut the meat from two two-pound lobsters into small cubes. Season with French dressing. Fill the open space in the aspic with the salad; garnish the top with the feelers and delicate lettuce leaves, and arrange a wreath of lettuce leaves around the aspic. Stamp out rounds of bread; stamp again with the same cutter to form crescents, spread delicately with butter, and then with caviare seasoned with a few drops of lemon juice, and dispose symmetrically on the lettuce.
Chill timbale moulds in ice water; dip thin slices of gherkins into half-set aspic, and arrange them symmetrically against the sides of the moulds, and brush over the decoration with aspic. Cut the claw meat of a two-pound lobster into small cubes; chop fine, and pound the remaining meat in a mortar; then add to it the liver and fat, and pass through a sieve. There should be about one cup. Simmer the shell in water to cover half an hour. Beat the yolks of three eggs, slightly, with one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of paprica; add one cup of the lobster liquor very gradually, and cook over hot water as a boiled custard. Remove from the fire and add one-fourth a package of gelatine, softened in one-fourth a cup of cold lobster liquor, or chicken stock; strain over the sifted lobster meat and stir occasionally over ice water; when it begins to set, add the lobster dice, and fold in carefully one cup of whipped cream. Turn the mixture into the decorated mould, and, when set, turn out on to lettuce leaves. Decorate with the head, feelers and claws of the lobster. Serve with French or mayonnaise dressing. French dressing is preferable with so rich a mixture.
Method.—If salt anchovies are to be used, soak them in cold water two hours, then drain, dry, and remove skin and bones; divide the flesh into small pieces and squeeze the lemon juice over them. When ready to serve, arrange the lettuce leaves upon a serving-dish, stalk ends at the centre, cut the eggs in slices, mix with the bits of anchovies, and arrange upon the lettuce. Pour a French or mayonnaise dressing made with onion juice, or a sauce tartare, over the salad.
Marinate a cup of shrimps, broken in small pieces, with three tablespoonfuls of oil, one tablespoonful of lemon juice, a dash of salt and pepper. Select the tender bamboo sprouts in a can, and cut them into small pieces of the shape desired. When ready to serve, dress these with salt, pepper, oil, and lemon juice. Use three measures of oil to one of acid. Begin with the oil. Continue mixing and adding oil, until each piece is glossy. Then add the acid. Mix the prepared sprouts and the drained shrimps, and turn them onto a bed of lettuce, cut in narrow shreds, and dressed with oil and acid. Decorate the salad with heart leaves of lettuce, whole shrimps, and hollow sections of bamboo, cut in thin slices.
Separate the remnants of a baked bluefish into flakes, discarding skin and bones. Set aside, covered, until cold. About an hour before serving, sprinkle with salt and pepper and (for a generous pint of fish) the juice of a lemon. When ready to serve, dispose heart leaves of lettuce on the edge of a salad plate, and turn the fish into the centre, letting it come out over the stems of the lettuce leaves. Pour a boiled dressing over the top, and spread evenly (with a silver knife) over the fish. Put a tablespoonful of chopped pickled beet at the stems of each group of leaves, a ring of the beet near the top, and figures, cut from the beet, between.
Use a pound of salmon, fresh-cooked or canned. Remove skin and bone, and pick the flesh fine with a silver fork. Mix half a teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of sugar, a teaspoonful of flour, half a teaspoonful of mustard, and a dash of paprica. Over these pour very gradually three-fourths a cup of hot milk and stir and cook over hot water ten minutes, then add one-fourth a cup of hot vinegar and two tablespoonfuls of butter creamed and mixed with the beaten yolks of two eggs; stir until the egg is set, then add one level tablespoonful of granulated gelatine, softened in one-fourth a cup of cold water, and strain over the salmon; mix thoroughly, and turn into a mould. When chilled serve with Cream Salad Dressing (page 27), to which half a cucumber, chopped fine and drained, has been added. Reserve a part of the dressing, omitting the cucumber, and use with slices of cucumber as a garnish. To prepare the cucumber, pare with a handy slicer and cut from it a section three-fourths an inch thick; pare this round and round very thin and roll loosely to form a cup. Dispose this on the top of the fish and fill with dressing. (Use a pastry bag and tube.) Cut the rest of the cucumber in thin slices.
Arrange the leaves of a head of cabbage lettuce loosely upon a serving-dish, without destroying its shape. Have ready a pair of sweetbreads cooked in salted, acidulated water twenty minutes, and cooled and cut in small cubes and marinated; also the same quantity of cucumber cut in dice, chilled in ice water and dried upon a cloth. Drain the French dressing from the sweetbread and scatter the bits of sweetbread and cucumber through the lettuce. Press three-fourths a cup of firm jelly mayonnaise through a pastry bag with small tube, in little stars, here and there, throughout the lettuce, and serve at once.
Cook, marinate and drain the sweetbreads as before; mix with an equal quantity of cucumber cut in dice, and then with cream dressing. Line the inner side of lettuce nests with slices of radish, one overlapping another (do not remove the pink skin from the radish). Put in a spoonful of the salad and garnish each nest with a small radish cut to resemble a flower.
Use two parts of cold cooked chicken to one part of celery. Marinate and drain the chicken, add the celery, and mix with mayonnaise or boiled dressing. Arrange the salad in nests of lettuce leaves and put a pim-ola in the centre of each nest.
Prepare the salad as before; dispose in a mound on a bed of lettuce leaves and mask with mayonnaise. By the use of stoned olives, cut in halves, divide the surface into quarters. Fill two opposite sections with whites of eggs chopped fine, a third with capers or olives chopped fine, and the fourth with sifted yolks of eggs. Garnish with lettuce and curled celery.
Cook the meats of English walnuts in well-seasoned chicken stock until tender; remove the brown skin and break in pieces; when cold mix with chicken and celery, and proceed as in preceding recipes. The walnuts give the salad a flavor similar to that produced in France by the use of truffles.
Peel mushroom caps, break in pieces, and sauté in melted butter five or six minutes with a slice of onion; add chicken liquor or hot water and let simmer until tender. Remove from the liquor, cover, and set aside to cool. Add the liquor and the peelings and stalks of the mushrooms to the liquid in which the chicken is to be cooked. Use the chicken and mushrooms with celery or lettuce in any recipe for chicken salad.
Arrange the salad upon the centre of the dish and mask with mayonnaise; then with pastry bag and tube pipe the dressing in some fanciful design. Surround with a border of aspic jelly, tinted a delicate green. The jelly may be cut in blocks or triangles, or into small cubes, and then massed about the salad. Cut the aspic in a cold room; first dip the knife in hot water and wipe dry.
Cut one cucumber and one bunch of round radishes in thin slices, and add two-thirds a cup of shredded celery. Season with four tablespoonfuls of oil, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar or lemon juice, half a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of paprica. Put on a bed of shredded lettuce or on heart leaves of lettuce; cover with three cups of chicken cut in cubes and marinated an hour or more with four tablespoonfuls of oil, two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice or vinegar, half a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of white pepper. Mask with mayonnaise. Arrange some bits of celery, an inch and a half in length and curled on one end, about the salad, with a bit of yolk of egg in the centre of each. Or, instead of the celery and yolk of egg, use sliced radishes (do not remove the red skin), having the slices overlap one another. Finish the top with tuft of lettuce or curled celery and yolk of egg.
Bone a chicken, fill with forcemeat, and cook until tender in stock; then press between two dishes until cold. Cut in slices and stamp in rounds. Stamp out an equal number of rounds from cooked tongue. Spread these with "green butter" (see Green-Butter Sandwiches) and place the rounds of chicken evenly on the tops. Coat these with white chaud-froid sauce and decorate in some design with truffles, ham or tongue. When the sauce has set, brush over the medallions with aspic jelly, cold but not set. When thoroughly cold stamp out with a round cutter. Drain and dry a can of white button mushrooms; toss them about in cold aspic until they are well coated. When the jelly has become fixed about them, pile high in the centre of a serving-dish; arrange the medallions about them, resting on delicate leaves of lettuce. Serve mayonnaise or tartare sauce with the salad. Sweetbreads may be substituted for the chicken, and fresh mushrooms for the canned.
Scald one cup of milk, cream or well-reduced chicken stock (the last is preferable); beat the yolks of three eggs slightly, add one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of common salt and celery salt, and a dash of paprica, and cook as a boiled custard. Remove from the fire and add one-fourth a package of gelatine (one tablespoonful of granulated gelatine), softened in one-fourth a cup of chicken liquor or water. Strain over half a cup of cooked chicken (white meat), chopped and pounded in a mortar and passed through a sieve. Stir over ice water until the mixture is perfectly smooth and begins to set, then fold into it one cup of whipped cream. Turn into a ring mould, and, when chilled and well set, turn on to a bed of lettuce and fill in the centre with equal parts of celery and English walnuts, blanched, sliced and mixed with a French dressing.
The half-cup of chicken, well pressed down, should weigh four ounces. The chicken broth should be strong and well flavored. Either one cup of whipped cream, or one cup of cream, whipped, may be used. The latter gives a firmer mousse, more pronounced in flavor; the former, a mousse of a lighter and more delicate consistency, and one more delicate in flavor.
Mould the mousse in small cups; turn out on to a slice of chilled tomato resting upon a lettuce leaf; garnish with mayonnaise dressing, decorating both the tomato and the mousse.
Mould the mousse in a ring mould and fill in the centre with equal parts of cucumber or asparagus tips and diced sweetbread; marinate the sweetbread with French dressing, and drain thoroughly before mixing with the cucumber or asparagus. Garnish with mayonnaise dressing.
Fill in the centre of the ring with diced cucumbers and sliced radishes, mixed with cream dressing. Garnish with cream dressing, using pastry bag and tube, and radishes cut to resemble roses.
Fill in the centre of the ring with mushrooms and sweetbread dressed with a French dressing. If the button mushrooms (canned) are used, cut in quarters; if fresh mushrooms are at hand, remove the stems and peel the caps; break into pieces and sauté in a little hot butter; then add hot water or stock and let simmer until tender (fifteen or twenty minutes). Drain and chill before using.
Prepare the chestnuts as previously directed, using twice as much turkey meat, light or dark, cut into small cubes. Serve with lettuce and French, boiled or mayonnaise dressing, as desired. Marinate and drain the meat before adding the nuts.
Cut the meat from a duck in small pieces, and slice pim-olas very thin; use two tablespoonfuls of pim-olas to a cup of meat. Serve on a bed of cress with a French dressing.
Slice the oranges lengthwise; use twice as much flesh as fruit. Dress with oil, salt and paprica, and serve on lettuce leaves.
Soak half a tablespoonful of granulated gelatine in one tablespoonful and a half of cold water, and dissolve in three-fourths a cup of hot chicken liquor. Strain over one cup of chopped ham and stir until the mixture begins to thicken, then fold in one cup of thick cream beaten stiff; add, also, a few grains of paprica and salt, if needed. Mould in a ring mould, and, when set and cold, turn from the mould; fill in the centre with lettuce arranged like a cup, and fill the cup with mayonnaise. Or, serve with French dressing.
Cut six or eight slices of tender bacon into small squares and fry until they are delicately browned; then drain on soft paper. Heat six tablespoonfuls of the fat and two tablespoonfuls of vinegar or lemon juice; beat together the yolks of three eggs and one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of paprica and mustard, and cook with the fat and vinegar over hot water until the mixture thickens slightly. When the dressing is cold cut a head of lettuce into narrow ribbons, toss the lettuce and bits of bacon together, and mix with the dressing. Serve at once.
Method.—Mix the ingredients together thoroughly; add mayonnaise to moisten well. Serve on a flat dish. Mask the top with mayonnaise, then divide into squares like a checker-board, using fine-shredded pimento or pickled beet to mark the divisions; fill in alternate squares with sifted yolk of hard-boiled egg and the remaining squares with chopped white of egg. Garnish the edge with parsley, and set in the centre half hard-boiled egg cut lengthwise in points and filled with capers.
Cover the bottoms of small-sized timbale moulds with a little aspic jelly; decorate the jelly with bits of royal custard and capers; cover with more aspic; then add, alternately, layers of pâté de foie gras and aspic, until the mould is filled. Turn on to shredded lettuce and garnish with mayonnaise, using pastry bag and tube. Arrange on individual dishes, so as not to disarrange the dressing in serving. Or, garnish with a chopped cucumber dressed with French dressing.
Method.—Cook the spinach in salted boiling water until tender; drain, and chop very fine, and season with salt, pepper, oil and lemon juice. Press into small, well-buttered moulds or cups. Have ready thin, round slices of cold boiled or braised tongue, the slices a trifle larger than the cups of spinach. When the spinach is cold turn it from the moulds on to the rounds of tongue, and press a star of sauce tartare on the top of each mould. Garnish with parsley and slices of lemon.
Prepare and mould the spinach as in the preceding recipe. Have ready, also, some cold boiled eggs and mayonnaise. Turn the spinach from the moulds on to nests of shredded lettuce. Dispose, chain fashion, around the base of the spinach, the whites of the eggs cut in rings, and press a star of mayonnaise in the centre of each ring. Pass the yolks through a sieve and sprinkle over the tops of the mounds, and place above this the round ends of the whites.
Arrange garden cress on a serving-dish; in the centre dispose whites of hard-boiled eggs cut in eighths lengthwise, to resemble the petals of a flower, and sift the yolks into the centre. When ready to serve, sprinkle with French dressing and toss together.
With the smooth sides of butter-hands roll Neufchatel cheese into small egg shapes. Cut long radishes into straws and season with French dressing. Scatter the straws in lettuce nests, arrange the eggs in the nests, sprinkle with dressing, and fleck with chopped parsley or paprica.
Arrange flat nests of shredded lettuce on individual plates. Cut a five-cent Neufchatel cheese in three pieces; roll each piece into a ball and flatten to resemble the white of a poached egg, having the cheese about one-fourth an inch in thickness. These may be shaped upon a plate and then removed carefully with a spatula to the nests of lettuce. With pastry bag and plain tube put a mound of mayonnaise on the centre of each cake of cheese, to represent the yolk of an egg. Serve thoroughly chilled. A dash of pepper (paprica preferred) may decorate the top of the dressing.
Cut cold boiled corned beef or tongue into thin strips and pile in the centre of a serving-dish. Cook potato balls in meat broth until tender; blanch and cool, roll in mayonnaise or boiled dressing, and dispose about the meat. About these put a ring of celery cut fine, then cooked carrot and turnip cut in straws. Garnish with parsley and cucumber pickles cut in fans. Serve with additional dressing.
Peel the oranges and cut them into lengthwise slices. Crush the shells of the nuts, take out the meats, and remove the stones; cut the nut meats in halves. Mix the nuts with oil, a tablespoonful to a cup, and sprinkle the orange slices with oil; add also a little lemon juice if the oranges are sweet. Garnish with slices of orange from which the skin has not been taken, also, if desired, with lettuce dressed with French dressing. The oil and lettuce may be omitted, using sugar in place; little, however, will be needed, as the nuts are sweet, tasting much like raisins.
Cut cooked chicken or sweetbreads in half-inch cubes; remove the skin and seeds from white grapes, and cut each grape in halves; cut tender blanched celery stalks in small pieces. Take equal portions of celery and meat and half as much of seeded grapes. Mix with French dressing; the meat should stand in the dressing an hour or more, when ready to serve. Serve in nests of lettuce. Dispose a little white mayonnaise or cream dressing on each nest. Garnish with halves of blanched pistachio nuts.
|"Fat olives and pistachio's fragrant nut,|
|And the pine's tasteful apple."|
Peel and slice four bananas, also four oranges, lengthwise, carefully removing pith and seeds. Dissect half a ripe pineapple, taking the pulp from the core in small pieces with a silver fork. Hull and wash a part of a basket of strawberries. Arrange the fruit in the salad-bowl, making each layer smaller than the preceding. Pour over the dressing given below, and serve thoroughly chilled.
Boil one cup of sugar and half a cup of water five minutes, then pour on to the beaten yolks of three eggs; return to the fire and cook over hot water, stirring constantly until thickened slightly; cool, and add the juice of two lemons. Half a cup of wine may be used in the place of the lemon juice, retaining one tablespoonful of the lemon juice.
Pare lengthwise a ripe pineapple and remove the eyes. With a fork dislodge from the hard centre the single fruits (the lines left by the bracts will indicate the places where the divisions should be made). Slice lengthwise three sweet oranges, after removing the peel and white skin. Peel and slice two bananas, and cut in halves lengthwise one cup of strawberries. If the fruit be sweet, use the juice of half a lemon, otherwise omit it. Beat to an emulsion one-fourth a cup of olive oil, one tablespoonful of honey, and, if needed, the lemon juice; toss the fruit, together or separately, in the dressing, and serve on delicate leaves of lettuce. The most striking effect is produced by dressing each kind of fruit separately, thus massing each color by itself. When new figs are seasonable, they may be used in fruit salads to take the place of the honey. If the pineapple be of large size, more dressing will be required.
Peel neatly three oranges and slice them lengthwise; also cut three bananas in thin slices. Skin and seed half a pound of white grapes, and blanch and slice the meats of one-fourth a pound of English walnuts. Serve very cold on lettuce leaves, dressed with four tablespoonfuls of oil, two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice—less, if the oranges are sour—and half a teaspoonful of salt.
Skin and seed half a pound of white grapes; blanch and slice half a pound of English walnuts or almonds. Toss with four tablespoonfuls of oil, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice. Serve in nests of lettuce. Garnish the nests with maraschino cherries.
Marinate as many hazelnuts as cherries with plenty of oil, half as much lemon juice as oil, and a little salt, one or two hours. Put a nut in the place of the stone in the cherries. Sprinkle with oil and a very little lemon juice, and serve in lettuce nests.
Peel two oranges; with a sharp knife cut between the pulp and the skin and remove the section entire. Slice the meats of one-fourth a pound of English walnuts. Of one-fourth a pound of figs select a few for a garnish and cut the rest in thin slices. Slice three bananas. Toss half the ingredients with two or three tablespoonfuls of oil, and, if the oranges are sweet, toss again with one tablespoonful of lemon juice. Arrange in a mound on a salad-dish. Put the rest of the fruit, each kind separately, on the mound in sections; garnish the edge and top with heart leaves of lettuce, and add stars of mayonnaise and candied cherries here and there.
This is a particularly good salad to serve with game. Select fine oranges, remove the peel and every particle of white skin, and slice very thin lengthwise. Slice English walnuts, blanched or plain. To each pint of orange slices add half a pint (scant) of the sliced nuts; dress with three tablespoonfuls of oil, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt, and, if the oranges are particularly sweet, a tablespoonful of lemon juice. Serve on a bed of watercress or lettuce.
Shell and blanch the chestnuts; then boil about fifteen minutes, or until tender; drain and cool. When cool cut into quarters, add an equal quantity of fine-sliced celery, dress with French dressing, and serve on lettuce leaves. Sliced pimentos may be added.
Peel and cut the apples in small cubes; blanch the nuts and break in pieces, and cut the celery in thin slices; marinate the apple and nuts with oil and lemon juice half an hour; drain, add the celery and mayonnaise dressing, and serve in cups made by removing the pulp from red apples. Cut the edges of the apples in small vandykes; keep fresh in cold water until ready to serve.
Stir the juice of two oranges, half a cup of sherry wine, one tablespoonful of lemon juice, half a cup of sugar and the unbeaten white of an egg, over the fire, until the boiling-point is reached; let simmer slowly ten minutes, strain through a cheese-cloth, and, when thoroughly chilled, pour over three bananas and three oranges, sliced and mixed together in a salad-bowl. Sprinkle with half a cup of dessicated cocoanut. Serve thoroughly chilled.
Slice pulled figs, cooked and cooled, and mix with them a few slices of walnuts or blanched almonds. Serve with French dressing made of claret and lemon juice instead of vinegar, or with a cream dressing. In using the cream dressing, mix the ingredients with a little of the dressing and dispose additional dressing here and there, using the forcing-bag and tube. When available, fresh figs are preferable to those that have been cooked.
Cut the chilled fruit in halves, crosswise, and take out the pulp with a spoon; dress with French dressing. The juice of the grapefruit may be used in the place of other acid, and mayonnaise in the place of French dressing. Serve on lettuce leaves, or return to the skin from which the pulp was removed. The edge of the grapefruit cup may be cut in vandykes, or otherwise ornamented.
Mix together equal parts of celery and tart apple cut in match-like pieces, and one or two pimentos cut in similar pieces. Dress with mayonnaise made light with whipped cream. Serve in nests of lettuce.
Use pineapple in the place of the apple; serve in a mound on a bed of lettuce leaves. Garnish with stars cut from the pimentos with French cutter, curled celery, and heart leaves of celery.
Seed two green peppers, boil two or three minutes, then cut in shreds. Shred the light and dark leaves of a head of lettuce, or endive, separately. Cut three tomatoes in shreds. Remove the peel and skin from one large grapefruit. Serve with French dressing, seasoning, and then arranging each article separately upon the serving-dish, having a circle of light and then dark green material about the edge.
Blanch the almonds and cut in thin slices. Chill the peaches, peel, and cut in slices; use one-fifth as much in bulk of sliced nuts as sliced peaches. Serve with French dressing, or with mayonnaise made white with whipped cream. Garnish the edge with delicate lettuce leaves and serve at once.
Cut ripe, fine-flavored peaches into quarters, after removing the skins. Cover with champagne, thoroughly chilled, and sprinkle with tea-rose petals. Serve at once.
Let a large handful of fresh rose petals stand an hour or two in a cool place in a cup of Hungarian wine. Strain out the leaves and pour the wine over a quart of mixed fruit,—peaches pared and cut in quarters, strawberries hulled and cut in halves, and cherries stoned,—all thoroughly chilled. Let a handful of rose petals stand an hour or two in a cup of thick cream; then strain the cream, sweeten slightly with powdered sugar, whip to a stiff froth, and use as a garnish for the fruit.
Cut a large grapefruit in halves and remove the pulp with a sharp knife to avoid crushing it; remove half the pulp of a large pineapple from the core with a fork, after carefully removing the unedible outside. Dress with white mayonnaise and serve upon crisp lettuce hearts. Garnish with tiny bits of pimento. 2d.—Omit the pimento, lettuce and mayonnaise, and dress with sherry wine and sugar. For a Christmas salad, use the first formula and canned pineapple if the fresh be not at hand. Dispose the dressed pineapple and upon shredded lettuce, having a circle of heart leaves around the edge. Dot here and there with small stars cut from the red pimento with a French cutter. Or chop the pimento fine and dispose in the shape of a large five-pointed star in the centre of the dish.
To make aspic for moulding or decorating a fish salad, use stock prepared from chicken or veal, or from fish. For chicken, veal or sweetbread salad, use chicken or veal stock, or a light-colored consommé. In an emergency, aspic may be made from the prepared extracts of beef, or from bouillon capsules. Aspic is often tinted delicately to harmonize with a particular color scheme. A light-green aspic has been found quite effective.
To one quart of highly seasoned stock, freed from all fat, add the juice of a lemon, a bay leaf, half a cup of wine and one box of gelatine soaked in a cup of cold water. Beat into the mixture the slightly beaten whites and crushed shells of two eggs. Heat to the boiling-point, stirring constantly, and let boil five minutes. After standing ten minutes skim off the froth, etc., and strain through a cheese-cloth folded double and held in a colander.
Pour the liquid jelly into a new tin to the depth of half an inch. Wring a napkin out of cold water and spread it smoothly over the meat-board. Dip the pan in warm water and turn the jelly onto the napkin; stamp in rounds, diamonds or other fanciful shapes. If blocks of greater thickness be required, fill the pan to the required depth with the liquid aspic. When turned from the mould, cut in squares or diamonds with a knife, wiped dry after having been dipped in hot water.
Cut the jelly slowly, first in one direction, then in the opposite direction. Each piece, whether large or small, should be clean-cut and distinct. Aspic melts or softens in a warm place, and should not be taken from the mould until the time of serving, and then it must be handled with care.
Cut two pounds of beef from the under part of the round and two pounds of shin of veal into small pieces; crack the bones in the shin. Place over the fire with two and a half quarts of cold water; add one ounce of lean ham. Heat slowly, and cook just below the boiling-point two or three hours; then add to the kettle a three-pound fowl, and allow it to remain till tender. Put some marrow into the frying-pan, and when hot sauté in it a small onion cut fine, two tablespoonfuls, each, of chopped celery, carrot and turnip; add to the soup kettle, removing the fowl, together with a sprig, each, of parsley, thyme and summer savory, two bay leaves, a small blade of mace, four cloves, two peppercorns and one scant tablespoonful of salt. Let simmer about an hour and a half; then strain and let cool.
Put a four-pound fowl and a few bits of veal from the neck over the fire in three pints of cold water. Heat slowly to the boiling-point, let boil five minutes, then skim and let simmer until the fowl is nearly tender. Now add an onion and half a sliced carrot, a stalk of celery, a teaspoonful of sweet herbs tied in a bag with a sprig of parsley, two cloves, a blade of mace, eight peppercorns and a teaspoonful of salt. Remove the fowl when tender, and let the stock simmer until reduced to about one quart; strain, and set aside to become cool.
Break the bones from roasts; add the tough or browned bits of meat and fat; add also the flank ends from chops and steaks, cut small (there should always be a few bits of fresh meat), and cover with cold water. Heat slowly and let simmer two or three hours, then add, for each two quarts of water used, one-fourth a cup, each, of chopped onion and carrot, two stalks of celery and a tomato cut small, two teaspoonfuls of sweet herbs, two sprigs of parsley browned in two tablespoonfuls of butter or drippings, and cook about an hour. Strain and let cool. Stock will keep a day or two in summer and nearly a week in winter, if the cake of fat that forms upon the top be left undisturbed.
Cover the bones and trimmings from the fish that is to be used for the salad with cold water; add, if convenient, the body bones of a lobster or two. Add also one or two pounds of an inexpensive fish, and a pint of water for each pound of fish. All must be fresh. Bring the water slowly to the boiling-point and let simmer an hour, then add, for each quart of water, one tablespoonful, each, of chopped onion and carrot, a sprig of parsley and one teaspoonful of sweet herbs, sautéd delicately in two tablespoonfuls of butter. Season to taste with salt and cayenne.
Put over the fire one-fourth a cup, each, of onion and carrot, sautéd in two tablespoonfuls of butter, two stalks of celery, a bay leaf, half a dozen peppercorns and two or three cloves, with one quart of water; add three bouillon capsules, or three teaspoonfuls of beef extract (not home-made) dissolved in two cups of boiling water; let simmer about half an hour, then add one box of gelatine softened in one cup of cold water, any additional flavoring desired, and the slightly beaten white and crushed shell of one egg (more shells will be advantageous). Bring slowly to the boiling-point, stirring constantly meanwhile, and let simmer five minutes; let stand in a hot place ten minutes, then skim and strain through a cheese-cloth folded double.
To one pint of white sauce, made of white stock, add three-fourths a cup of aspic jelly and one tablespoonful of lemon juice; let simmer until reduced to the consistency of very thick cream; remove the butter from the top and let cool slightly before using.
|Digestive cheese and fruit there sure will be.|
Butter a baking-dish, put in a layer of bread cut in pieces one inch square with crust removed, sprinkle thin-sliced cheese over the bread, dust with salt and paprica, or a few grains of cayenne. Add other layers of bread and cheese, seasoning as before, using in all half a small loaf of bread, one cup of cheese and half a teaspoonful of salt. Beat two eggs slightly, add one pint of milk, and pour the mixture over the bread and cheese. Bake about half an hour in a moderate oven.
Cook together four tablespoonfuls of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour, into which have been sifted one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of soda and mustard and a few grains of cayenne. Add gradually half a cup of milk. When the sauce boils, remove from the fire and stir into it one cup of grated cheese (half a pound) and the yolks of three eggs, beaten until light. When well mixed, fold in the stiffly beaten whites of three eggs. Bake in a buttered pudding-dish, in a moderate oven, about twenty-five minutes, or in individual dishes, paper cases, or china shirring-cups, about twelve minutes. Serve at once from the dish or dishes. The soufflé will "stand up" a little better, if three-fourths a cup of milk be used in place of the half-cup as given, and half a cup of stale grated bread be added before the cheese; but it will not be quite so delicate.
Put four tablespoonfuls of butter and half a cup of water into a saucepan. When these boil, add half a cup of flour and a few grains, each, of salt and paprica; cook and stir until the mixture cleaves from the pan. Turn into a mixing-bowl and beat in two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; then beat in, one at a time, two eggs. On a well-buttered baking-sheet shape the paste into flat circular pieces about an inch in diameter. Brush over the tops with beaten egg, diluted with one or two tablespoonfuls of milk or water, and put three or four dice of cheese on each. Bake about fifteen minutes. Serve very hot.
Roll plain or puff paste into a rectangular sheet one-fourth an inch thick. Sprinkle one-half with grated cheese (any kind of cheese will do, but Parmesan is preferred); also add a few grains of cayenne and salt. Fold the other half over this and press the edges together closely. Fold again to make three layers, turn half-way round, pat and roll out to the thickness of one-fourth an inch. Sprinkle one half with cheese and proceed as before. Continue rolling and adding the cheese, until, to one cup and a half of flour, from half to a whole cup of cheese has been used. After the last rolling, cut into bands half an inch wide, or into rings and straws one-fourth an inch wide. The straws and bands should be four or five inches in length, and the rings large enough to hold three or four straws. Serve the bands piled in log-cabin style on a doylie-covered plate. If the paste be made expressly for the straws, the cheese and cayenne may be mixed into the flour with the butter, thus diminishing time in making. Bake in a moderate oven until delicately browned.
Melt four tablespoonfuls of butter; cook in it four tablespoonfuls, each, of cornstarch and flour and half a teaspoonful of salt, then add gradually one pint of milk. When thick and smooth stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs, add four tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese, and spread on a buttered pan to cool. Just before serving, cut the paste in shapes, lay on a baking-sheet, and brown delicately in the oven.
Mix together thoroughly one cup and a half of grated cheese, one tablespoonful of flour, one-fourth, a teaspoonful of salt and a few grains of cayenne; then add the whites of three eggs, beaten stiff. Shape in small balls and roll in cracker crumbs, sifted or crushed to a fine meal; fry in deep fat and drain on soft paper.
Mix half a cup of grated Parmesan and one-fourth a cup of grated Gruyère cheese and one-fourth a teaspoonful of paprica with two-thirds a cup of chicken aspic, cold, but not set. Stir over ice water until just beginning to form, then fold into it one cup of whipped cream. Fasten strips of white paper around paper soufflé cases, letting the strips rise an inch and a half above the cases, fixing in place with sealing-wax, mucilage, or a stitch. Fill the cases and the papers surrounding them with the cheese mixture, and set them in a pail or mould that is thoroughly chilled. Press the cover down over a paper, and pack in equal parts of ice and salt. Let stand an hour. Before serving, remove the paper, sprinkle the tops with buttered crumbs, browned, and serve at once.
Method.—Make a sauce of the butter, flour and milk; add the yolks, slightly beaten, and beat thoroughly; add the grated cheese, and, when melted, remove from the fire; add the seasonings and cubes of cheese. Spread in a shallow pan to cool. Cut in any shape desired, dip in crumbs, then in egg, and again in crumbs; fry in deep fat and drain on brown paper.
Method.—Boil the water and butter, sift in the flour with the salt and cayenne; stir and cook until the mixture cleaves from the side of the pan. When the mixture has slightly cooled, add the eggs, one at a time, beating in each egg thoroughly before another is added. Lastly, add the cheese. Drop, by teaspoonfuls, into hot fat and fry a golden brown. Drain on soft paper and serve piled on a folded napkin.
Method.—Cream the butter, beat in the eggs, and add the cheese with a few grains, each, of salt and paprica. Roll the pastry very thin and cut it into two rectangular pieces; lay one of these on a baking-sheet and spread with the cheese mixture; cover this with the second piece of pastry. Score with a knife in strips one inch wide and about three inches long, brush over with beaten egg, and bake about fifteen minutes. Cut out the strips while hot. Serve at once, or reheat before serving.
Slice thin half a dozen large tart apples (select apples that cook quickly), and prepare half as many thin slices of cheese. Beat up one or two eggs, and season with salt, mustard and pepper. Soak the cheese in the egg mixture, then put each slice between two slices of apple, sandwich style; dip in the beaten egg, sauté in hot butter, and serve hot.
Mix together a ten-cent cream cheese, a canned pimento (red) cut in tiny cubes, one-fourth a cup of small green string beans, cut in cubes, five olives, chopped fine, and enough cream to hold the mixture together. When thoroughly mixed, use a piece of paraffine or confectioner's paper to handle and give the mixture the original shape. Let stand in a cold place, wrapped in the paper, until ready to serve, then dispose in the centre of a salad dish, lined with lettuce leaves, dressed with French dressing. Slice the cheese with a silver knife before sending to table. At luncheon, mayonnaise may be served in a dish apart.
A pale young man, with feeble whiskers and a stiff white neckcloth, came walking down the lane en sandwich—having a lady, that is, on each arm.
The term "sandwich," now applied to many a fanciful shaped and encased dainty, was formerly used in speaking of "two slices of bread with meat between." In this sense, the word had its origin, about the end of the eighteenth century, from the fact that the fourth Earl of Sandwich was so infatuated with the pleasures and excitement of the gaming-table that he often could not leave it long enough to take his meals with his family; and, on such occasions, a butler was despatched to him bearing "slices of bread with meat between."
The fillings of savory sandwiches may be placed between pieces of bread, crackers, pastry, chou paste or aspic jelly. When preparing sweet sandwiches, these same materials may be used, as also lady-fingers (white or yellow), macaroons or sweet wafers.
As a rule, bread for sandwiches should be twenty-four hours old; but fresh bread, which is more pliable than stale, is better adapted to this use, when the sandwiches are to take the form of rolls or folds. When stale bread is used for rolls or folds, they must be ribbon-tied; or tiny Japanese toothpicks may be made to keep them in shape.
The bread may be yeast or peptic bread. It may be white or brown. It is not even essential that the two bits of bread be of the same kind; Quaker, rice, whole-wheat, rye or graham bread is interchangeable with white or brown bread. After selecting your loaf or loaves, slice in even, quarter-inch slices; then cut in squares, triangles or fingers, or stamp with a round or fanciful-shaped cutter. Cutters can be obtained in heart, club, diamond and spade shape, also in racquet shape.
Do not spread butter or filling upon the bread before it is cut from the loaf and into shape. When so treated, the butter or filling on the extreme edge of the bread is liable to soil the fingers or gloves that come in contact with it.
Cream the butter, using a small wooden spoon for the purpose, and then it can be spread upon the most delicate bread without crumbling.
Anything appropriately eaten with the covering may be used for the filling of a sandwich. In meats, salted meat takes the lead in popular favor; when sliced the meat should be cut across the grain and as thin as possible, and several bits should be used in each sandwich, unless a very small, æsthetic sandwich be in order. Tongue and corned beef, whether they be used in slices or finely chopped, should be cooked until they are very tender. When corned beef or ham is chopped for a filling, the sandwich is much improved by a dash of mustard; Worcestershire or horseradish sauce improves a filling of roast beef or boiled tongue; while chopped capers, tomato sauce, catsup or a cold mint sauce is appropriate in sandwiches made of lamb; celery salt, when the filling is of chicken or veal, and lemon juice, when the principal ingredient is fish, are en rapport.
The flavor of a few drops of onion juice is relished by many in any kind of fish or meat sandwich, while others would prefer a few grains of fine-chopped parsley.
When salad sandwiches are to be prepared, chop the meat or fish very fine and mix it with the salad dressing. Celery, cabbage, cress, cucumbers, tomatoes or olives may be chopped and added to the meat with the dressing. When lettuce is used, the leaf is served whole, the edges just appearing outside the bread. Any one of these vegetables, combined with a salad dressing, makes a delicious sandwich without meat or fish. When desired, other well-prepared sauces may be used in the place of salad dressings. Fillings of uncooked fruit may be used; but, in the case of dried fruits, it is preferable to stew until tender, after the fruit has been finely chopped. Pineapple, lemon or orange juice may be added at pleasure. Sandwiches prepared from entire-wheat bread, with fig or date fillings, are particularly wholesome for the children's luncheon basket.
When a particularly æsthetic sandwich is desired, wrap the butter that is to be used in spreading the bread in a napkin, and put it over night in a jar, on a bed of violets or rose petals; strew more flowers over the top and cover the jar tightly. If meat or fish is to be used as the basis of the sandwich, substitute nasturtium leaves and blossoms, or sprigs of mignonette, for the former flowers.
Fancy butter makes an attractive filling for a sandwich; it has also the merit of being less often in evidence than many another filling.
Sandwiches, except when vegetables and dressings are used, may be prepared early in the day, placed in a stone jar, covered with a slightly dampened cloth, and set away in a cool place until such time as they are wanted. Or, they may be wrapped in paraffine paper. Still, when convenient, it is preferable to have everything in readiness, and put the sandwiches together just before serving. Garnish the serving-dish with parsley, cress, celery plumes, slices of lemon, barberries and leaves, or fresh nasturtium leaves and blossoms.
Coffee heads the list of beverages most acceptably served with sandwiches. Tea comes next. Cocoa and chocolate are admissible only with the dainty, æsthetic varieties, in which fruit or some kind of sweetmeat is used.
Chop two parts of cold tongue and one part of cold ham (one-fourth as much fat ham as lean) very fine; pound in a mortar, and season with paprica and a little mixed mustard. Spread butter on one piece of bread, the meat mixture on the other, and press the two pieces together.
Chop the ham and pound smooth in a mortar; pass the yolks of hard-boiled eggs through a sieve; mix the yolks with an equal amount of mayonnaise dressing. Butter one piece of bread lightly and spread with the ham, spread the other piece with the egg and dressing, and press the two together.
Chop the cold meat very fine, using one-fourth of fat meat. Work into the meat French mustard, or any "made" mustard, to taste, and prepare the sandwiches in the usual way. Boston brownbread combines well with this preparation.
Use a little less of the chopped tongue than of the other kind of meat, and one-half as much chopped celery as meat. Mix with salad dressing. Spread one piece of bread with butter, the other with the mixture, and press together.
Chop crisp celery very fine and mix with salad dressing. Spread one piece of bread with butter, the other with a thin layer of the mixture. With a sharp knife split open the round stems of celery tips and put them between the bread, so that the tips will just show on the edges. Tie with narrow ribbon, light-green in color.
Use, in bulk, equal parts of yolks of well-cooked eggs, rubbed to a smooth paste, and the flesh of sardines, freed from skin and bones and pounded in a mortar; season to taste with a few drops of tobasco sauce and lemon juice, and spread as usual. Crackers may be used in the place of bread, if the sandwiches be prepared just before using, otherwise the crackers lose their crispness. Garnish with slices of lemon and parsley.
To each two tablespoonfuls of caviare add ten drops of onion juice and a few drops of lemon juice, and mix together thoroughly. Remove the crust from a fresh, moist loaf of bread, cut in thin slices, spread each slice very delicately with butter and the caviare mixture, roll up in a roll and tie with ribbon one-fourth an inch wide, or pin with Chinese toothpicks. The bread should not be more than twelve hours old. If fear be lest the bread will not be sufficiently moist to roll, wrap the loaf, when taken from the oven, in a damp cloth and then in a dry one; keep in this fashion until ready for use.
Slightly butter thin slices of bread; moisten fine-chopped olives with mayonnaise dressing and spread upon the buttered slices; spread other slices with Neufchatel, or any cream cheese, and press together in pairs.
Sauté the caps of half a pound of mushrooms in a little butter about five minutes, adding half a sliced onion if desired. Cover with highly seasoned stock and let simmer until very tender; chop and press through a sieve, and, if very moist, reduce to the consistency of a thick purée. Add an equal quantity of lobster meat pounded smooth in a mortar. Season to taste with salt, pepper, lemon juice and, if desired, tomato catsup. When cool use as any filling.
Method.—Work the butter to a cream, add the seasonings and the grated cheese gradually; then mix in the nuts, which should be sliced very thin. Spread the mixture upon bits of bread and press together in pairs. Particularly good made of brownbread and served with a simple vegetable salad!
Use cold boiled spinach, which when hot was chopped very fine or pressed through a colander, and sifted yolks of well-cooked eggs. Mix the spinach with sauce tartare and spread on one bit of bread, spread the other with butter and sifted yolk of egg; press together. Garnish the serving-dish with parsley and cooked eggs cut in quarters lengthwise.
Pick the leaves from fresh cress, chop or break apart, season with French dressing, and proceed as above.
Chop half an onion and sauté in a little butter; when delicately browned, add five or six chicken livers and sauté them on both sides. Cover with well-seasoned chicken stock and let simmer until tender. Mash the livers fine with a wooden spoon and press them through a sieve; season with salt, paprica, mustard, or a dash of curry powder. Press into a cup, pour melted butter over the top, and set away in a cool place. When ready to serve, remove the butter and prepare the sandwiches after the usual manner.
Method.—Chop the meat and pound to a paste in a mortar; add the seasonings and mix well. Remove the crust from a loaf of moist bread; cut in very thin slices, trim each slice into a rectangular shape, spread lightly with soft butter and then with the mixture. Roll the slices and tie them with ribbon. Omit the anchovy paste, if desired.
Cream four tablespoonfuls of butter and one teaspoonful of mustard. Press the yolks of four hard-boiled eggs through a sieve and add them to the butter and mustard. Then add four boned anchovies, four small pickles, a teaspoonful of chives and a sprig of tarragon, chopped together until fine. Cut stale bread in fingers or other fanciful shapes, and spread with the mixture. Press two pieces together.
Put a pound and a half of halibut, a slice of onion, a stalk of celery, four or five peppercorns, one teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of lemon juice in boiling water, and cook, just below the boiling-point, ten or fifteen minutes, according to thickness. Remove bone and skin and rub the fish fine with a wooden spoon; add half a cup of thick cream, a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of white pepper and one tablespoonful of lemon juice. Spread this mixture, when cold, on buttered slices of bread, put a lettuce leaf above the mixture, and spread a teaspoonful of mayonnaise or boiled salad dressing on the lettuce; finish with a slice of buttered bread and tie with ribbon.
Chop lobster meat very fine; season to taste with French dressing. Cut the bread in pieces about four inches long and an inch and a half wide. Finish as usual. Garnish with parsley and the slender feelers of the lobster.
Pile a variety of sandwiches in form of a pyramid (use bread of different colors). Arrange a garnish of parsley and radish rosebuds around the base, and on the top a few sprigs of parsley, or celery plumes.
Flavor the butter with nasturtium leaves and blossoms, and with it spread a thin slice of moist bread, which is longer one way than the other. Press fresh nasturtium leaves and blossoms upon the butter and fold one half over the other.
Spread a bit of brownbread with butter and French mustard, and a bit of white bread, cut to fit the former, with butter and cheese creamed together. Finish as usual.
Spread the brownbread with butter and cheese creamed together, and the white bread with butter, then with cucumber, chopped fine and seasoned with French dressing, to which a few drops of onion juice have been added.
Spread one piece of bread with cream cheese, the other with beets that have been chopped very fine and seasoned with French dressing.
Chop freshly roasted peanuts very fine; then pound them in a mortar until smooth; season with salt and moisten with thick cream.
Mix the prepared peanuts with mayonnaise dressing. Butter two pieces of bread; spread one with the peanut mixture, the other with shredded lettuce, and press the two together.
Method.—Cream the butter and add the other ingredients gradually. Prepare as usual.
Method.—Boil the spinach, drain thoroughly, and press through a piece of muslin. Beat the butter to a cream with a wooden spoon; beat into the butter enough of the spinach pulp to give the required tint of green. Wipe the oil from the anchovies, remove the backbone, and pass through a hair sieve; then add to the colored butter, a little at a time; add also the parsley and capers; chill slightly and use as a filling for sandwiches. These butters are used also to mask or decorate cooked fish for "cold service."
Bake chou paste in long, slender shapes, like éclairs, but narrower and shorter; when cold split apart on the ends and one side and fill with chicken salad. Put the top back in place, after inserting a celery plume at each end. Garnish the serving-dish with celery leaves and pim-olas or olives. Serve other salads in the same way.
Cut the bread, white, brown and graham, as thin as possible, and use four or five pieces in each sandwich, putting them together so that the colors will contrast. Either butter or other filling is admissible.
Chop fine the white meat of a cooked chicken and pound to a paste in a mortar. Season to taste with salt, paprica, oil and lemon juice and spread upon thin bits of bread. Spread other bits of bread, corresponding in shape to the first, with butter; press into the butter English walnuts, pecan nuts or almonds, blanched and sliced very thin. Press corresponding pieces together.
Soak one box (two ounces) of gelatine in one cup of cold chicken liquor until thoroughly softened. Add to three cups of chicken stock, seasoned with vegetables and sweet herbs according to directions previously given, also the crushed shell and white of one egg, and proceed as for aspic jelly. Turn the liquid jelly into rectangular pans, having it three-eighths of an inch or less in thickness, and set aside in a cool place to harden. When ready to serve, dip the pan in hot water an instant, and turn the jelly on to a paper. With a thin, sharp knife cut the jelly into squares or diamonds, or dip a cutter into hot water and stamp out into hearts or clubs.
Chop the lobster fine, mix with mayonnaise dressing to taste, spread upon a bit of aspic, cover with a crisp lettuce leaf, and above this place another piece of aspic spread with the lobster mixture. Serve at once.
After the aspic is poured into the pans, sprinkle upon it some fine-cut Spanish pimentos. When ready to serve, prepare as lobster sandwiches with aspic, using fish in the place of lobster, and, if desired, sauce tartare in the place of mayonnaise. Shrimps, salmon or other fish, chicken, veal, tongue, sweetbreads, etc., may be used either with lettuce or with chopped celery, cress, cucumbers, etc. Or the vegetables may be used without either fish, flesh or fowl.
Have ready four triangular pieces of toasted bread spread with mayonnaise dressing; cover two of these with lettuce, lay thin slices of cold chicken (white meat) upon the lettuce, over this arrange slices of broiled breakfast bacon, then lettuce, and cover with the other triangles of toast spread with mayonnaise. Trim neatly, arrange on a plate, and garnish with heart leaves of lettuce dipped in mayonnaise.
Wrap bread as it is taken from the oven closely in a towel wrung out of cold water, cover with several thicknesses of dry cloth and set aside about four hours; then cut away the crust, and with a thin, sharp knife cut the loaf or loaves in slices as thin as possible and spread with butter, and, if desired, thin shavings of meat, potted meat or chopped nuts; roll the slices very closely and pile on a serving-dish.
Method.—Dip the bread in beaten egg, seasoned with salt and sauté to a rich brown in hot butter. Roll the oysters in grated bread crumbs (centre of the loaf) and broil them, or "egg and bread" them, and fry in deep fat. Lay the first slice of bread on a plate over two or three lettuce leaves, put the oysters on the bread, a grating of horseradish on each oyster; cover with the graham or rye bread; on this lay the chicken or turkey cut in thin slices, season with salt and pepper, put on the bacon, and cover with the other slice of bread. On top of the sandwich lay a slice of lemon cut square, and about this dispose the pickles and radishes, to form a star. Serve the tomato on a lettuce leaf at the side. Cut out the hard centre from the tomato and fill the opening with sauce tartare. In making this sauce, add to mayonnaise or boiled dressing, onion, olives, sweet pickles and celery, chopped fine and squeezed dry in a cloth.
|In the name of the Prophet—figs!|
Chop one-fourth a pound of figs very fine, add one-fourth a cup of water, and cook to a smooth paste; add, also, one-third a cup of almonds, blanched, chopped very fine and pounded to a paste with a little rose-water, also the juice of half a lemon. When cold spread the mixture upon lady-fingers or cakelets, white or yellow, press another above the mixture, and serve upon a handsome doylie-covered plate. Raisins, dates or marmalade may be used in the place of the figs. The marmalade, of course, requires no cooking. Bread may be used in the place of the cake.
Chop the fruit very fine; use a mixture of cherries, plums, pineapple and angelica root; moisten with wine, orange or lemon juice. Use lady-fingers or bread for the covering. If bread is used, spread lightly with butter; if cake be your choice, spread very lightly with marmalade. Use just enough butter or marmalade to keep the coverings together.
Chop the dates and preserved ginger; moisten with syrup from the ginger jar and a little lemon juice; cook as above, and use with bread or lady-fingers. Preserved ginger may be used alone and without cooking.
Flavor the butter with rose petals according to the directions previously given. Spread both bits of bread lightly with it and put upon them three or four candied rose petals. If lady-fingers are used, brush them over with white of egg and sugar mixed together. Use but little sugar—just enough to hold the fingers together. The Turkish rose petals that come in little jars are particularly dainty, and adapted to this purpose. Garnish the dish on which they are served with rosebuds and leaves.
Prepare in the same manner as in the last number, substituting candied violets for the rose petals, and violets with green leaves for a garnish.
Spread one bit of white bread with honey pressed from the comb with a wooden spoon, the other bit with butter. Garnish with white clover blossoms and leaves.
Roll puff paste very thin (about one-eighth of an inch), cut in fanciful shapes and bake to a delicate brown; add chopped almonds to rich strawberry preserves, or peach marmalade, and spread the mixture between each two bits of pastry.
Method.—Cook the pineapple, sugar and lemon juice until thick; let cool, and spread upon lady-fingers or sponge drops. Press together in pairs and serve.
Method.—Add the sugar and extract to the cream and beat until solid; let chill, then spread quite thick upon lady-fingers or sponge drops.
Soak half a cup of fine-cut candied fruit in wine an hour or more. Prepare the cream as above, and sprinkle the same with the fruit before putting the sandwiches together.
Method.—Soak the gelatine in the cold water and dissolve in the boiling water; add the sugar and strain; when cold add the orange and lemon juice. Mould in sheets three-eighths of an inch thick.
Substitute claret for the orange juice and prepare as above. Do not omit the lemon juice.
Slice blanched English walnuts and pecan nuts or almonds very thin, and stir into whipped cream. Stamp out shapes from the jelly. Spread one piece with the cream and nuts and cover with a second piece of jelly.
Substitute candied fruit for the nuts and proceed as above, or use nuts and fruit together.
Method.—Cream the butter, gradually add the yolks of eggs, passed through a potato ricer or sieve, the sugar and orange juice. Spread upon thin slices of angel cake, prepared for sandwiches, or upon angel cakelets or fingers; press two slices together and serve at once. If allowed to stand any length of time, keep covered and in a cool place.
Spread wheat bread, prepared for sandwiches, with cream cheese; put two or three currants and a little syrup on each piece of bread, and press two pieces together. These may be varied by using sliced maraschino cherries. Either the currants or sliced cherries with a little of the syrup may be mixed with the cheese and then spread upon the bread. Bar-le-Duc currants are imported from France in tiny glasses. The seeds have been removed from the currants, which are cooked in honey.
Spread fresh bread, cut in thin slices, with fresh butter; over this spread a layer of Brie or other cream cheese, and over the cheese spread a layer of honey. Press two similarly shaped pieces together and serve at once.
Prepare as above, substituting maple syrup (or sugar) for the honey.
|She needeth least, who kneadeth best,|
|These rules which we shall tell;|
|Who kneadeth ill shall need them more|
|Than she who kneadeth well.|
To two cups of scalded milk or boiled water, in a mixing-bowl, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, and, when the liquid becomes lukewarm, one yeastcake dissolved in half a cup of water, boiled and cooled. With a broad-bladed knife cut and mix in enough well-dried flour, sifted, to make a stiff dough (about seven cups). Knead until the dough is elastic; cover, and set to rise in a temperature of about 70° Fahr. When the dough has doubled in bulk, "cut down" and knead slightly without removing from the mixing-bowl. When again double in bulk, shape into two double loaves and set to rise in buttered pans; when it has risen a third time, bake one hour.
Use the preceding recipe without change other than in kind of flour and two additional tablespoonfuls of sugar.
Add three-fourths a cup of rice, cooked until tender and still hot, and, also, two tablespoonfuls of butter, to the milk or water in the first recipe. Other cereals, as oatmeal or cerealine, may be used instead of rice.
Make a sponge with one cup of milk, one yeastcake dissolved in one-fourth a cup of milk, and about one cup and a half of flour; beat thoroughly, cover, and set to rise in a temperature of about 70° Fahr. When light add half a teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth a cup of melted butter, and flour enough to knead. Knead until elastic. Set to rise in a temperature of 70° Fahr. When doubled in bulk, cut down and shape into small balls. Set to rise again, covered with a cloth and a dripping-pan. When light press the handle of a small wooden spoon deeply across the centre of each ball, brush with butter and press the edges together. Set the rolls close together in a baking-pan, after brushing over with butter the points of contact.
Sift together one cup, each, of yellow corn meal, rye meal and entire-wheat flour, one teaspoonful of salt and three teaspoonfuls of soda. Add three-fourths a cup of molasses and one pint of thick, sour milk. Beat thoroughly, and steam in a covered mould three hours and a half. The quantity here given may be steamed in four baking-powder boxes in two hours.
Pass through the sieve two or three times four cups of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, and, for each cup of flour, two level teaspoonfuls of baking-powder. With the tips of the fingers work into the flour one-third a cup of butter. When the mixture looks like meal, mix in gradually nearly one pint of milk, cutting the dough with a knife until well mixed. When it is of a consistency to handle, turn out on to a well-floured board, toss with the knife in the flour, then pat out into a sheet half an inch thick, and cut into rounds. Let the heat of the oven be moderate at first, and increase after the dough has risen. Bake about fifteen minutes.
Prepare the dough as above, roll to about three-eighths an inch in thickness, and cut into rounds. Spread one half of these with softened butter, and press the others, unbuttered, upon them; bake fifteen or eighteen minutes.
Remove the crust from a fresh loaf of French bread. Gash the loaf at the ends and pull apart into halves; then cut the halves and pull apart into quarters. Repeat until the pieces are about the thickness of breadsticks. Put on a rack in a dripping-pan, and dry out the moisture in a slow oven; then brown delicately. Keep in a dry place (a tin box is suitable) and reheat in the oven before serving.
A short time before removing from the oven, brush over the top of each loaf or roll with beaten yolk of egg, diluted with a little milk, or with a little sugar dissolved in milk, or with thin starch.
Put a saucepan with half a cup of butter and one cup of boiling water over the fire. When the mixture boils, beat into it one cup of flour. When the dough cleaves from the sides of the saucepan, turn into a bowl and beat in, one at a time, three large or four small eggs.
Cover the meat with cold water and bring the water slowly to the boiling-point; let boil five minutes, then slightly bubble until the meat is tender.
Cover the meat with boiling water, let boil rapidly five minutes, then keep the water just below the boiling-point, or just "quivering" at one side of the saucepan, until the meat is tender. When the meat is about half cooked, add a teaspoonful of salt for each quart of water.
Method.—Chop the meat or fish very fine, then pass through a purée sieve; cream the butter and with a wooden spoon work it into the meat or fish; add seasonings to taste, press the mixture solidly into small jars or cups, and pour melted butter to the depth of one-fourth an inch over the top of the meat. Set aside in a cool place.
Ham, fat and lean; either chicken, veal or tongue, with bacon; chicken and ham, mixed, fat ham; chicken and tongue, mixed, with bacon; veal and ham, mixed, with fat ham; roast beef and corned beef, mixed, with fat of either, or bacon; finnan-haddie and bacon; salmon, cod, haddock, bluefish, etc., with bacon, or with double the amount of butter.
|Towards eve there was tea|
|(A luxury due to Matilda) and ice,|
|Fruit and coffee.|
|Come, touch to your lips this melting sweetness,|
|Sip of this nectar,—this Java fine,—|
|Whose tawny drops hold more completeness|
|Than lurks in the depths of ruby wine.|
|—J. M. L.
Method.—Put the coffee into the filter of a well-scalded coffee-pot. Pour the boiling water over the coffee. Serve as soon as the infusion has dripped through the filter. For black coffee use double the quantity of coffee.
Method.—Beat the white and crushed shell of the egg and half the cup of cold water together; mix with the coffee, pour over the boiling water, stir thoroughly, and boil from three to five minutes with the nozzle tightly closed; pour half a cup of cold water down the spout; stir in one tablespoonful of coffee and let stand on the range, without boiling, ten minutes.
Method.—Fill the tea-ball half full with tea, put the ball into the cup, with a cherry or a slice of lemon, and pour boiling water over them; remove the ball when the tea is of the desired strength.
Method.—Grate the chocolate, add the granulated sugar and hot water, and cook until smooth and glossy; with a whisk beat in the hot milk very gradually, and return to a double boiler to keep hot. Beat the cream until solid. Beat the whites of the eggs until dry, then beat in the powdered sugar and fold the cream into the egg and sugar. Add half of the cream mixture to the chocolate with the vanilla, and mix while the cream is heating. Serve the rest of the cream in spoonfuls upon the chocolate in the cups.
Prepare as in preceding recipe, omitting the cream mixture and such portion of the chocolate as is desired.
Method.—Mix the cocoa and sugar, pour over the boiling water, and when boiling again add the hot milk; beat the whipped cream into the hot cocoa, or serve a spoonful upon the top of each cup.
Scald a two-inch piece of paper-bark cinnamon with the milk to be used in making the cocoa.
Stem and wash half a pound of sultana raisins; let them stand, covered with one quart of boiling water, upon the back of the range an hour or more; filter the water through folds of cheese-cloth and use in making cocoa or chocolate.
Method.—Beat the egg until white and yolk are well mixed; then beat in the sugar, the lemon juice and the water.
Method.—Grate the pineapple, add the boiling water and the sugar, and boil fifteen minutes; add the tea and strain into the punch-bowl. When cold add the fruit juice, the cherries and the cold water. A short time before serving, add a piece of ice, and, on serving, the Apollinaris water. Strawberries, mint leaves, or slices of banana may be used in the place of the cherries.
Method.—Cut the rhubarb into pieces without peeling; add the bay leaf and water, and let simmer until the rhubarb is tender; strain through a cheese-cloth. Boil the juice with the sugar five minutes. When cold add the orange and lemon juice, with one-fourth a cup of syrup from a jar of preserved ginger, and a piece of ice. Add water as needed.
Method.—Boil the sugar, water and tartaric acid five minutes. When nearly cold beat into the syrup the whites of the eggs, beaten until foamy, and the flavoring extract. Store in a fruit jar, closely covered. To use, put three tablespoonfuls into a glass half full of cold water, stir in one-fourth a teaspoonful of soda, and drink while effervescing. A pint of any kind of fruit juice may displace the water, when a teaspoonful of lemon juice should be added to the contents of each glass before stirring in the soda.
Method.—Scald the milk with the spices and nuts. Break up the chocolate and melt over hot water; add the sugar, mix thoroughly, then gradually stir in the boiling water; let cook two or three minutes after all the water has been added, then turn into the hot milk; let stand over hot water until ready to serve, then add the beaten yolks of eggs, diluted with half a cup of water, milk or cream, and strain through a cheese-cloth. Keep hot over hot water.
Boil the sugar and water about six minutes; let cool, then add the lemon slices, with seeds removed, and the cloves; let stand some hours in a cold place. When ready to serve, add the claret, water and liqueur, all chilled on ice. Put a piece of ice in the pitcher and pour over it the mixture. The beverage should not be sweet.
|Gentlemen, prepare not to be gone;|
|We have a trifling foolish banquet.|
|—Romeo and Juliet.
|Small cheer and great welcome makes a merry feast.|
|—Comedy of Errors, iii. I.
|A little quail, or some such light thing, when I come home at night.|
|Now and then your men of wit|
|Will condescend to take a bit.|
How fire was discovered, when it was first applied to the needs of human beings, the origin and early use of cooking and heating utensils,—all are concealed from us in the mists that surround the life of prehistoric man. But at the dawn of history, even before the beginning of our era, crude appliances for cooking were in use; and, without doubt, one of the earliest of these was an utensil corresponding in some particulars, at least, to the chafing-dish of to-day.
The chafing-dish is a portable utensil used upon the table, either for cooking food or for keeping food hot after it has been cooked by other means. In ancient times, the fuel of the chafing-dish was either live coals or olive oil; to-day we use either electricity, gas, alcohol or colonial spirits.
The first chafing-dishes of which historic mention is made consisted of a pan heated over a pot of burning oil, the pan resting upon a frame which held the pot of oil. It was with such an utensil, perhaps, that the Israelitish women cooked the locusts of Egypt and Palestine, for these were eaten as a common food by the people of the biblical lands and age.
Mommsen, in his history of Rome, while speaking of the extravagance of the times, as shown in the table furnishings, probably refers to the chafing-dish when he says: "A well-wrought bronze cooking-machine came to cost more than an estate." The idea that this might be the utensil referred to is strengthened by the fact that many chafing-dishes have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. These were made of bronze, and highly ornamented. Evidently, olive oil was the fuel used in these dishes.
Coming down to more modern times, Madame de Staël had a dish of very unique pattern, and, when driven by the command of Napoleon from her beloved Paris, she carried her chafing-dish with her into exile as one of her most cherished household gods. At the present day among the favored few, who have full purses, are found sets of little silver chafing-dishes about four inches square. These tiny dishes rest upon a doylie-covered plate, and a bird or rarebit may be served in them as a course at dinner, one to each guest. The cooking is not done in these dishes, and they are not furnished with lamps; in them the food, while it is being eaten, is simply kept hot by means of a tiny pan filled with hot water.
In reality, the modern chafing-dish is a species of bain marie, or double boiler, with a lamp so arranged that cooking can be done without other appliances. It consists of four parts. The first is the blazer, or the pan in which the cooking is done; this is provided with a long handle. The second is the hot-water pan, which corresponds to the lower part of the double boiler; this should be provided with handles, and is a very inconvenient dish without them. The third is the frame upon which the hot-water pan rests, and in which the spirit-lamp is set. The last, but by no means least, part is the lamp; this is provided with a cotton or an asbestos wick. When the lamp has a cotton wick, the flame is regulated by turning the wick up or down, as in an ordinary lamp. At present this style of lamp is found only in the more expensive grades of dishes,—silver-plated, and costing from $15 upwards. When asbestos is used as the wick, the lamp is filled with this porous stone, which is to be saturated with alcohol immediately before using, and the top is covered with a wire netting. The flame is regulated by means of metal slides, which open and shut over the netting, thus cutting off or letting on the flame, as it is desired.
|With all appliances and means to boot.|
|—Henry IV., iii. I.|
The chafing-dish should always rest upon a tray, as a very slight draught of air, or the expansion of the alcohol when heated, will sometimes cause the flame to flare out and downward, and thus an unprotected tablecloth might be set on fire.
Often a cutlet dish is considered a necessary part of a chafing-dish outfit; but as one of the chief merits of the chafing-dish consists in the possibility of serving a repast the instant it is cooked, there would seem to be a want of propriety in removing the cooked article to a platter and garnishing the dish before serving.
A polished wooden spoon, with long handle and small bowl, is a most convenient utensil to use while cooking the dainty; but the regulation chafing-dish spoon is needed when serving the same. Such a spoon has a broad bowl of silver or aluminum, with rounded end, and a long ebony handle.
The filler is a most convenient article for use, when the lamp needs replenishing with alcohol, but in its absence the alcohol may be turned into a small pitcher and from that into the lamp. A lamp of the average size holds about five tablespoonfuls of alcohol, and this quantity will supply heat for at least half an hour.
Glass, granite or tin measuring-cups, upon which thirds or quarters are indicated, also tea- and tablespoons, are essential for accurate measurements.
Several items are essential to the successful serving of a meal from the chafing-dish. To be a pronounced success, the work must be done noiselessly and gracefully. The preparation of all articles is the same for the chafing-dish as for the common stove; but where the mixing is done at the table, as for a rarebit, the recipe takes on an additional flavor, according to the deftness with which it is done.
Let, then, everything be ready and at hand, before the guests or family assemble at the table. Have the lamp filled and covered, so that it may remain filled. Have all seasonings measured out in a cup. In case the yolks of eggs are to be used, they will not injure, having been beaten beforehand, if they be kept covered. When oysters are to be served, have them washed, freed from bits of shell, drained, and left in a pitcher from which they can be readily poured. The quantity of butter used in the recipes is indicated by tablespoonfuls, and may be measured out beforehand and rolled into dainty balls with butter-hands, a spoonful in each ball.
Bear in mind that the hot-water pan is to be used in all cases where the double boiler would be used, if the cooking were to be done upon the range. For instance, where the recipe calls for milk or cream, except in the making of a sauce, use the bath from the beginning. Also, be careful always to place the blazer in the bath before eggs are added to any mixture. Indeed, the hot-water pan is the one feature of the chafing-dish which it is most important to notice; for on the proper use of the hot-water pan the value of the chafing-dish as an exponent of scientific cookery entirely depends. She who well understands the principles upon which the use of this rests has gained no small insight into the secret of all cookery, be it scientific, economic or hygienic; for a knowledge of the effect of heat at different temperatures, applied to food, is the very foundation-stone upon which all cookery rests.
Although the chafing-dish is especially adapted to the needs of the bachelor, man or maid, its use should not be relegated entirely to the homeless or the Bohemian. In the sick-room, at the luncheon-table, on Sunday night, it is most serviceable and wellnigh indispensable; it always suggests hearty welcome and good cheer.
While it is out of place, at any ceremonial meal, as a means of cooking, even on such occasions a lobster or other dish that needs be served piping hot to be eaten at its best may be brought on in individual chafing-dishes. These are supplied with hot-water pans and lamps. At a chafing-dish supper each guest can prepare his own rarebit.
Any operation in cooking that can be performed on the kitchen range may be successfully carried out on the chafing-dish, provided one be skilled in its use. But as the dining-room is usually chosen as the site in which to test its possibilities, here it were well to confine one's efforts to such dishes as will not give rise to too much disorder. Sautéing and frying it were better to reserve for the range and a well-ventilated kitchen.
Alcohol is most commonly used in the lamp of the chafing-dish; and, on account of its cheapness, one is often advised to buy wood alcohol. But in large markets, where many fowl are singed daily over an alcohol flame, the marketmen will tell you that the very best article is none too good for their purpose. It does not smoke, wastes less rapidly, and in the end will prove quite as economical.
|"Being no further enemy to you|
|Than the constraint of hospitable zeal."|
In regard to the chafing-dish and its most prominent use, some one may fittingly ask: Is it hygienic to eat at midnight? Can one keep one's health and eat late suppers? As in all things pertaining to food, no set rules can be given to meet every case; much depends upon constitutional traits, individual habits and idiosyncrasies. One may practise what another cannot attempt. As a rule, however, people who eat a hearty dinner, after the work of the day is done, do not need to eat again until the following breakfast hour.
Those who are engaged, either mentally or physically, throughout the evening, cannot with impunity, eat a very hearty meal previous to that effort; but after their work is done they need nourishing food, and food that is both easily digested and assimilated. But even these should not eat and then immediately retire; for during sleep all the bodily organs, including the stomach, become dormant. Food partaken at this hour is not properly taken care of, and in too many cases must be digested when the individual has awakened, out of sorts, the next morning.
It is well to remember, also, that, at any time after food is eaten, there should be a period of rest from all active effort; for then the blood flows from the other organs of the body to the stomach, and the work of digestion is begun. Oftentimes we hear men say they must smoke after meals, for unless they do so they cannot digest their food. They fail to see that it is not the tobacco that promotes digestion, but the enforced repose.
But, if we must eat at midnight, the question may well be asked, What shall we eat? That which can be digested and assimilated with the least effort on the part of the digestive organs. And among such things we may note oysters, eggs and game, when these have been properly—that is, delicately—cooked.
As so many dishes are prepared in the chafing-dish that require the use of a simple sauce, we give in this place the methods usually followed in the preparation of common sauces. For one cup of sauce, put two tablespoonfuls of butter into the blazer; let the butter simply melt, without coloring, if for a white sauce, but cook until brown for a brown sauce. Mix together two tablespoonfuls of flour, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of black or white pepper, or a few grains of cayenne or paprica, and beat it into the bubbling butter; let the mixture cook two or three minutes, then stir into it, rather gradually at first, and beating constantly, one cup of cold milk, water or stock. Now, when the sauce boils up once after all the liquid is in, it is ready for use. In making a white sauce some cooks add, from time to time while the sauce is being stirred, a few drops of lemon juice, which they claim makes the sauce much whiter.
Sometimes we make the sauce after another fashion, using the same proportions of the various ingredients. If water or stock be used, put it in the blazer directly over the fire. If the liquid be milk, put it into the blazer, and the blazer over hot water; cream together the butter, flour and seasonings, dilute with a little of the hot liquid, pour into the remainder of the hot liquid, and stir constantly until the sauce thickens, and then occasionally for ten or fifteen minutes, until the flour is thoroughly cooked.
In making a brown sauce, first brown the butter, then brown the flour in the butter, and, whenever it is convenient, use brown stock as the liquid.
In all recipes where flour is used, unless otherwise stated, the flour is measured after sifting once. When flour is measured by cups, the cup is filled with a spoon, and a level cupful is meant. A tablespoonful or teaspoonful of any designated material is a level spoonful of such material.
When rich soup stock, flavored with vegetables and sweet herbs, is at hand for use in sauces, additional seasonings are not necessary; but when a sauce is made of milk, water, or water and meat extract, some flavor more or less pronounced is demanded. A few bits of onion and carrot browned in hot butter, or anchovy sauce or curry may be added; but, all things considered, the most convenient way to secure an appetizing flavor is by the use of "Kitchen Bouquet." This alone or in conjunction with a dash of some one of the many really good proprietary sauces on the market is well-nigh indispensable in chafing-dish cookery.
|"No variety here,|
|But you, most noble guests, whose gracious looks|
|Must make a dish or two become a feast."|
Put into the blazer twenty-five to fifty choice oysters. As soon as they are hot and look plump, add salt, pepper and butter. Serve on buttered toast or crackers. Add two tablespoonfuls of cream or half a tablespoonful of lemon juice before serving, if desired.
Method.—Put the oysters into the blazer. When they look plump and the edges curl, put the blazer into the hot-water pan and add the seasonings. Add a few spoonfuls of the liquor from the pan to the yolks of the eggs, and, after mixing well, pour into the chafing-dish. Stir constantly until the liquor thickens, then serve on thin slices of buttered toast or on thin crackers.
Method.—Let the oysters be parboiled and drained beforehand. (To parboil, heat quickly to the boiling-point in their own liquor.) Melt the butter in the blazer, add the flour, salt and pepper, and cook till frothy; add the oyster liquor or chicken stock and cook until the boiling-point is reached. Now add the oysters, and, as soon as they are heated thoroughly, put the blazer into the bath and add the beaten yolks, the onion and lemon juice and the mushrooms. As soon as the eggs thicken the sauce a little, serve on toast or crackers. If uncooked mushrooms are used, cook them in the butter two or three minutes before the flour and seasonings are added.
Method.—Cook the onion and butter in the blazer a few moments. Mix the flour and curry powder and stir into the butter. When frothy add the oyster liquor. As soon as the sauce boils up once, add the salt, pepper and cream, and, in a moment, the oysters. When the oysters are thoroughly heated, serve on buttered toast or crackers.
Method.—Bring the oysters to the boiling-point in their own liquor, skim, drain, and set aside. Heat the butter in the blazer, sauté in it the onion cut in slices, stir in the flour and curry powder mixed with the salt and pepper, and, when frothy, add the oyster liquor, stock and tomato pulp (a pint of pulp reduced by slow cooking to half a cup). When the sauce boils, add the oysters; and when hot serve on buttered toast or fried bread.
Method.—Brown the butter and add to it the parsley, seasonings and flour; let heat, then add the well-drained oysters, and, when the edges begin to curl, add the well-beaten yolks. Serve on warmed plates, with fried bread and parsley.
Method.—Prepare the sauce in the usual manner. If oysters are used, they should have been parboiled previously and drained, and, if large, cut in pieces. Fish should be flaked when hot, and meats cut into dice when cold.
Season any of the creamed dishes highly with cayenne, onion juice, mustard, and Worcestershire or other sauce.
Cream together two tablespoonfuls of butter and one tablespoonful of anchovy paste. Melt in the blazer, then add half a dozen eggs, beaten slightly with one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of paprica. Stir and cook, and, when beginning to thicken, add half a pint of oysters, parboiled, "bearded," and cut fine. When scrambled, serve on sippets of toast, lightly spread with anchovy paste.
With a fork pressed into a butter ball, rub over the bottom of the hot blazer. Then cover the surface with small rounds of toast, and put one or two uncooked oysters on each round; cover, and cook until plump, dust with salt and pepper, and put a bit of butter on each oyster. Serve, when the butter has melted, with slices of lemon.
Cook as before. Have ready two tablespoonfuls of butter beaten to a cream; add a few grains of salt and paprica, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and, by degrees, the juice of half a lemon. Spread upon the oysters before serving.
Scald the oysters in their own liquor over a quick fire. When plump wrap each oyster in a slice of bacon, and fasten with a small skewer (wooden toothpick). Sauté in the blazer, heated very hot. Serve on thin rounds of toast. These cromeskies are most easily cooked in a double broiler, resting on a dripping-pan, in a hot oven.
Wash and drain the oysters, season with salt and pepper, roll in fine crumbs, dip in beaten egg, then roll in crumbs again. Put a little olive oil or clarified butter in the blazer; when it is heated, put in the oysters, brown them on one side, turn, and brown on the other side.
Scald a cup of cream, add two tablespoonfuls of fine-grated bread crumbs, a tablespoonful of butter, a dash of paprica and a grating of nutmeg; then add two dozen oysters, washed, drained and chopped. Stir until the oysters are thoroughly heated, but without boiling the mixture. Spread rounds of toast with butter, and then with the oyster mixture. Serve at once accompanied by olives, pim-olas or gherkins.
Stir one cup of cracker crumbs into half a cup of melted butter. Heat half a cup of cream or strained oyster liquor in the blazer, put in a layer of oysters (about a cup), washed and drained, and sprinkle with a part of the prepared crumbs, salt and pepper; add another layer of oysters, the rest of the crumbs, and salt and pepper. Cover, and cook nearly ten minutes. Do not stir the oysters.
|And ate a lobster, and sang and mighty merry.|
Take every creature in of every kind.
Pick the meat from a boiled lobster and cut it into small pieces; sift over it the coral; mix with it also the liver, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar or three of lemon juice, one-third a cup of butter and one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of cayenne and made mustard; heat in the blazer until thoroughly hot. Serve on cup-shaped leaves of lettuce with a quarter of a hard-boiled egg on the top of each portion.
Method.—Remove the meat from the shells and cut it into delicate slices. Put the butter in the blazer, and, when it melts, put the lobster into it and cook four or five minutes. Add the salt, pepper, nutmeg, wine and brandy. Stir the cream into the beaten yolks, and then stir both into the lobster mixture. Serve as soon as the eggs thicken the sauce.
Pour three tablespoonfuls of lemon juice over the meat of one lobster and season with salt and pepper. Put three tablespoonfuls of butter in the blazer, and, when it is melted, add the prepared lobster; stir until hot and serve at once.
Use one quart of clams. Separate the hard from the soft parts of the clams. Chop the hard parts fine. Substitute the soft and the chopped parts of the clams for the lobster and proceed as for lobster à la Newburgh.
Oyster, chicken, turkey or sweetbread à la Newburgh may be prepared by substituting one of the above ingredients for the lobster.
Method.—Melt the butter in the blazer and in it cook the onion and carrot about five minutes. Remove the carrot; add the wine, lobster and seasonings. When thoroughly heated, add the butter, parsley and brandy and serve at once.
Method.—Grate the cocoanut and set it aside to soak an hour in one pint of milk. Sauté the onion and garlic in the butter, add the cornstarch and seasonings, and cook until frothy; add the milk strained from the cocoanut, gradually, and, when the sauce boils up once, add the lobster; salt and pepper to taste.
Method.—Cut the lobster in delicate slices or in dice, as preferred. Make a bechamel sauce, after the usual manner, of the butter, flour, seasonings, cream and stock. Add the lobster, and, when heated thoroughly, add the beaten yolks mixed with a few spoonfuls of the sauce from the blazer. Add the lemon juice, and sprinkle the dried and sifted coral or some chopped parsley over the top of the mixture as it is served.
Oysters, clams, sweetbread, chicken or turkey may be served à la Bordelaise or Bechamel.
Method.—Prepare a white sauce, using the ingredients mentioned, and adding the lemon juice by degrees. Add the lobster to the sauce. Cut the whites of the hard-boiled eggs in rings and pass the yolks through a sieve. Serve the lobster on bits of toast, or on thin crackers, with a sprinkling of the yolks over the lobster, and circles of the whites around it.
Remove the meat from one pint of oyster crabs; put this, with a little of the liquor, into the blazer, add two tablespoonfuls of butter, a dash of paprica and a scant half-teaspoonful of salt, and let cook three or four minutes without boiling. Set the blazer over hot water and add three-fourths a cup of hollandaise sauce (either hot or cold). Stir until the mixture is heated, then add one tablespoonful of lemon juice and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Serve on toast, in Swedish timbale cases or in patty cases.
Put one-fourth a cup of vinegar, two tablespoonfuls of butter, a grating of nutmeg and a dash of paprica over hot water to heat. Beat the yolks of four eggs, add the hot vinegar to them, return to the fire, and stir constantly while the mixture thickens; then add two more tablespoonfuls of butter in bits.
Shrimps, oysters, lobsters and delicate fish are all good when served after this recipe.
Melt one tablespoonful of butter, add one tablespoonful of flour, and, when blended, one cup of milk. Add the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs rubbed through a sieve, and season to taste with salt, paprica, a teaspoonful of lemon juice and wine; cayenne, mustard and tobasco sauce are approved by some. Add one cup of crab meat and one-fourth a cup of canned mushrooms cut in quarters. Serve on toast.
Method.—Melt the butter in the blazer, add the onion, and let cook until a light-brown color; add the flour and mix until smooth; add the stock and stir until it thickens. Add the crab meat, lemon juice, parsley, salt and pepper. Beat the yolk of the egg and add two or three spoonfuls of the sauce to it; mix well, add to the ingredients in the blazer, stir constantly, and serve as soon as heated.
Method.—Put the butter in the blazer; when melted, add the garlic, onion, salt, pepper and tomatoes, and let cook ten minutes; add the crab meat (fresh or canned). Serve when hot on sippets of toast.
Make a sauce of one-fourth a cup, each, of butter and flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and one cup and a half of white stock; add one tablespoonful of anchovy essence and a quart of shelled shrimps. When hot add the beaten yolks of two eggs, with half a cup of cream. Lastly, add a tablespoonful of lemon juice and serve, without boiling, on sippets of toast.
A pint of shrimps and a cup of peas, heated in a cup and a half of cream sauce, are particularly good.
Put about two tablespoonfuls of clarified butter into the blazer. When hot add bread cut as for sandwiches. Brown the bread on one side, turn, and brown the other side. Spread with anchovy paste and serve at once.
Prepare the anchovy toast in one chafing-dish, and, at the same time, the eggs in another. Beat five eggs slightly, add half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and half a cup of cream or milk. Put a large tablespoonful of butter in the blazer; when melted, add the egg mixture. Stir until the egg is creamy, and serve on the anchovy toast.
Press cooked spinach, chopped fine, through a purée sieve; reheat with a little butter, salt and two or three drops of tobasco sauce. Sauté rounds of bread to a golden brown in a little hot butter, spread with anchovy paste, and over this spread the purée of spinach. Press into the spinach on each round of bread a quarter of a hard-boiled egg cut lengthwise, having the yolk uppermost.
All the preparations for this dish, with the exception of sautéing the bread, may be made some hours before serving.
Thoroughly wash the anchovies, cut off the fillets, and chop very fine with a sprig of parsley and a few chives, or a slice or two of Bermuda onion; put the whole into a mortar and pound well, adding, meanwhile, a little paprica. Cut some large selected olives in halves, take out the stones, and fill them with the anchovy mixture. Cut small rounds of bread an inch and a half in diameter and an inch in thickness; remove a crumb, similar in shape to the olive, from the centre of each. Put a little butter into the blazer, and, when hot, sauté the rounds of bread on both sides; drain on soft paper, put an olive in the centre of each and a little mayonnaise over the whole. Five anchovies will suffice to stuff a dozen olives.
Have ready yolks of eggs, cooked until firm, and an equal bulk of sardines, each rubbed to a paste. Mix thoroughly, and season with salt, pepper and lemon juice. Prepare some bread in the blazer as for anchovy toast; then spread with the sardine mixture and serve at once.
Mix together one teaspoonful, each, of sugar and curry powder and a saltspoonful of salt. Put these into the blazer with one cup of cream and half a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Stir until the mixture is hot, then put into it ten or twelve sardines. In the mean time, heat some butter or oil in a second blazer, and in it sauté some bits of bread a little larger than the sardines, and round slices of tart apple. Serve each sardine on a bit of bread; pour a little of the sauce over the top and garnish with a round of apple. The slices of apple will keep their shape, if the apples be cored and then cut into rounds without paring.
Remove the skins and tails from about a dozen sardines and heat them in the oven. Heat some butter or oil in the blazer of one chafing-dish, and in it sauté some bits of bread of suitable shape to serve under the sardines. Put in the blazer of another chafing-dish, over hot water, the well-beaten yolks of four eggs, one teaspoonful, each, of tarragon vinegar, cider vinegar and made mustard, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of butter. Stir the sauce until it is quite thick, then serve the sardines on the bread with the sauce poured over them. Olives are agreeable with this dish.
Two chafing-dishes will be requisite for preparing this delicious luncheon dish.
Have ready one pound of raw halibut chopped very fine; beat the yolk of an egg, add to it one teaspoonful and a fourth of salt, one-fourth a teaspoonful of white pepper and a few grains of cayenne or paprica. Blend a teaspoonful of cornstarch with a little milk; then add milk to make two-thirds a cup, stir gradually into the egg and seasonings, and then very slowly into the fish. Lastly, fold into the mixture one-third a cup of thick cream, beaten until stiff. Butter dariole moulds thoroughly, arrange a circle of cooked peas around the bottom of each mould, and fill with the fish preparation two-thirds full. Set into the blazer, surrounded with boiling water; after the water is again boiling, turn down the flame so that the water will barely quiver, and let cook about twenty minutes. Prepare, in the mean time, in the second blazer, creamed peas. Turn the fish from the moulds and surround with the
Have ready one can of peas, drained, rinsed, covered with boiling water and drained again. Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter; add one tablespoonful of flour with one teaspoonful of sugar and half a teaspoonful of salt; add the peas and one-third a cup of milk, stir, and let cook until the liquid begins to bubble.
Scald one quart of milk, with half an onion and a stalk of celery; strain into a pitcher and keep hot if convenient. Add to the remnants of cold boiled white fish enough canned salmon to make two cups; chop fine and rub through a purée sieve. Cook together in the blazer two tablespoonfuls of butter, three of flour, one teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper. Add the milk gradually, and, when all is added and the contents of the blazer are boiling, put a few spoonfuls of the sauce into the fish and beat until smooth; add more sauce, and, when well diluted and smooth, turn the whole into the blazer. Stir, and let cook until very hot; then serve with crackers, split, buttered, and browned in the oven. These proportions give three pints of soup. Vegetable purées may be prepared in the same way.
Sauté one clove of garlic and half an onion, grated or chopped fine, in three tablespoonfuls of butter; add two tablespoonfuls of flour, one-fourth a teaspoonful of paprica and one pimento, chopped fine; also, add one cup of tomato pulp, and, when the sauce boils, half a pound of "hatcheled" codfish, or any salt codfish picked into small pieces and freshened in one quart of cold water. Serve, while hot, with brownbread sandwiches, and pickles or pim-olas.
Pick enough salt codfish into bits to make one cup. Let stand in cold water about half an hour. Make one cup of cream sauce, using one tablespoonful and a half of flour, two tablespoonfuls of butter and one cup of cream; remove all the water from the fish by wringing in a cheese-cloth, add the fish to the sauce, and, when heated, stir in a lightly beaten egg. Serve upon rounds of toast, with olives, or plain lettuce, or tomato salad.
Method.—Melt the butter in the blazer and toss about in it the macaroni and fish; add the seasonings and the tomato purée, which should be well reduced. Serve when thoroughly heated.
Method.—Marinate the fish while hot with salt, pepper, oil and lemon juice, adding, also, a few drops of onion juice, if desired. At serving-time make a sauce of the butter, flour, salt, paprica, stock and cream; add the paste and the fish, and, when the fish is thoroughly heated, turn down the flame of the lamp or set the blazer into hot water. Sprinkle with the parsley and serve.
Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter in the blazer; add two tablespoonfuls of flour and a dash of paprica, and stir until smooth and browned a little; then add half a cup of stock and half a cup of sherry; stir until thickened, then let simmer a few minutes, and add nearly a cup of sardines, from which the bones and skin have been removed and the flesh separated into small pieces. Let stand until very hot.
|You must eat no cheese . . . it breeds melancholy.|
Art thou come? Why my cheese, my digestion!
|—Troilus and Cressida.|
Cheese is probably the most popular article served from the chafing-dish. What possessor of a chafing-dish has not concocted a rarebit—and the best one ever made? Were you ever present when the process of evolving a rarebit was in progress and half the guests were not disappointed in the seasoning? For perfection in this toothsome dish, mustard is demanded by some; by others the use of this biting condiment is considered a lapse in culinary taste. The consensus of opinion, however, is in favor of paprica; and, theoretically, Mattieu Williams considers bicarbonate of soda to be demanded, not for the sake of seasoning, but as an aid to digestion.
As regards the digestibility of cheese, and, consequently, its adaptability to midnight suppers, opinions differ widely. Dr. Hoy, an excellent authority on diet, calls cheese a concentrated meat, a tissue builder,—but not itself a tissue, and so without waste elements,—a condensed, compact food product, and indigestible on account of its very compactness. Still, when the caseine, or curd, is softened and broken up by the addition of liquid and gentle heat, it is rendered more digestible; and cheese so prepared may be for some, if taken with no other nitrogenous food, an acceptable and easily digested article of diet.
Method.—Melt the butter, add the cheese and seasonings, and stir until melted; then add the eggs, diluted with the cream, and stir until smooth and slightly thickened. Do not allow the mixture to boil at any time in the cooking; if necessary, cook over hot water. Serve on thin crackers, hot shredded-wheat or granose biscuit, or on bread toasted on but one side, placing the rarebit on the untoasted side.
Method.—Melt the butter; add to it the cream in which the cornstarch has been stirred. Let cook two minutes, and add the cheese broken into bits. Stir until the cheese is melted and the mixture perfectly smooth. Add the salt, mustard and paprica, and serve at once as above.
Method.—Put the butter into the chafing-dish (using the bath); when melted, add the cheese and ale. Mix the salt, mustard and cayenne, add the egg, and beat thoroughly. When the cheese is melted, add the egg mixture and let cook until it thickens. Serve as before.
Marinate a cup of cooked halibut, flaked, with one tablespoonful of olive oil, a few drops of onion juice, one tablespoonful of lemon juice, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of paprica. Make a sauce of two tablespoonfuls, each, of butter and flour, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and half a cup, each, of chicken stock and cream. Add two-thirds a cup of grated cheese and the halibut. Serve, as soon as the fish is hot and the cheese melted, on the untoasted side of bread toasted on one side.
Clean and remove the hard muscles from half a pint of oysters; parboil the oysters in the chafing-dish in their own liquor until their edges curl, then remove to a hot bowl. Put one tablespoonful of butter, half a pound of cheese broken in small bits, one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt and mustard and a few grains of cayenne into the chafing-dish. While the cheese is melting, beat two eggs slightly, and add to them the oyster liquor; mix this gradually with the melted cheese, add the oysters, and turn at once over hot toast.
Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter, add half a pound of fresh cheese, grated or broken into bits, and stir constantly while it melts; then add gradually the beaten yolk of an egg, diluted with two-thirds a cup of cream. Stir until smooth and slightly thickened; season with a scant half a teaspoonful of paprica, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt and a few drops of tabasco sauce. Have ready a box of sardines, drained, broiled carefully and laid on the untoasted side of bread toasted on one side; pour the rarebit over the sardines and serve at once.
Prepare a rarebit in one chafing-dish; break some eggs into the blazer of another containing salted water just "off the boil." When the eggs are poached and the rarebit ready, place an egg above the rarebit on each slice of toast.
Add two slices of broiled or fried bacon to each service of golden buck.
Melt a tablespoonful of butter in the blazer, turning it about so as to butter the surface thoroughly. Put in half a pound of mild cheese, grated, and stir until the cheese is melted; then add the yolks of three eggs, beaten and diluted with a tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, a teaspoonful of made mustard, two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice or vinegar and one-fourth a teaspoonful of paprica. Stir until smooth. Serve upon the untoasted side of sippets of bread toasted on one side.
Method.—Sift the soda, mustard and cayenne into the flour and cook in the butter until frothy, then add the milk gradually; when the sauce boils, after all the milk has been added, put the blazer into the bath, add the crumbs and cheese, and cook and stir until the cheese is melted and the mixture becomes smooth; add the eggs, beaten until light, and serve at once.
Method.—Melt the butter, add the cheese, and stir while melting; then add the bread crumbs, which have been soaked in the milk and the egg lightly beaten.
|New-laid eggs, with Baucis' busy care|
|Turned by a gentle fire, and roasted rare.|
Beat six eggs until whites and yolks are well mixed; add half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of paprica and six tablespoonfuls of milk or cream. Melt two tablespoonsful of butter in the blazer, pour in the egg mixture, and stir and scrape from the blazer as it thickens. Just before it comes to the proper consistency, sprinkle in half a cup of grated Parmesan cheese, still stirring as before, and turn down the flame or set the blazer into the bath. American dairy cheese may be used instead of the Parmesan.
Cook half a cup of smoked salmon, cut into thin strips, in a tablespoonful of butter three or four minutes; then add to the eggs just before the cooking is finished.
Heat one can of pimentos (sweet red peppers) in boiling salted water; drain, and serve on rounds of buttered toast the pimentos filled with eggs scrambled with mushrooms or truffles. Pour around the pimentos a pint of well-seasoned brown sauce, to which one-third a cup of madeira has been added.
Cut half a pound of dried beef, sliced thin, into short match-like strips, cover with boiling water, drain at once, and add six eggs, beaten slightly, and one-fourth a cup of milk. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into the blazer; when hot add the eggs and other ingredients, and stir and cook until the eggs are set.
Have ready a pint of tomato pulp, from which the seeds have been removed, seasoned with onion, celery or parsley, and sweet herbs. Put a generous tablespoonful of butter into the blazer; add the tomato, and, when hot, six eggs, slightly beaten, half a teaspoonful of salt and half a saltspoonful of pepper. Stir until the contents are of a creamy consistency. Serve with brownbread toast.
Method.—Cook the mushrooms in the tomato sauce until tender; add the seasoning and the eggs, which have been broken into a bowl. Lift the whites carefully with a silver or wooden fork while cooking, until they are set; then prick the yolks and let them mix with the tomato, whites of the eggs and mushrooms. Serve quite soft on toast.
Make a cup of white sauce; add one tablespoonful of essence of anchovies and five hard-boiled eggs cut into quarters lengthwise.
Method.—Melt the butter in the blazer and sauté in it the sliced mushrooms; add the milk and spaghetti, and, when heated thoroughly, put the blazer in the bath and add the beaten eggs. Stir and cook until the eggs have thickened; then add the parsley and seasoning, and serve at once.
Butter thickly the inner sides of as many dariole moulds as there are individuals to serve. Then sprinkle them thickly with fine-chopped parsley, ham or tongue. Break an egg into each mould, taking care not to break the yolk; sprinkle over the tops a little salt and pepper, and set in the blazer surrounded by hot water to two-thirds the height of the moulds. If, after a time, the water boils, even with the lamp turned low, put the blazer into the bath and continue cooking, until the eggs are set. The eggs should be covered while cooking. When cooked, turn from the moulds and serve with a purée of tomatoes. Half a cup of sliced mushrooms added to the purée improves this dish.
Method.—Cook the onion in the butter a few minutes, then remove it and add the flour and curry powder; when frothy add the milk and stock. As soon as the boiling-point is reached, set the blazer into the hot-water pan and add the eggs cut in quarters. Season with salt and serve on sippets of toast.
Light meats, fish, oysters and lobsters may be prepared in the same way, omitting the half-cup of milk in the case of oysters. Chickens' livers may also be prepared by the same recipe, in which case the livers should have been cooked previously. Or they may be sautéd in a little hot butter in one dish, while the sauce is made in another.
Butter four or five shirring-dishes. To half a cup of grated bread crumbs and half a cup of chopped chicken or ham add enough cream to mix to a smooth, moist consistency, like butter. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Put a tablespoonful of the mixture into each dish, break in an egg, season with a dash of salt and pepper, cover with more of the mixture, and cook in the same manner as eggs à la Parisienne. Serve in the cups.
Have prepared on a hot serving-dish a can of tomatoes, stewed until they are reduced to a scant pint, and upon the tomatoes rounds of buttered toast for each egg to be served. Break some eggs, one by one, into a cup, and turn them into the blazer two-thirds filled with hot water; turn the flame low and put on the chafing-dish cover; if the water boils, turn down the flame. When the eggs are nicely poached, remove with a skimmer to the toast. Pour out the water and melt in the blazer, browning if desired, two tablespoonfuls of butter; add one tablespoonful of lemon juice; heat to the boiling-point, dust the eggs with salt and pepper, pour over the sauce, and serve.
Have ready, cooked beforehand, four hard-boiled eggs; cut them carefully into halves lengthwise, remove the yolks, and press them through a small sieve. Soak two anchovies, then dry and remove the bones and chop them with two or three cold cooked mushrooms and half a teaspoonful of capers; mix in the sifted yolks, add a seasoning of salt, pepper and paprica, and one teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar. This work may be done some hours before the time of serving. Have a little oil or clarified butter in the blazer, and sauté in it some rounds of bread—one for each half of an egg. When the bread is of good color on one side, turn it and place half an egg—the space from which the yolk was taken being filled with the anchovy mixture—on the bread; cover the blazer, and, when the second side of the bread is browned nicely and the egg hot, serve at once.
Method.—Cut the asparagus in pieces of the size of a pea and cook until tender. In cooking, reserve the tips until the other pieces are partially cooked, or, being more tender, they will become broken while the others are still uncooked. Make a sauce of the butter, flour, salt, paprica, and water in which the asparagus was cooked, or use half a cup of cream in the place of part of the asparagus liquor. When the sauce boils, add the asparagus and mix lightly with the sauce; break the eggs, one after another, into a cup and slide them carefully on to the top of the asparagus. Season with a sprinkling of salt and pepper, and, if desired, a grating of nutmeg. Set the blazer into the bath and put on the cover. When the eggs are nicely poached, remove the eggs, with the asparagus below, on to rounds of toasted and buttered bread.
Prepare in the same manner, using for one cup of chopped spinach one-third the quantity of sauce given above. If convenient, the eggs may be poached in a second dish, and in milk, water or stock.
Cut six cold, hard-boiled eggs into eighths lengthwise; add these, with a cup of cooked macaroni and half a cup of grated Parmesan cheese, to two cups of white sauce, at the boiling-point, in the blazer. Set over hot water, add a teaspoonful of onion juice, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and anchovy essence to taste, and serve very hot.
|Although the cheer be poor,|
|'Twill fill your stomachs.|
Have ready one-fourth a pound of macaroni, cooked until tender, but not broken, in boiling salted water, and then drained, and rinsed in cold water.
Make a sauce of two tablespoonfuls of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt and paprica, half a cup of well-seasoned stock and half a cup of well-reduced tomato pulp. Add the drained macaroni and stir occasionally, while it becomes thoroughly heated, then add one-fourth a cup of grated Parmesan cheese. Lift the macaroni with a fork and spoon so as to mix thoroughly with the cheese, and serve at once.
Strain the tomatoes through a sieve sufficiently fine to keep back the seeds, and cook the pulp, very slowly, until reduced to at least half its bulk. A more hearty dish may be served by adding, just before the cheese, three-fourths a cup of cold tongue cut in thin slices and then stamped into small fanciful shapes with a French cutter; or the tongue may be cut simply in small cubes.
Scrape the scales from the stalks of asparagus and cut the tender portions into pieces one-fourth an inch long. Cook in boiling salted water until tender; drain, and keep the peas hot. For three cups of peas make one cup of drawn-butter sauce, using as liquid the water in which the asparagus was cooked, or white stock. Add the peas to the sauce; beat the yolks of two eggs, add half a cup of cream, and stir into the sauce and peas; add, also, one tablespoonful of butter. Serve on croutons of fried bread, or in cases made of shredded-wheat biscuit.
Soak one pair of sweetbreads in cold water; cover with boiling salted water and let boil three minutes, then simmer twenty minutes; cool, and cut in small cubes. Sauté in two tablespoonfuls of hot butter sufficient mushroom caps, peeled and broken into pieces, to make with the sweetbreads two cups and a half. Make a sauce in the blazer, using one-fourth a cup, each, of butter and flour, one cup of chicken stock and half a cup of cream; add the sweetbreads and mushrooms, one tablespoonful of lemon juice, and, if desired, the yolks of two eggs, beaten and diluted with one-fourth a cup of cream or sherry. Serve on toast, in patty cases, or in cases of shredded-wheat biscuit.
Peel the caps of fresh mushrooms; wrap each mushroom in a slice of bacon, pinning the bacon around the mushroom with a wooden toothpick. Sauté in a hot blazer and serve on toast. These are particularly good, cooked in a hot oven in a double broiler resting over a baking-pan.
Wipe carefully half a pound of mushrooms; peel the caps and break them in pieces. Reserve the stems for another dish. Melt three tablespoonfuls of butter in the blazer and in it sauté the mushrooms; dust with salt and pepper, add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and, when cooked in the butter, one cup of cream, gradually; stir until the sauce boils, let simmer a few minutes, then serve with toast or crackers.
Put one-fourth a cup of butter and half a cup of sifted bread crumbs into the blazer and light the lamp; when the crumbs are well moistened with the butter, add a teaspoonful of fine-minced parsley, one pint of cooked artichokes cut into small cubes, half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of cayenne and half a pint of rich, sweet cream. Let boil up once and put out the flame; add a teaspoonful of lemon juice and half a teaspoonful of the grated rind of a lemon (or omit the grated rind); stir well and serve at once.
Heat three tablespoonfuls of butter or oil in the blazer. Cut the puff-balls in slices half an inch in thickness, season with salt and pepper, dip in egg and bread crumbs, and sauté in the blazer to a golden brown.
Put one tablespoonful of butter and one teaspoonful of lemon juice into the blazer; add a dozen peeled mushrooms, broken into pieces and blanched, and cook slowly, covered, five or six minutes. Then add one cup and one-fourth of milk, and, when scalded, stir in two tablespoonfuls, each, of butter and flour, creamed together. When the sauce boils, add one-fourth a pound of macaroni, cooked and blanched in the usual manner; heat over hot water, and, just before serving, add one-fourth a cup of grated cheese.
Rinse, drain, and rinse again in boiling water one can of peas. Add two tablespoonfuls of butter, one teaspoonful of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper. Beat the yolk of an egg, dilute with four tablespoonfuls of cream, and stir into the peas. Serve as soon as the egg thickens slightly.
Make a sauce of one-fourth a cup, each, of butter and flour, one tablespoonful of curry powder, half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and a pint of milk; add half a teaspoonful of onion juice, one cup of cooked peas, half a cup, each, of potato balls, turnips cut into cubes or fanciful shapes, and carrots cut into straws.
Method.—Heat the milk and potatoes in the blazer over hot water. Cream the butter and add the yolks of the eggs, beating them in well; add the parsley and seasonings, mix thoroughly, and, when the potatoes are hot and have absorbed part of the milk, stir the egg and butter into them; add the lemon juice and serve at once.
Butter the blazer and put into it about three cups of cold chopped potato, salted during the chopping. Pour over the potato a little hot stock, or water, and scatter some bits of butter over the top. Cover, and cook slowly, without stirring or browning, until thoroughly heated.
Melt three tablespoonfuls of butter in the blazer; add a fine-sliced onion and sauté to a delicate brown; add a quart of string beans, cooked, a dash of pepper, a grating of nutmeg and a little salt; heat thoroughly, tossing the beans occasionally; add a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, a tablespoonful of lemon juice and another tablespoonful of butter, in bits, and serve at once.
Method.—Peel the tomatoes, cut in small pieces, add the salt, and sugar, if used, and set aside in a cool place. Split the biscuits, dip the inside lightly into cold water without wetting the outside, put the halves together, and arrange in a buttered blazer; cover, and heat over hot water; then separate the halves, and, using a knife dipped in hot water, spread with butter. Put a layer of tomatoes on the bottom half, if sugar has not been used, add the salad dressing, and cover with the top of the biscuit, pressing it down lightly.
To one cup of kornlet add two well-beaten eggs, two tablespoonfuls of flour, a scant half teaspoonful of salt and a dash of paprica. Drop, by spoonfuls, into a hot, well-oiled blazer and cook to a golden brown, turn, and brown the other side.
To one can of kornlet add a teaspoonful of soda, two well-beaten eggs, salt and pepper, and enough fine cracker crumbs to hold the mixture together. Drop from a spoon and cook as above.
Many of the dishes prepared in the chafing-dish are réchauffés of cold cooked meats, including game and fish. The composition of such dishes is called "the flower of cookery": but it is well to remember that we are dealing with a class of foods that are more digestible when cooked rare; also, that in these cases digestibility decreases in proportion to the length of time, as well as the number of times, the article has been cooked. The meat or fish composing such dishes should not come into direct contact with the source of heat; after being freed from skin, bone and fat, they should simply be heated in a hot sauce over hot water.
Chop together very fine the corned beef and potatoes and a half or a whole green pepper, after having removed the seeds and veins; put two tablespoonfuls of butter into the blazer (over hot water), add the chopped ingredients, and season to suit the taste, adding a little stock or milk to moisten; mix thoroughly, then cover, and stir occasionally until heated through. Put a few bits of butter here and there over the top, and serve when melted. Use an equal quantity of meat and potato, or twice as much potato as meat. Serve with olives, pickles or a light vegetable salad.
Have ready cooked half a calf's liver (it may be boiled or braised with vegetables). Cut it into small cubes. Put one-fourth a cup of butter into the blazer; when colored a little add the cubes of liver dredged with two tablespoonfuls of flour, one-fourth a teaspoonful of paprica and half a teaspoonful of salt. Stir and cook until the flour is blended with the butter; then add one cup of water or stock and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. As soon as the sauce boils, add one-fourth a cup of cream, two hard-boiled eggs chopped fine, and one teaspoonful of lemon juice. Serve on toast, with quarters of lemon cut lengthwise.
Note.—Cream may be used in the place of stock, and the yolks of two uncooked eggs instead of the cooked eggs.
Cut cold cooked chicken or turkey and cooked tongue (enough to make one cup of meat) in dice; cut into inch-length pieces cooked spaghetti enough to make one cup. Put one cup and a half of thin cream into the blazer over hot water, and, when hot, add the meat and spaghetti. Beat the yolks of two eggs, add two tablespoonfuls of cream, and stir into the hot mixture; add, also, half a teaspoonful (scant) of salt and a dash of paprica. Stir constantly until the mixture thickens slightly, then serve at once with toast or crackers.
Put a tablespoonful of butter in the blazer. Break six eggs into a bowl, add six tablespoonfuls of water, and beat until you can take up a spoonful. Add about a cup of fine-chopped ham and mix well. Pour into the blazer, and cook until creamy, stirring constantly.
Method.—When ready to cook, mix the ingredients together thoroughly and form into round balls. Place the balls carefully in water just off the boil, and, in about five minutes, or as soon as the egg seems poached, remove the klopps with a skimmer. Serve with
Method.—Make the sauce in the usual manner, but do not let it boil after the yolks of the eggs are added.
To each cup of fine-chopped ham add one tablespoonful of fine bread crumbs, softened with cream or milk. Season with salt and pepper. Heat thoroughly and spread on rounds of moist buttered toast. Place a poached egg on each slice. Use two dishes.
Heat a little butter in the blazer; sauté in it some narrow strips of bread and spread them thickly with the mixture used for epicurean sandwiches. Press a pitted olive in the centre of each and serve at once.
Heat one-fourth a cup of chopped cold tongue or ham, and half a cup of chopped veal or chicken, with half a cup of good sauce and two tablespoonfuls of curry paste (curry powder mixed with just enough water to form a paste). Let the mixture simmer five minutes, stirring constantly; then set aside to become cool. Have some bits of bread prepared as for sandwiches. Heat some clarified butter in the blazer, and in it sauté the bread a delicate brown, and drain on soft paper. Spread with the cold mixture, press two pieces together, and heat over hot water five or ten minutes. Serve hot.
Peel a dozen mushrooms; break the caps in pieces and chop the stems very fine. Sauté in three tablespoonfuls of butter, adding, if desired, half an onion cut fine. Sprinkle in one-fourth a cup of flour, half a teaspoonful, each, of salt and paprica, and, when the ingredients are well blended, add gradually one cup and a half of stock and one-fourth a cup of tomato juice. Let simmer a few moments, after the sauce boils; then add one pint of meat from a calf's head, cooked and cut in cubes.
Pound to a paste the freshly boiled livers of two fowls (ducks preferred), one teaspoonful of anchovy paste (or one anchovy may be pounded with the livers), half a teaspoonful of sugar, one tablespoonful of butter, one-fourth a teaspoonful of spiced pepper and the yolks of two raw eggs. Pass through a sieve, dilute with a little hot cream from a cup of cream heated over hot water, stir, and return to the rest of the cream. Stir until thickened, then pour over sippets or rounds of toast sautéd a golden brown in a little butter.
Beat thoroughly three eggs and three teaspoonfuls of anchovy paste. Put this into the chafing-dish over hot water with three-fourths a cup of milk and stir until thick. Spread sippets of toast with butter and then with anchovy paste, and turn the woodcock upon them.
Sauté a clove of garlic, cut fine, in two tablespoonfuls of butter; add half a pound of mushrooms, peeled and broken in pieces, one-fourth a cup of flour, and sauté until well browned. Then add one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of mace and paprica, half a teaspoonful of salt and one cup and a half of stock, and cook five or six minutes. Then add the yolks of two eggs, one tablespoonful of lemon juice, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley and three calves' brains, cooked, and cut in dice. Serve in timbale cases, or upon croustades of bread.
Cut juicy round steak into pieces about two inches square. Heat the blazer very hot; heat also a wooden lemon-squeezer in hot water or in any way that is most convenient. Put the meat into the hot blazer, turn again and again with a fork, keeping the blazer very hot. When the bits of meat are heated throughout, squeeze them, one by one, with the lemon-squeezer, into a hot bowl. Season with salt and serve at once.
Method.—Cook the butter, onion and carrot in the blazer until well browned. Skim out the onion and carrot and add the flour, pepper and salt. Add the stock. As soon as the sauce is cooked, add the madeira, the pieces of game, and the peas or flageolets. Serve as soon as the meat is hot.
Method.—Brown the butter and make a sauce with the flour, seasoning and stock. Add the duck and mushrooms, simmer twenty minutes, add the currant jelly, and garnish with croutons.
Split parboiled sweetbreads into two pieces. Wipe dry, sprinkle with salt, pepper and flour; or season with salt and pepper, and egg-and-bread-crumb them. Sauté in the blazer in hot olive oil, or butter, until nicely browned on both sides. Serve with French peas or tomato sauce.
Melt one-fourth a cup of butter in the blazer; add six mushroom caps, peeled and sliced, and cook slowly, with a teaspoonful of grated onion, about six minutes; add two tablespoonfuls of flour, stir until smooth, then add one cup of cream, stock or milk, pepper and salt, and a few grains of mace. When the sauce boils, stir in one pint of chicken, finely chopped, and serve as soon as hot. Sweetbreads, lamb or veal may be served in the same manner.
Chop half a pound of raw beef, from the tender part of the round, very fine. Rub the bottom of the hot blazer with butter, put in the meat with one teaspoonful of grated onion, stir, and cook four or five minutes; add two tablespoonfuls of butter, salt and pepper, and serve at once. This is good with bread, but better with baked potatoes. A pound of beef may be cooked at one time in a chafing-dish of good size, and the grated onion increased to suit the taste. The juice, of which there will be a large quantity, may be thickened with flour and butter creamed together; but it is better unthickened.
Pass the breast of a raw chicken through a meat-chopper five or six times; beat in, one at a time, the whites of two small eggs (the whites of the eggs are not to be previously beaten), then beat in very gradually one cup of thick cream. Season with half a teaspoonful of salt and one-fourth a teaspoonful of white pepper. Turn the mixture into buttered moulds, set them in the blazer, and cook, surrounded with hot water to two-thirds their height and covered, about twenty minutes. The water should not boil; if, with the flame turned low, it still boils, set the blazer into the bath, in which the water may boil vigorously without harm to the timbales. Serve with
Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter, add two tablespoonfuls of flour, one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and half a cup, each, of chicken stock and cream; add the beaten yolk of one egg and let stand over hot water five minutes. Or,
Make as above, substituting one-fourth a cup of mushroom liquor for a part of the chicken stock, and adding with the egg half a can of mushrooms, or a cup of fresh mushrooms sautéd in two tablespoonfuls of butter.
Chop fine the breast of a raw chicken. Beat one egg, add the chicken, and continue beating until smooth; then add three eggs, one at a time, beating each egg in thoroughly. Add a generous teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of white pepper, a dash of black pepper and one pint of cream. Butter twelve small moulds and ornament them with truffles. Fill with the chicken mixture, cover with buttered paper, and steam twenty minutes. Or, put in a pan of boiling water and cook in a moderate oven till the centres are firm. Serve with mushroom or bechamel sauce. These can be cooked and left in the moulds and then reheated. It will take about fifteen minutes to reheat.
Beat six eggs without separating, add a scant teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, twenty drops of onion juice and one cup and a half of rich milk. Stir till well mixed. Butter small-sized timbale moulds and fill two-thirds full with the mixture. Place moulds in the blazer, pour boiling water about them three-fourths to the tops of the moulds, and let cook about twenty minutes, or till the centres are firm; turn out of the moulds on to a warm platter, and pour about them a thin bread sauce.
To one pint of milk add half a cup of fine, stale bread crumbs, a small onion with six cloves stuck in it, half a teaspoonful of salt and a few grains of cayenne. Cook in the double boiler for about an hour; stir occasionally. Remove the onion, beat well, and add one tablespoonful of butter. Put one tablespoonful of butter over the fire in a small saucepan; when hot add two-thirds a cup of rather coarse bread crumbs; stir over a hot fire till they are brown and crisp. Sprinkle over the timbales and sauce. Add a sprig of parsley to the top of each timbale.
Chops, birds, venison, hamburg, sirloin and other steaks, even spring chickens, may be cooked successfully in the chafing-dish; but they are not the dishes upon which an amateur should begin his experiments. Heat the blazer very hot, brush over the surface with a brush dipped in olive oil (or use a butter-ball and a fork), lay in the article to be cooked, sear upon one side, turn and sear upon the other; repeat, turning and cooking until done to taste; five minutes will suffice for small lamb chops. Serve with
Beat four tablespoonfuls of butter to a cream; add half a teaspoonful of salt and a few grains of pepper, also one tablespoonful of parsley, chopped very fine, and one tablespoonful of lemon juice, very slowly.
Have half a dozen slices cut crosswise from a neatly trimmed fillet of beef. The slices may be cut of any thickness desired, but from half to three-fourths an inch is preferable for chafing-dish cookery. Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter in a hot blazer; lay in the meat, and cook four or five minutes, turning every ten seconds. The heat should be well maintained throughout the cooking. Season with salt when half cooked. In another blazer make a cup of brown sauce; brown two tablespoonfuls of butter, add four tablespoonfuls of flour, and, when this is well browned, add half a cup of very rich brown stock and half a cup of liquid from the mushroom can. Season to taste with Kitchen Bouquet, salt, and a few drops of tabasco sauce, then add half a bottle of mushrooms, cut in halves. Serve as soon as the mushrooms are hot.
For the fillets use either the fillet from the loin or the top of a "best end of a loin" boned. Cut the meat in slices or rounds, and sauté in hot butter in the blazer. Season with salt and pepper and pour into the blazer half a cup of maraschino cherries with half a cup of the liquid from the bottle. Candied cherries that have stood half an hour in half a cup of boiling water, on the back of the range, and then mixed with half a cup of sherry wine, may be used in place of the maraschino cherries. This sauce may also be used with fillets of beef or young turkey.
Method.—Take the bread crumbs from the centre of a stale loaf. Pass the cooked yolks of eggs through a sieve. Add the ham, crumbs, yolks, salt and tabasco to the raw eggs beaten and mixed with the milk. When thoroughly mixed turn into timbale moulds very carefully buttered. Fit papers into the bottoms of the moulds before buttering. Set these in the blazer, surround with hot water, letting it come half way to the top of the moulds. Heat the water to the boiling-point, then set the blazer into the hot-water pan partly filled with boiling water, cover and cook until the mixture is firm in the centre. Serve, turned from the moulds, with cream or tomato sauce, flavored with onion, or with peas heated in a cream sauce.
Remove the breast from a plump and tender chicken and separate from the bone and skin. Detach the small fillets, then cut each side into two or three lengthwise slices the size of the small fillets. Keep covered closely until ready to cook. Heat the blazer very hot, butter slightly, and in it lay the fillets and sprinkle with the juice of half a lemon, salt and white pepper; add, also, one-third a cup of chicken stock and a tablespoonful of sherry. Cover and let cook about ten minutes. In the meantime prepare a sauce in a second chafing-dish, using two tablespoonfuls, each, of butter and flour, a dash of salt and pepper, and one cup of stock, in making which a small piece of ham or bacon was used. Add also a tablespoonful of mushroom or tomato catsup and a tablespoonful of sherry wine.
Melt three tablespoonfuls of butter in the blazer and sauté in this a tablespoonful, each, of green pepper and onion, chopped fine; add three tablespoonfuls of flour and half a teaspoonful of salt, and stir and cook until frothy; then add, gradually, one cup of brown stock and half a cup of tomato purée (cooked tomato strained). Let boil two or three minutes, then set over hot water and stir in one cup of cold roast mutton cut in strips or cubes, and half a cup of cooked macaroni, blanched and drained. Two or three mushrooms or a tablespoonful of mushroom catsup improves this dish.
This cake may be made some days in advance, and when wished reheated in a sauce made in the chafing-dish. Baba is baked in a large mould and cut in slices, or in individual cylindrical or baba moulds.
Method.—Make a sponge of the yeast, softened in the water, and flour to knead. Knead the little ball of dough until elastic, and put into a small saucepan of lukewarm water. Meanwhile add the butter, sugar, salt and three of the eggs to the rest of the flour, and beat with the hand until all are evenly blended; then add the rest of the eggs, one after another. When the ball of dough rises to the top of the water and is light, remove from the water with a skimmer and beat it into the egg paste; beat for some minutes, then beat in the fruit. Turn the mixture into the mould or moulds, leaving room for the cake to double in bulk. Let rise in a temperature of 68° F. When nearly doubled in bulk, bake from twenty to fifty minutes.
Let two cups of sugar and one cup of water boil in the blazer about six minutes, then add one-fourth a cup, or more, of maraschino, rum or sherry wine. Lay the baba, sliced or in individual forms, into the hot syrup and let stand a few minutes, basting the cake with the syrup. When hot, serve with or without whipped cream. Half a cup of apricot or quince marmalade may be added with the wine.
Wash carefully and cook in boiling water half a pound of pulled figs until tender; add one fourth a cup of sugar and the grated rind and juice of half a lemon. Cook until the syrup is well reduced. Cut the crust from a thick slice of bread and sauté to a golden brown, first on one side, then on the other, in two tablespoonfuls of hot butter. Drain the bread on soft paper; then heap the figs upon it, cover with two-thirds a cup of thick cream and a scant fourth a cup of sugar, beaten until stiff. Serve at once. Prunes, apricots, peaches, pears, or strawberry preserves, may be prepared in the same manner. If preserves be used, omit the sugar from the cream. Sponge cake may be used in the place of bread.
Heat one pint of grated pineapple over hot water, sprinkle into it one-third a cup of fine tapioca (a quick-cooking kind), mixed with two-thirds a cup of sugar, and half a teaspoonful of salt; when the tapioca is transparent, add the juice of a lemon, and fold in the whites of two eggs, beaten until dry. Serve with cream and sugar.
Sprinkle half a cup of tapioca and two-thirds a cup of sugar into one pint of boiling water; add half a teaspoonful of salt and cook over hot water, stirring occasionally. When the tapioca is transparent, add the juice of two lemons, and fold in the whites of two eggs, beaten until dry. Serve spread over sliced bananas, with cream and sugar, or with a cold boiled custard, previously made. This dish may be prepared with canned peaches, apricots or quinces, using the juice of the fruit instead of water.
This practical, up-to-date, and comprehensive work contains a "liberal education" in the selection, cooking, and serving of food. It is for the novice and expert alike, and the many illustrations (including pictures of utensils, tables for every sort of meal, decorations for festal occasions, dishes ready for serving, etc.) are absolutely invaluable to every housekeeper.
By George H. Ellwanger
Nothing has been published in America on this subject since Brillat-Savarin, and there has not existed anywhere a complete historical account of the science of eating from the earliest times. The author has made a book of absorbing interest and of real literary distinction, full of quaint oddities and suggestive facts. It is bound to become a permanent and necessary addition to every library, public or private.Illustrated. Price, net, $2.50
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DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO., New York
can be made by any one who uses SLADE'S SALAD CREAM, for this is an absolutely pure and wholesome salad dressing, prepared with scientific exactness, so as to obtain perfect results. Contains no chemical preservatives or artificial coloring matter. It is put up in pint, half-pint, and picnic bottles. Ask your grocer for it.
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There is extra room on the top of this range, because of the extra shelf at the left.
The Patented Crawford Single Damper prevents mistakes in regulating; no other stove has it.
Other improvements are the new style removable nickeled rails, which may be lifted off when the stove is blacked; the dock-ash grate; the heat indicator; the asbestos-lined oven; the cup-joint flues. We have also a smaller style—the "Castle Crawford."