NELSON'S HOME COMFORTS.
REVISED AND ENLARGED
By MARY HOOPER,
AUTHOR OF "LITTLE DINNERS," "EVERY-DAY MEALS,"
"COOKERY FOR INVALIDS," ETC. ETC.
G. NELSON, DALE & CO., LIMITED,
14, DOWGATE HILL.
MENTIONED IN THIS BOOK
MAY BE OBTAINED FROM
W. CHAPLIN & SONS,
19 & 20, WATERLOO PLACE,
PLEASE SEND, S.W.R.
They are also Sold by Grocers, Chemists, Italian
Warehousemen, etc., throughout the World. Should any
difficulty be experienced in obtaining them, kindly send the
name and address of your Grocer, and we will at once
communicate with him.
G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.
PATENT OPAQUE GELATINE.
In packets, from 6d. to 7s. 6d.
In 3d. packets. For use with the Gelatine.
ESSENCE OF LEMON, ALMONDS, & VANILLA.
In graduated bottles, 8d.
FAMILY JELLY BOXES.
7s. 6d. each.
Containing sufficient of the above materials for 12 quarts of Jelly.
BOTTLED WINE JELLIES (Concentrated).
CALF'S FOOT, LEMON, SHERRY, PORT, ORANGE, AND CHERRY.
Quarts, 2s. 6d.; Pints, 1s. 4d.; Half-pints, 9d.
ORANGE, LEMON, CALF'S FOOT, CHERRY, RASPBERRY, VANILLA, PORT,
SHERRY, ETC. Quarts, 9d.; Pints, 6d.; Half-pints, 3d.
WINE TABLET JELLIES.
PORT, SHERRY, ORANGE. Pints only, 9d.
PATENT REFINED ISINGLASS.
In 1s. packets.
GELATINE LOZENGES. LIQUORICE LOZENGES.
In Ornamental Tins, 6d.
A most agreeable and nourishing Sweetmeat.
EXTRACT OF MEAT.
For Soups, Gravies, etc. In ounce packets, 4d.
PURE BEEF TEA.
In half-pint packets, 6d.
|Beef and Carrots
||In pint packets,
|Beef and Celery
|Beef and Onion
|Beef, Peas, and Vegetables
|| In quart packets,
|Beef, Lentils, and Vegetables
Penny Packets of Soup for charitable purposes.
For clearing Jelly or Soup.
In boxes containing 12 packets, 9d. per box.
G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.
How to serve them with Elegance and Economy.
By Mary Hooper.
Twenty-second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d.
"Shows us how to serve up a 'little dinner,' such as a philosopher
might offer a monarch—good, varied, in good taste, and cheap.
Exactly what the young English wife wishes to know, and what
the ordinary cookery book does not teach her."—Queen.
Being Economic and Wholesome Recipes for Plain Dinners,
Breakfasts, Luncheons, and Suppers.
By Mary Hooper.
Eighth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d.
"Our already deep obligations to Miss Hooper are weightily increased
by this excellent and practical little book. The recipes for
little dishes are excellent, and so clearly worded that presumptuous
man instantly believes, on reading them, that he could descend into
the kitchen and 'toss up' the little dishes without any difficulty."—Spectator.
COOKERY FOR INVALIDS,
For Persons of Delicate Digestion, and for Children.
By Mary Hooper.
Sixth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d.
"An epicure might be content with the little dishes provided by
Miss Hooper; but, at the same time, the volume fills the utmost
extent of promise held out in the title-page."—Pall Mall Gazette.
LONDON: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, & CO.
|Citric Acid and Pure Essence of Lemon
|Pure Essence of Almonds and Vanilla
|Extract of Meat
|New Zealand Mutton
|Little Dishes of Fish
|Little Dishes of Meat
|Hints on Housekeeping
|New Zealand Frozen Mutton
NELSON'S HOME COMFORTS.
In presenting our friends and the public with
the thirteenth edition of our "Home Comforts," we
have the pleasure to remark that so greatly has the
book been appreciated, that the large number of
FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND copies has been called for.
The value of the Jubilee Edition was enhanced by
some new recipes; these are repeated in the present
edition, to which, also, some valuable additions have
been made. Since the introduction of our Gelatine
by the late Mr. G. Nelson, more than fifty years ago,
we have considerably enlarged our list of specialities,
and we have gratefully to acknowledge the public
favour accorded to us.
Among those of our preparations which have met
with so much appreciation and success, we would cite
Nelson's Bottled Jellies.—It is sometimes so
difficult, if not impossible, to have a first-class jelly
made in private kitchens, that we venture to think
our Bottled Jellies will be highly appreciated by
all housekeepers. It is not too much to say that a
ready-made jelly of the highest quality, and of the
best and purest materials, requiring only the addition
of hot water, is now, for the first time, supplied.
Careful experiments, extending over a long period
of time, have been required to bring this excellent
and very useful preparation to its present state of
perfection, and it is confidently asserted that no
home-made jelly can surpass it in purity, brilliancy,
or delicacy of flavour. All that is necessary to prepare
the jelly for the table is to dissolve it by placing the
bottle in hot water, and then to add the given quantity
of water to bring it to a proper consistency. It is
allowed to stand until on the point of setting, and is
then put into a mould.
Nelson's Calf's Foot, Lemon, Port, Sherry,
Orange, and Cherry Jellies are now to be had
of all first-class grocers, and are put up in bottles
each containing sufficient of the concentrated preparation
to make a quart, pint, or half-pint.
Nelson's Tablet Jellies are recommended for
general use, are guaranteed of the purest and best
materials, and are flavoured with the finest fruit
essences. The Tablet Jellies are of so moderate
a price as to be within the reach of all classes,
and can be used as an every-day addition to the
family bill of fare. They are not, however, intended
as a substitute for high-class jellies, whether
bottled or home-made.
The Tablet Jellies used as directed in the recipes
make, in a few minutes, creams of a most delicate
kind, remarkable for smoothness of texture and fine
Nelson's Port, Sherry, and Orange Wine
Tablet Jellies have now been added to the list.
Nelson's Lemon Sponge, supplied in tins, is
a delicious novelty, and will be found to surpass any
that can be made at home.
Nelson's Citric Acid and Pure Essence of
Lemon.—In order to save the trouble of putting
jelly through a strainer when required for invalids,
we have introduced our Citric Acid and Essence of
Lemon, and by their use a jelly clear enough for all
ordinary purposes is made in a few minutes.
Lemonade and other beverages can be quickly
made, and with less expense than by any other
method, by using Nelson's Citric Acid and Essence
of Lemon, and for these recipes are given. Delicious
beverages are also made with Nelson's Bottled Jellies,
see page 93.
Nelson's Pure Essence of Almonds and
Vanilla.—These Extracts, like the Essence of Lemon,
will be found of superior strength and flavour, and
specially adapted for the recipes in this book.
Nelson's Gelatine Lozenges are not only a
delicious sweetmeat, but most useful as voice lozenges,
or in cases of sore or irritable throat. The flavour is
very delicate and refreshing. Dissolved in water they
make a useful beverage, and also a jelly suitable for
children and invalids.
Nelson's Jelly-Jubes will be found most
agreeable and nourishing sweetmeats, deliciously
flavoured with fruit essences. They can be used as
cough lozenges, will be found soothing for delicate
throats, are useful for travellers, and may be freely
given to children.
Nelson's Licorice Lozenges are not only a
favourite sweetmeat, but in cases of throat irritation
and cough are found to be soothing and curative.
Nelson's Albumen is the white of eggs carefully
dried and prepared, so that it will keep for an indefinite
length of time. It is useful for any purpose
to which the white of egg is applied, and answers
well for clearing soup and jelly. When required for
use, the albumen is soaked in cold water and whisked
in the usual way.
Nelson's Extract of Meat.—The numerous
testimonials which have been received as to the
excellence of this preparation, as well as the great
and universal demand for it, have afforded the highest
satisfaction to us as the manufacturers, and have
enabled us to offer it with increased confidence to the
public. It is invaluable, whether for making soup
or gravy, or for strengthening or giving flavour to
many dishes; and it is not only superior to, but far
cheaper than, any similar preparation now before the
Now that clear soup is so constantly required, and
a thing of every-day use, Nelson's Extract of Meat
will be found a great boon. With the addition of a
little vegetable flavouring, a packet of the Extract will
make a pint of soup as good and as fine as that produced,
at much labour and expense, from fresh meat.
With a judicious use of the liquor derived from boiling
fowls, rabbits, and fresh meat, an endless variety of
soup may be made, by the addition of Nelson's
Extract of Meat. Some recipes are given by which
first-class soups can be prepared in a short time, at a
very small cost, and with but little trouble. It may
be as well to say that soaking for a few minutes in
cold water facilitates the solution of the Extract of
Nelson's Soups are deserving of the attention of
every housekeeper, for they combine all the elements
of good nourishment, have an excellent flavour, both
of meat and vegetables, are prepared by merely
boiling the contents of a packet for fifteen minutes,
and are so cheap as to be within everybody's means.
Penny packets of these soups, for charitable purposes,
will be found most useful and nourishing.
Those who have to cater for a family know how
often a little soup will make up a dinner that would
otherwise be insufficient; yet because of the time
and trouble required in the preparation, it is impossible
to have it. In a case like this, or when a
supplementary dish is unexpectedly required, Nelson's
Soups are most useful. Although these Soups are all
that can be desired, made with water according to
the directions given with each packet, they can be
utilised with great advantage for strengthening household
For instance, the liquor in which a leg of mutton
has been boiled, or of pork, if not too salt, can be at
once, by using a packet or two of Nelson's Soup,
converted into a delicious and nourishing soup, and
at a cost surprisingly small. Or the bones of any joint
can be made into stock, and, after all the fat has been
skimmed off, have a packet of Nelson's Soup added,
in the same manner as in the directions.
Nelson's Beef Tea will be found of the highest
value, supplying a cup of unequalled nourishment,
combining all the constituents of fresh beef. No
other preparation now before the public contains that
most important element, albumen, in a soluble form,
as well as much of the fibrin of the meat. This Beef
Tea is also generally relished by invalids, and merely
requires to be dissolved in boiling water.
New Zealand Mutton.—For information respecting
this meat, and the great advantage as well as
economy of its use, see page 119.
Nelson's Tinned Meats, known as the
"Tomoana Brand," are prepared at the works of
Nelson Bros., Limited, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand,
from the finest cattle of the country. Messrs. Nelson
specially recommend their "Pressed Mutton and
Green Peas," "Haricot Mutton," and "Pressed
Corned Mutton." The "Stewed Kidneys" will be
found of a quality superior to any articles of the kind
now in the market, while the price places them within
the reach of all classes of consumers.
Nelson's Gelatine having now been favourably
known all over the world for more than half a century,
it is unnecessary to do more than observe that our
efforts are constantly directed to supplying a perfectly
pure article, always of the same strength and quality.
When Russian isinglass was first introduced into this
country, the prejudices against its use on the part of
our great-grandmothers were violent and extreme;
for those worthy ladies would not believe that some
unfamiliar substance, of the origin of which they were
either ignorant or doubtful, could form an efficient
substitute for the well-known calves' feet and cow-heels,
from which they had always been in the habit
of making their jellies and blanc-manges. By degrees,
however, the Gelatine made its way, and at length
superseded the old system entirely; and its popularity
is demonstrated by the fact that the works at Emscote,
near Warwick, cover nearly five acres.
N.B.—It is necessary to call attention to the fact that
in all the following recipes in which Nelson's Gelatine and
Specialities are used, the quantities are calculated for
their manufactures only, the quality and strength of which
may be relied upon for uniformity.
NELSON'S HOME COMFORTS.
BEEF AND ONION SOUP.
A pint of very good soup can be made by following
the directions which accompany each tin of
Nelson's Beef and Onion Soup, viz. to soak the
contents in a pint of cold water for fifteen minutes,
then place over the fire, stir, and boil for fifteen
minutes. It is delicious when combined with a tin
of Nelson's Extract of Meat, thus producing a quart
of nutritious and appetising soup.
NELSON'S MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.
Soaked in cold water for a quarter of an hour, and
then boiled for fifteen minutes, Nelson's Mulligatawny
Soup is very appetising and delicious. It should be
eaten with boiled rice; and for those who like the
soup even hotter than that in the above preparation,
the accompanying rice may be curried. In either
case the rice should be boiled so that each grain
should be separate and distinct from the rest.
BEEF, LENTIL, AND VEGETABLE SOUP.
Pour one quart of boiling water upon the contents
of a tin of Nelson's Soup of the above title, stirring
briskly. The water must be boiling. A little seasoning
of salt and pepper may be added for accustomed
palates. This soup is perfectly delicious if prepared
as follows: Cut two peeled onions into quarters, tie
them in a muslin bag, and let the soup boil for twenty
minutes with them. Take out the bag before serving
BEEF, PEA, AND VEGETABLE SOUP.
The directions printed on each packet of Nelson's
Beef, Pea, and Vegetable Soup produce a satisfactory
soup, but even this may be improved by the addition
of the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat
and a handful of freshly-gathered peas. It is perhaps
not generally known that pea-pods, usually thrown
away as useless, impart a most delicious flavour to
soup if boiled fast for two or three hours in a large
saucepan, strained, and the liquor added to the soup,
stock, or beef tea.
BEEF TEA AS A SOLID.
Soak the contents of a tin of Nelson's Beef Tea
in a gill of water for ten minutes. Add to this the
third of an ounce packet of Nelson's Gelatine, which
has been soaked for two or three hours in half-a-pint
of cold water. Put the mixture in a stewpan, and stir
until it reaches boiling-point. Then put it into a
mould which has been rinsed with cold water. When
thoroughly cold, this will turn out a most inviting and
extremely nutritious dish.
CLEAR VERMICELLI SOUP.
Boil two minced onions in a quart of the liquor in
which a leg of mutton has been boiled, skim well,
and when the vegetables are tender strain them out.
Pass the soup through a napkin, boil up, skim
thoroughly, and when clear add the contents of a
tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, stirring until
Boil two ounces of vermicelli paste in a pint of
water until tender. Most shapes take about ten
minutes. Take care that the water boils when you
throw in the paste, and that it continues to do so
during all the time of cooking, as that will keep the
paste from sticking together. When done, drain it
in a strainer, put it in the tureen, and pour the soup
on to it.
Wash and scrape a large carrot, cut away all the
yellow parts from the middle, and slice the red outside
of it an inch in length, and the eighth of an inch
thick. Take an equal quantity of turnip and three
small onions, cut in a similar manner. Put them in
a stewpan with two ounces of butter and a pinch of
powdered sugar; stir over the fire until a nice brown
colour, then add a quart of water and a teaspoonful
of salt, and let all simmer together gently for two
hours. When done skim the fat off very carefully, and
ten minutes before serving add the contents of a tin of
Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a cabbage-lettuce cut
in shreds and blanched for a minute in boiling water;
simmer for five minutes and the soup will be ready.
Many cooks, to save time and trouble, use the preserved
vegetables, which are to be had in great
perfection at all good Italian warehouses.
BROWN RABBIT SOUP CLEAR.
Fry a quarter of a pound of onions a light brown;
mince a turnip and carrot and a little piece of celery;
boil these until tender in three pints of the liquor
in which a rabbit has been boiled, taking care to
remove all scum as it rises; strain them out, and
then pass the soup through a napkin. The soup
should be clear, or nearly so, but if it is not, put it
in a stewpan, boil and skim until bright; then throw
in the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat,
soaked for a few minutes; stir until dissolved; add
pepper and salt to taste.
Half roast a hare, and, having cut away the meat in
long slices from the backbone, put it aside to make
an entrée. Fry four onions; take a carrot, turnip,
celery, a small quantity of thyme and parsley, half-a-dozen
peppercorns, a small blade of mace, some
bacon-bones or a slice of lean ham, with the body of
the hare cut up into small pieces; put all in two
quarts of water with a little salt. When you have
skimmed the pot, cover close and allow it to boil
gently for three hours, then strain it; take off every
particle of fat, and having allowed the soup to boil
up, add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of
Meat, and thicken it with a dessertspoonful of
potato-flour; stir in two lumps of sugar, a glass of
port wine, and season if necessary.
English cooks generally err in making both
mulligatawny and curries too hot. It is impossible to
give the exact quantity of the powder, because it varies
so much in strength, and the cook must therefore be
guided by the quality of her material. Mulligatawny
may be made cheaply, and be delicious. The liquor
in which meat or fowl has been boiled will make a
superior soup, and fish-liquor will answer well. Slice
and fry brown four onions, quarter, but do not peel,
four sharp apples; boil them in three pints of stock
until tender, then rub through a sieve to a pulp. Boil
this up in the soup, skimming well; add the contents
of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and stir in two
ounces of flour and the curry-powder, mixed smooth
in half-a-pint of milk. Any little pieces of meat,
fowl, game, or fish may be added as an improvement
to the soup. Just before serving taste that the soup
is well-flavoured; add a little lemon-juice or vinegar.
THIN MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.
To a quart of the liquor in which a fresh haddock
has been boiled, add half-a-pint of water in which
onions have been boiled. Stir into this, after it has
been skimmed, and whilst boiling, the contents of a
tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a teaspoonful of
curry-powder; let it boil up; add the juice of half a
lemon and serve.
BROWN ARTICHOKE SOUP.
Wash, peel, and cut into slices about half-an-inch thick
two pounds of Jerusalem artichokes. Fry them in a
little butter until brown; fry also brown half-a-pound
of sliced onions. Put these to boil in two quarts of
water with two turnips, a carrot sliced, two teaspoonfuls
of salt, and one of pepper. When the vegetables
are tender drain the liquor, set it aside to cool, and
remove all fat. Pass the vegetables through a fine
sieve to a nice smooth purée. Those who possess a
Kent's "triturating strainer" will be able to do this
much more satisfactorily, both as regards time and
results, than by the old way of rubbing through a
sieve. Put the liquor on to boil, dissolve in it—according
to the strength the soup is required to
be—the contents of one or two tins of Nelson's
Extract of Meat, then add the vegetable purée, a lump
or two of sugar, and if required, salt and pepper. Let
it boil up and serve.
This soup is so often required for invalids, as well
as for the table, that an easy and comparatively
inexpensive method of preparing it cannot fail to be
acceptable. Nelson's Beef Tea or Extract of Meat
will be used instead of fresh beef, and Bellis's Sun-dried
Turtle instead of live turtle. If convenient
it is desirable to soak the dried turtle all night, but it
can be used without doing so. Put it on to boil in
the water in which it was soaked, in the proportion of
one quart with a teaspoonful of salt to a quarter of a
pound of the turtle. Add two or three onions peeled
and quartered, a small bit of mace and sliced lemon-peel,
and simmer gently for four or five hours, or until
the turtle is tender enough to divide easily with a
spoon. Stock of any kind may be used instead of
water, and as the liquid boils away more should be
added, to keep the original quantity. Herbs for the
proper flavouring of the Turtle Soup are supplied by
Bellis; these should be put in about an hour before
the turtle is finished, and be tied in muslin. When
done take out the turtle and divide it into neat little
pieces; strain the liquor in which it was cooked, and
having boiled it up, stir in the contents of two tins of
Nelson's Extract of Meat, previously soaked for a few
minutes. Mix smooth in a gill of cold water a teaspoonful
of French potato-flour and of Vienna flour,
stir into the soup, and when it has thickened put in
the turtle meat; let it get hot through, add a wine-glassful
of sherry, a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice,
and salt and pepper to taste, and serve at once. It is
necessary to have "Bellis's Sun-dried Turtle," imported
by T. K. Bellis, Jeffrey's Square, St. Mary Axe, London
(sold in boxes), for this soup, because it is warranted properly
prepared. An inferior article, got up by negroes
from turtle found dead, is frequently sold at a low price;
but it is unnecessary to say it is not good or wholesome.
MOCK TURTLE SOUP.
This, like real turtle soup, can be made of Nelson's
Extract of Meat and Bellis's Mock Turtle Meat. Boil
the contents of a tin of this meat in water or stock,
salted and flavoured with vegetables and turtle herbs,
until tender. Finish with Nelson's Extract of Meat,
and as directed for turtle soup.
For roast meat, merely dissolve, after a little soaking,
a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat in a pint of boiling
water. For poultry or game, fry two onions a light
brown, mince a little carrot and turnip, put in half a
teaspoonful of herbs, tied in muslin, and boil until
tender, in a pint of water. Strain out the herbs, let
the liquor boil up, stir in the contents of a tin of
Nelson's Extract of Meat, and if the gravy is
required to be slightly thickened, add a small
teaspoonful of potato-flour mixed smooth in cold
water. For cutlets or other dishes requiring sharp
sauce, make exactly as above, and just before serving
add a little of any good piquant sauce, or pickles
Soak in a small jar the contents of a tin of
Nelson's Extract of Meat in rather less than a gill
of cold water. Set the jar over the fire in a saucepan
with boiling water, and let the extract simmer
until dissolved. This is useful for strengthening
soups and gravies, and for glazing ham, tongues,
and other things.
LITTLE DISHES OF FISH.
The recipes we are now giving are suitable for
dinner, supper, or breakfast dishes, and will be found
especially useful for the latter meal, as there is nothing
more desirable for breakfast than fish. We are constantly
told that it is not possible to have fresh fish
for breakfast, because it cannot be kept all night in
the home larder. But we must insist that there is no
greater difficulty in keeping fish than meat. Indeed,
there is perhaps less difficulty, because fish can be
left lying in vinegar, if necessary, whereas in the case
of meat it cannot always be done.
We will suppose that it is necessary to use strict
economy. It is as well to proceed on that supposition,
because people can always be lavish in their expenditure,
whereas it is not so easy to provide for the
household at once well and economically. In many
neighbourhoods fish is sold much cheaper late in the
day than in the morning, and in this case the housekeeper
who can buy overnight for the use of the next
day has a great advantage. Suppose you get the tail
of a cod weighing three pounds, as you frequently may,
at a very small price in the evening, and use a part of
it stuffed and baked for supper, you can have a dish
of cutlets of the remainder for breakfast which will be
very acceptable. We do not mean a dish of the cold
remains, but of a portion of the fish kept uncooked,
as it easily may be, as we have before said, by dipping
it in vinegar. Or, you get mackerel. Nothing is better
than this fish treated according to the recipe we give.
Even so delicate a fish as whiting may, by a little
management with vinegar, be kept perfectly well from
one day to the other. Skinned whiting has very
little flavour, and although when skilfully cooked in
the usual way it is useful by way of change, the
nourishment is much impaired by the removal of the
skin. The same remark applies to soles. By frying
fish unskinned you get a dish of a different character
to that of skinned fish, and one of which the appetite
does not so soon tire.
Soles weighing from three-quarters of a pound to a
pound are the most suitable size for frying whole. If
it is desired to have the fish juicy and with their full
flavour, do not have them skinned. The black side
of the soles will not of course look so well, or be so
crisp, as the white side, but this is of little consequence
compared to the nourishment sacrificed in removing
the skin. Have the soles scraped, wipe them, put a
tablespoonful of vinegar in a dish, pass the fish through
it, and let them lie an hour or more, if necessary all
night, as the flavour is thus improved. Run a knife
along the backbone, which prevents it looking red
when cut. When ready to crumb the fish, lay them
in a cloth and thoroughly dry them. Beat up the yolk
of an egg with a very little of the white, which will be
sufficient to egg a pair of soles; pass the fish through
the egg on both sides, hold it up to drain; have ready
on a plate a quarter of a pound of very fine dry
crumbs, mixed with two ounces of flour, a teaspoonful
of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper. Draw the
fish over the crumbs, first on one side, then on the
other, and lay it gently on a dish, black side downwards,
whilst you prepare another. Some people
succeed better in crumbing fish by sifting the crumbs
on to it through a very fine strainer after it is egged.
When the fish are ready put them, black side downwards,
into the frying-pan with plenty of fat, hot
enough to brown a piece of bread instantaneously,
move the pan about gently, and when the soles have
been fried four minutes, put a strong cooking-fork into
them near the head, turn the white side downwards,
and fry three minutes longer. Seven minutes will be
sufficient to fry a sole weighing three-quarters of a
pound, and a pair of this weight is sufficient for a
party of six persons. When the sole is done put the
fork into the fish close to the head, hold it up and let
all the fat drain away, lay it on a sheet of cap paper,
and cover over with another sheet. Being thus quite
freed from grease, of a rich golden brown, crisp, and
with an even surface, lay the fish on the dish for
serving, which should have on it either a fish-paper
or a napkin neatly folded. A well-fried sole is best
eaten without any sauce, but in deference to the
national usage, butter sauce, or melted butter, may be
served with it.
It is better for the cook to fillet the soles, for
there is often much waste when it is done by the fishmonger.
Having skinned the fish, with a sharp knife
make an incision down the spine-bone from the head
to the tail, and then along the fins; press the knife
between the flesh and the bone, bearing rather hard
against the latter, and the fillets will then be readily
removed. These can now be dressed in a variety of
ways; perhaps the most delicate for breakfast is the
FILLETS OF SOLE SAUTÉS.
Having dried the fillets, divide them into neat
pieces two or three inches long; dip them in the
beaten yolk of egg, and then in seasoned bread-crumbs.
Make a little butter hot in the frying-pan,
put in the fillets and cook them slowly until brown on
one side, then turn and finish on the other.
FILLETS OF SOLE FRIED.
These may either be rolled in one piece or divided
into several, as in the foregoing recipe. In either case
egg and crumb them thoroughly, place them in the
wire-basket as you do them, which immerse in fat hot
enough to crisp bread instantly. When done, put the
fillets on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them,
and serve as hot as possible. All kinds of flat fish
can be filleted and cooked by these recipes, and will
usually be found more economical than serving the
fish whole. It is also economical to fillet the tail-end
of cod, salmon, and turbot, and either fry or sauté, as
may be preferred.
FILLETS OF SOLE WITH LOBSTER.
Thin and fillet a pair of soles, each weighing about
a pound. Roll the fillets, secure them with thread,
which remove before serving; put them in a stewpan
with two ounces of sweet butter, cover closely, and
allow them to cook at a slow heat for twenty minutes
or until tender, taking care to keep them from getting
brown. Prepare a sauce by boiling a quarter of a
pound of veal cutlet and the bones of the fish in half-a-pint
of water. When reduced to a gill, strain and
take off all fat from the sauce, thicken either with fine
flour or "Rizine," put it into the stewpan with the
fish, and allow it to stand for a quarter of an hour
without boiling. Mince or cut in small pieces either
the meat of a small fresh lobster, or half a flat tin of
the best brand of preserved lobster. Make this hot
by putting it in a jam pot standing in a saucepan of
boiling water. Take up the fish, carefully pour the
sauce round, and place on the top of each fillet some
of the lobster.
Small whiting answer well for this purpose. Tie
them round, the tail to the mouth, dip them in dissolved
butter, lightly sprinkle with pepper and salt,
strew them with pale raspings, put them in a baking-dish
with a little butter, and bake in a quick oven for
a quarter of an hour.
A cheap and excellent dish is made by filleting the
tail of cod, egging and crumbing the pieces and frying
them. Get about a pound and a half of the tail of a
fine cod; with a sharp knife divide the flesh from the
bone lengthways, cut it into neat pieces as nearly of a
size as you can, and flatten with a knife. Dip in egg,
then in crumbs mixed with a little flour, pepper, and
salt. It is best to fry the cutlets in the wire-basket in
plenty of fat, but if this is not convenient they can be
done in the frying-pan; in any case, they should be
done quickly, so that they may get crisp.
Take care the fish is well cleaned, without being
split. Two or three hours before cooking, lightly
sprinkle with salt and pepper; when ready to cook,
wipe and flour the herrings. Have ready in the
frying-pan as much fat at the proper temperature as
will cover the herrings. Cook quickly at first, then
moderate the heat slightly, and fry for ten to twelve
minutes, when they should be crisp and brown. When
done, lay them on a dish before the fire, in order that
all fat and the fish-oil may drain from them; with
this precaution, fried herrings will be found more
digestible than otherwise they would be.
Choose the herrings with soft roes. Having scraped
and washed them, cut off the heads, split open, take
out the roes, and cleanse the fish. Hold one in the
left hand, and, with thumb and finger of the right,
press the backbone to loosen it, then lay flat on the
board and draw out the bone; it will come out whole,
leaving none behind. Dissolve a little fresh butter,
pass the inner side of the fish through it, sprinkle
pepper and salt lightly over, then roll it up tightly
with the fin and tail outwards, roll it in flour and
sprinkle a little pepper and salt, then put a small
game skewer to keep the herring in shape. Have
ready a good quantity of boiling fat; it is best to do
the herrings in a wire-basket, and fry them quickly for
ten minutes. Take them up and set them on a plate
before the fire, in order that all the fat may drain from
them. Pass the roes through flour mixed with a
sufficient quantity of pepper and salt, fry them brown,
and garnish the fish with them and crisp parsley. A
difficulty is often felt in introducing herrings at dinner
on account of the number of small bones in them, but
this is obviated by the above method of dressing, as
with care not one bone should be left in.
GALANTINE OF FISH.
Procure a fine large fresh haddock and two smaller,
of which to make forcemeat. Take off the head and
open the large fish. Carefully press the meat from
the backbone, which must be removed without breaking
the skin; trim away the rough parts and small bones
at the sides. Cover the inside of the fish with a layer
of forcemeat, and at intervals place lengthways a few
fillets of anchovies, between which sprinkle a little
lobster coral which has been passed through a wire
sieve; fold the haddock into its original form, and sew
it up with a needle and strong thread. Dip a cloth
in hot water, wring it as dry as possible, butter
sufficient space to cover the fish, then fold it up, tie
each end, and put a small safety pin in the middle to
keep it firm. Braise the galantine for an hour in stock
made from the bones of the fish. Let it stay in the
liquor until cold, when take it up and draw out the
sewing thread. Reduce and strain the liquor, mix
with cream and aspic jelly, or Nelson's Gelatine,
dissolved in the proportion of half-an-ounce to a pint.
When this sauce is on the point of setting, coat the
galantine with it, sprinkle with little passed lobster coral,
dish in a bed of shred salad, tastefully interspersed
with beetroot cut in dice and dipped in oil and vinegar.
To make the forcemeat, pound the fillets of the small
haddocks till fine, then work in about half its quantity
of bread panada, an ounce of butter, and the fillets of
two anchovies; season with salt and pepper, mix in
one egg and a yolk, pass through a wire sieve, and
work into it a gill of cream.
FILLETS OF SOLE EN ASPIC.
Aspic jelly, or meat jelly, may be made very good,
and at a moderate cost, by boiling lean beef or veal in
water with a little vegetable and spice. To make it
according to the standard recipes is so expensive and
tedious that few persons care to attempt it. The
following directions will enable a cook to make an
excellent and clear aspic.
Cut two pounds of lean beefsteak or veal cutlet
into dice, put it on in two quarts of cold water, and as
soon as it boils, take off the scum as it rises. Let it
simmer gently for half-an-hour; then add four onions,
a turnip, carrot, small bundle of sweet herbs, blade of
mace, half-a-dozen white peppercorns, and when it has
again boiled for an hour strain it through a napkin.
Let it stand until cold, remove all the fat, boil it up,
and to a quart of the liquor put an ounce of Nelson's
Gelatine, previously soaked in cold water. Add salt
and a pinch of cayenne pepper, and when the jelly is
cool stir in the whites and shells of two eggs well
beaten. Let the jelly boil briskly for two minutes,
let it stand off the fire for a few minutes, then strain
through a jelly-bag and use as directed. Take the
fillets of a pair of large thick soles, cut them into neat
square pieces, leaving the trimmings for other dishes,
and lay them in vinegar with a little salt for an hour.
As they must be kept very white the best French
vinegar should be used. Boil the fillets gently in
salted water, with a little vinegar, till done; take them
up and dry them on a cloth. Have ready some picked
parsley and hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters; arrange
these neatly at the bottom of a plain mould so as to
form a pretty pattern. Pour in very gently enough
jelly to cover the first layer, let it stand until beginning
to set, then put another layer of fish, eggs, and parsley,
then more jelly, and so on until the mould is full.
When done set the mould on ice, or allow it to stand
some hours in a cold place to get well set. Turn it
out, ornament with parsley, beetroot, and cut lemon.
Clean and boil the eels in water highly seasoned
with pepper and salt, an onion, bay-leaf, a clove, and
a little vinegar. When the eels are done enough, slip
out the bones and cut them up into pieces about two
inches long. Take the liquor in which the fish is
boiled, strain it, let it boil in the stewpan without the
lid, skimming it until it becomes clear. Dissolve a
quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine to each half-pint
of the fish gravy, and boil together for a minute,
let it then stand until cool. Arrange the pieces of
eel tastefully in a plain mould with small sprigs of
curled parsley and slices of hard-boiled eggs, and, if
you like, a fillet or two of anchovies cut up into dice.
When all the fish is thus arranged in the mould, pour
the jelly in very gently, a tablespoonful at a time, in
order not to disturb the solid material. Let the mould
stand in cold water for seven or eight hours, when it
can be turned out. Ornament with parsley, lemon,
LITTLE DISHES OF MEAT.
In this chapter a number of useful and inexpensive
dishes are given, which will serve either as breakfast
dishes, entrées, or for invalids, and which may, in the
hands of an intelligent cook, serve as models for
many others. As will be seen, it is not so much a
question of expense to provide these little tasty dishes
as of management. In all the following recipes for
little dishes of mutton, it will be found a great
advantage to use New Zealand Meat.
A good cook will never be embarrassed by having
too much cold meat on hand, because she will be able
by her skill so to vary the dishes that the appetites of
those for whom she caters will never tire of it. Even
a small piece of the loin of mutton may be served in
half-a-dozen different ways, and be relished by those
who are tired of the mutton-chop or the plain roast.
Taken from the neck, mutton cutlets are expensive,
but those from the loin will be found not only convenient,
but to answer well at a smaller cost.
First remove the under-cut or fillet from about two
pounds of the best end of a loin of mutton, cut off
the flap, which will be useful for stewing, and it is
especially good eaten cold, and then remove the
meat from the bones in one piece, which divide
with the fillet into cutlets about half-an-inch thick.
Egg them over and dip them in well-seasoned bread-crumbs,
fry them until a nice brown, and serve with
gravy made from the bones and an onion.
This way of cooking the loin is much more economical
than in chops, because with them the bones and flap
are wasted, whereas in cutlets all is used up.
To stew the flap, put it in a stewpan, the fat downwards,
sprinkle pepper and salt, and slice an onion or
two over, and set it to fry gently in its own fat for an
hour. Take up the meat, and put half-a-pint of cold
water to the fat, which, when it has risen in a solid
cake, take off, mix a little flour with the gravy which
will be found beneath the fat, add pepper, salt, and
some cooked potatoes cut in slices. Cut the meat
into neat squares; let it simmer gently in the gravy
with the potatoes for an hour.
ROULADES OF MUTTON.
Remove the fillet from a fine loin of mutton, trim
away every particle of skin, fat, and gristle. Flatten
the fillet with a cutlet-bat, and cut it lengthways into
slices as thin as possible; divide these into neat
pieces about three inches long. Sprinkle each with
pepper, salt, and finely-chopped parsley, roll them
up tightly, then dip in beaten egg, and afterwards
in finely-sifted bread-crumbs mixed with an equal
quantity of flour and highly seasoned with pepper
and salt. As each roulade is thus prepared place it
on a game-skewer, three or four on each skewer.
Dissolve an ounce of butter in a small frying-pan,
and cook the roulades in it.
Cut neat thin slices from a leg of either roasted or
boiled mutton, dip them in yolk of egg and in fine
dry bread-crumbs to which a little flour, pepper, and
salt have been added. Heat enough butter in a small
frying-pan to just cover the bottom, put in the slices
of mutton and cook them very slowly, first on one
side then on the other, until they are brown. Garnish
the dish on which the mutton is served with some
fried potatoes or potato chips.
Put a little butter or bacon fat in the frying-pan,
sprinkle pepper and salt over slices of cold mutton,
and let them get hot very slowly. The mutton must
be frequently turned, and never allowed to fry.
When turned in the pan for the last time sprinkle a
little chopped parsley on the upper side; remove the
slices carefully on to a hot dish, pour the fat in the
pan over, and serve.
COLD MUTTON POTTED.
Cut up the mutton, being careful to free it from
all sinew and skin; chop or pound it with half its
weight of cooked bacon until it is as fine as desired.
Season with a little pepper, salt, and allspice, put it
into a jar, which set in a saucepan of water over the
fire until the meat is hot through. When taken up stir
occasionally until cool, then press it into little pots,
and pour clarified butter or mutton fat over the top.
If liked, a little essence of anchovy may be added to
Mince a quarter of a pound of underdone mutton,
taking care to have it free from skin and fat. Mix
with it a tablespoonful of rich gravy—that which is
found under a cake of dripping from a joint is
particularly suitable for this purpose—add a few drops
of essence of anchovy, a pinch of cayenne pepper, and
a small teaspoonful of minced parsley. If necessary
Line four patty-pans with puff paste, divide the
mutton into equal portions and put it into the pans,
cover each with a lid of paste, and bake in a quick
oven for half-an-hour.
Having carefully washed the brain, boil it very fast,
in order to harden it, in well-seasoned gravy. When
it is done, take it out of the gravy and set it aside
until cold. Cut it either in slices or in halves, dip
each piece in egg, then in bread-crumbs well seasoned
with dried and sifted parsley, pepper, and salt, fry
them in a little butter until brown. The gravy
having become cold, take off the fat, and boil it in a
stewpan without a lid until it is reduced to a small
quantity; pour it round the brain, and serve.
Carefully wash an ox brain, and boil it for a
quarter of an hour in well-seasoned stock. When
the brain is cold, cut it into slices as thin as
possible, dip each of them in batter, drop them as
you do them into a stewpan half-full of fat at a
temperature of 430°, or that which will brown
instantly a piece of bread dipped into it. To make
the batter, mix two large tablespoonfuls of fine flour
with four of cold water, stir in a tablespoonful of
dissolved butter or of fine oil, the yolk of an egg,
and a pinch of salt and pepper; when ready to use,
beat the white of the egg to a strong froth, and mix
with it. Do not fry more than two fritters at once;
as you take them up, throw them on paper to absorb
any grease clinging to them, serve on a napkin or
ornamental dish-paper. If this recipe is closely
followed, the fritters will be light, crisp, delicate
morsels, melting in the mouth, and form besides
a very pretty dish. Garnish with fried parsley; take
care the parsley is thoroughly dry, put it into a
small frying-basket, and immerse it for an instant
in the fat in which the fritters are to be cooked.
Turn it out on paper, dry, and serve.
Let the butcher break up a marrow-bone. Take
out the marrow in as large pieces as possible, and put
them into a stewpan with a little boiling water, rather
highly salted. When the marrow has boiled for a
minute, drain the water away through a fine strainer.
Have ready a slice of lightly-toasted bread, place the
marrow on it, and put it into a Dutch oven before the
fire for five minutes, or until it is done. Sprinkle
over it a little pepper and salt, and a small teaspoonful
of parsley, chopped fine. The toast must be served
CHICKEN IN ASPIC JELLY.
Cut the white part of a cold boiled chicken, and
as many similar pieces of cold ham, into neat rounds,
not larger than a florin. Run a little aspic jelly into
a fancy border mould, allow it to set, and arrange a
decoration of boiled carrot and white savoury custard
cut crescent shape, dipping each piece in melted
aspic. Pour in a very little more jelly, and when it is
set place the chicken and ham round alternately,
with a sprig of chervil, or small salad, here and there.
Put in a very small quantity of aspic to keep this in
place, then, when nearly set, sufficient to cover it.
Arrange another layer, this time first of ham then of
chicken, fix them in the same way, and fill up the
mould with aspic jelly. When the dish is turned out
fill the centre with cold green peas, nicely seasoned,
and garnish round with chopped aspic and little stars
of savoury custard. To make this, soak a quarter of
an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of milk,
dissolve it over the fire, and stir in a gill of thick
cream, season to taste with cayenne pepper and salt,
and, if liked, a little grate of nutmeg. Pour the
custard on to a large dish, and when cold cut it into
the required shapes.
VEAL CUTLETS IN WHITE SAUCE.
Cut six or seven cutlets, about half-an-inch thick,
from a neck of veal, braise them in half-a-pint of good
white stock with an onion, a small bunch of herbs, a
bacon bone, and two or three peppercorns, until they
are done. Let the cutlets get cool in the liquor, then
drain them. Strain the liquor and make a white sauce
with it; add a tablespoonful of thick cream and a
quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved in
a gill of milk; season with salt and cayenne pepper,
stirring occasionally until quite cold. Dip the cutlets
in, smoothly coating one side, and before the sauce sets
decorate them with very narrow strips of truffle in the
form of a star. Cut as many pieces of cooked tongue
or ham as there are cutlets, dish them alternately in a
circle on a border of aspic, fill the centre with a salad
composed of all kinds of cold cooked vegetables, cut
with a pea-shaped cutter and seasoned with oil,
vinegar, pepper, and salt. Garnish with aspic jelly
cut lozenge shape and sprigs of chervil.
Like many other articles of diet, kidneys within the
last ten years have been doubled in price, and are so
scarce as to be regarded as luxuries. The method of
cooking them generally in use is extravagant, and
renders them tasteless and indigestible. Kidneys
should never be cooked rapidly, and those persons
who cannot eat them slightly underdone should forego
them. One kidney dressed as directed in the following
recipe will go as far as two cooked in the ordinary
manner—an instance, if one were needed, of the
economy of well-prepared food.
Choose fine large kidneys, skin them and cut each
the round way into thin slices: each kidney should
yield from ten to twelve slices. Have ready a tablespoonful
of flour highly seasoned with pepper and
salt and well mixed together; dip each piece of
kidney in it. Cut some neat thin squares of streaked
bacon, fry them very slowly in a little butter; when
done, put them on the dish for serving, and keep hot
whilst you sauté the kidneys, which put into the fat
the bacon was cooked in. In about a minute the
gravy will begin to rise on the upper side, then
turn the kidneys and let them finish cooking slowly;
when they are done, as they will be in three to four
minutes, the gravy will again begin to rise on the side
which is uppermost. Put the kidneys on the dish
with the bacon, and pour over them a spoonful or
two of plain beef gravy, or water thickened with a
little flour, boiled and mixed with the fat and gravy
from the kidneys in the frying-pan. If there is too
much fat in the pan, pour it away before boiling up
the gravy. Serve the kidneys on a hot-water dish.
TINNED KIDNEYS WITH MUSHROOMS.
Dry a half-tin of champignons in a cloth, or, if
convenient, prepare a similar quantity of fresh button
mushrooms; add to these a few pieces of dried mushrooms,
previously soaked for ten minutes in tepid
water, put them into a stewpan with a slice of butter,
and stir constantly for six minutes, then add two or
three kidneys cut in small neat pieces, in the shape of
dice is best, and continue stirring until the kidneys
are hot through, taking care to do them slowly; at
the last moment season with pepper and salt, and
serve very hot. Garnish the dish with fried sippets
KIDNEYS WITH PICCALILLI SAUCE.
Take the kidneys out of the gravy, and cut them
into six slices. Mix a small teaspoonful of curry
powder with three teaspoonfuls of fine flour and a
small pinch of salt. Dip each slice in this mixture,
and when all are done put them in the frying-pan
with a little butter, and let them get slowly hot
through. When done, put the kidneys in the centre
of a hot dish, and pour round them a sauce made as
follows: Boil up the gravy of the kidneys, and stir
into it sufficient minced piccalilli pickles to make it
quite thick, add a teaspoonful of flour to a tablespoonful
of the piccalilli vinegar, stir into the sauce,
and when all has boiled up together, pour it round
These are quite an epicure's dish, and care must
be taken to cook them slowly. Having skinned the
kidneys (they must not be split or cut) dip them for a
moment in boiling fat, place them on the gridiron
over a slow fire, turning them every minute. They
will take ten to fifteen minutes to cook, and will be
done as soon as the gravy begins to run. Place them
on a hot dish rubbed over with butter, salt and
pepper them rather highly. It must be understood
that kidneys thus cooked ought to have the gravy in
them, and that when they are cut at table it should
run from them freely and in abundance.
A really proper fry should consist not only of sweetbreads
and liver, but of the heart, melt, brains, frill,
and kidneys, each of which requires a different treatment.
It is quite as easy to cook a fry properly as to
flour and fry it hard and over-brown, as is too frequently
done. Trim the sweetbreads neatly, and
simmer them for a quarter of an hour in good white
stock with an onion. When they are done take them
up and put the brains in the gravy, allowing them to
boil as fast as possible in order to harden them; let
them get cold, then cut into slices, egg and bread-crumb
them, and fry with the sweetbread in a little
butter. After the brains are taken out of the gravy,
put the slices of heart and melt in, and let them stew
slowly until tender. When they are ready, flour them,
and fry with the liver and frill until brown. Lastly,
put the kidneys, cut in slices, into the pan, and very
gently fry for about a minute. Shake a little flour onto
the pan, stir it about until it begins to brown; then
pour on to it the gravy, in which the sweetbreads, etc.,
were stewed, see it is nicely seasoned, and pour round
the fry, which should be neatly arranged in the centre
of the dish. Garnish with fried parsley.
These make an admirable breakfast dish, and can
be partly prepared over-night. Trim and wash the
sweetbreads, put them into a saucepan with sufficient
well-flavoured stock to cover them, a minced onion
and a sprig of lemon-thyme; boil gently for fifteen
minutes, or a little longer if necessary. Take them
up, drain, dip in egg and finely-sifted bread-crumbs
mixed with a little flour, pepper, and salt. Fry very
carefully, so as not to make it brown or hard, some
small slices of bacon, keep warm whilst you fry the
sweetbreads in the fat which has run from it, adding,
if required, a little piece of butter or lard. For a
breakfast dish, the sweetbreads should be served
without gravy, but if for an entrée the liquor in which
they were stewed, with slight additions and a little
thickening, can be poured round them in the dish.
Calves' sweetbreads are prepared in the same manner
as the above, and can either be fried, finished in a
Dutch oven, or served white, with parsley and butter,
or white sauce.
VEAL À LA CASSEROLE.
For this dish a piece of the fillet about three inches
thick will be required, and weighing from two to three
pounds. It should be cut from one side of the leg,
without bone; but sometimes butchers object to give
it, as cutting in this manner interferes with cutlets.
In such a case a piece must be chosen near the
knuckle, and the bone be taken out before cooking.
For a larger party, a thick slice of the fillet, weighing
about four pounds, will be found advantageous.
With a piece of tape tie the veal into a round shape,
flour, and put it into a stewpan with a small piece of
butter, fry until it becomes brown on all sides. Then
put half a pint of good gravy, nicely seasoned with
pepper and salt, cover the stewpan closely, and set it
on the stove to cook very slowly for at least four
hours. When done, the veal will be exquisitely tender,
full of flavour, but not the least ragged. Take the
meat up, and keep hot whilst the gravy is reduced, by
boiling without the lid of the saucepan, to a rich
glaze, which pour over the meat and serve.
BROWN FRICASSÉE OF CHICKEN.
This is a brown fricassée of chicken, and is an
excellent dish. No doubt the reason it is so seldom
given is that, although easy enough to do, it requires
care and attention in finishing it. Many of the best
cooks, in the preparation of chickens for fricassée, cut
them up before cooking, but we prefer to boil them
whole, and afterwards to divide them, as the flesh
thus is less apt to shrink and get dry. The chicken
can be slowly boiled in plain water, with salt and
onions, or, as is much better, in white broth of any
kind. When the chicken is tender cut it up; take
the back, and the skin, pinions of the wings, and
pieces which do not seem nice enough for a superior
dish, and boil them in a quart of the liquor in which
it was boiled. Add mushroom trimmings, onions,
and a sprig of thyme; boil down to one-half, then
strain, take off all fat, and stir over the fire with the
yolk of two eggs and an ounce of fine flour until
thickened. Dip each piece of chicken in some of
this sauce, and when they are cold pass them through
fine bread-crumbs, then in the yolk of egg, and crumb
again. Fry carefully in hot fat. Dish the chicken
with a border of fried parsley, and the remainder of
the gravy poured round the dish. This dish is
generally prepared by French cooks by frying the
chicken in oil, and seasoning with garlic; but unless
the taste of the guests is well known, it is safer to
follow the above recipe.
Put any of the meat of the breast or of the wings
without bone into a frying-pan with a little fresh butter
or bacon fat. Cook them very slowly, turning repeatedly;
if the meat has not been previously cooked
it will take ten minutes, and five minutes if a réchauffé.
Sprinkle with pepper, and serve with mushrooms or
broiled bacon. The legs of cooked chickens are
excellent sautés, but they should be boned before they
are put into the pan.
Put some cold potatoes chopped into the frying-pan
with a little fat, stir them about for five minutes,
then add to them an equal quantity of cold meat, cut
into neat little squares, season nicely with pepper and
salt, fry gently, stirring all the time, until thoroughly
Fry a minced onion in butter until lightly browned,
cut up the flesh of two cooked chicken legs, or any
other tender meat, into dice, mix this with the onions,
and stir them together over the fire until the meat is
hot through; sprinkle over it about a small teaspoonful
of curry-powder, and salt to taste. Having thoroughly
mixed the meat with the curry-powder, pour over it
a tablespoonful of milk or cream, and stir over the
fire until the moisture has dried up. Celery salt may
be used instead of plain salt, and some persons add a
few drops of lemon-juice when the curry is finished.
Croquettes of all kinds, fish, game, poultry or any
delicate meats, can be successfully made on the following
model: Whatever material is used must be finely
minced or pounded. Care is required in making the
sauce, if it is too thin it is difficult to mould the
croquettes, and ice will be required to set it. Croquettes
of game without any flavouring, except a little
salt and cayenne, are generally acceptable as a breakfast
dish. Preserved lobster makes very good croquettes
for an entrée, and small scraps of any kind can
thus be made into a very good dish. Put one ounce
of fine flour into a stewpan with half a gill of cold
water, stir this over a slow fire very rapidly until it
forms a paste, then add one ounce of butter, and stir
until well incorporated. Mix in a small teaspoonful
of essence of shrimps or anchovies, with a pinch of
salt and pepper. Take the stewpan off the fire, and
stir the yolk of an egg briskly into the sauce;
thoroughly mix it with half-a-pound of pounded fish
or meat, spread it out on a plate until it is cool.
Flour your hands, take a small piece of the croquette
mixture, roll into a ball or into the shape of a cork,
then pass it through very finely-sifted and dried bread-crumbs.
Repeat the process until all the mixture is
used; put the croquettes as you do them into a wire
frying-basket, which shake very gently, when all are
placed in it, in order to free them from superfluous
crumbs. Have ready a stewpan half-full of boiling
fat, dip the basket in, gently moving it about, and
taking care the croquettes are covered with fat. In
about a minute they will become a delicate brown,
and will then be done. Turn them on a paper to
absorb any superfluous fat, serve them on a napkin or
ornamental dish paper. No more croquettes than
will lie on the bottom of the basket without touching
each other should be fried at once.
MEAT CAKES À L'ITALIENNE.
Mix very fine any kind of cold meat or chicken,
taking care to have it free from skin and gristle, add
to it a quarter of its weight of sifted bread-crumbs,
a few drops of essence of anchovy, a little parsley,
pepper and salt, and sufficient egg to moisten the
whole. Flour your hands, roll the meat into little
cakes about the size of a half-crown piece, then flatten
the cakes with the back of a spoon, dip them in egg
and fine bread-crumbs, and fry them in a little butter
until lightly browned on the outside. Put them on a
hot dish and garnish with boiled Italian paste.
RAISED PORK PIE.
Take a pound of meat, fat and lean, from the
chump end of a fine fore-loin of pork, cut it into
neat dice, mix a tablespoonful of water with it, and
season with a large teaspoonful of salt and a small
one of black pepper. To make the crust, boil a
quarter of a pound of lard or clarified dripping in a
gill and a half of water, and pour it hot on to one
pound of flour, to which a good pinch of salt has
been added. Mix into a stiff paste, pinch off enough
of it to make the lid, and keep it hot. Flour your
board and work the paste into a ball, then with the
knuckles of your right hand press a hole in the
centre, and mould the paste into a round or oval
shape, taking care to keep it a proper thickness.
Having put in the meat, join the lid to the pie, which
raise lightly with both hands so as to keep it a good
high shape, cut round the edge with a sharp knife, and
make the trimmings into leaves to ornament the lid;
and having placed these on, with a rose in the centre,
put the pie on a floured baking-sheet and brush it
over with yolk of egg.
The crust of the pie should be cool and set before
putting it into the oven, which should be a moderate
heat. When the gravy boils out the pie is done. An
hour and a half will bake a pie of this size. Make a
little gravy with the bones and trimmings of the pork,
and to half-a-pint of it add a quarter of an ounce of
Nelson's Gelatine, and nicely season with pepper and
salt. When the pie is cold remove the rose from the
top, make a little hole, insert a small funnel, and pour in
as much gravy as the pie will hold. Replace the rose
on the top, and put the pie on a dish with a cut paper.
If preferred, the pie can be made in a tin mould;
but the crust is nicer raised by the hand. A great
point to observe is to begin moulding the crust whilst
it is hot, and to get it finished as quickly as possible.
VEAL AND HAM PIE.
Prepare the crust as for a pork pie. Cut a pound
of veal cutlet and a quarter of a pound of ham into
dice, season with a teaspoonful of salt and another of
black pepper, put the meat into the crust, and finish
as for pork pie. Add a quarter of an ounce of
Nelson's Gelatine—previously soaked in cold water,
and then dissolved—to a teacupful of gravy made
from the veal trimmings.
When a pig is cut up in the country, sausages are
usually made of the trimmings; but when the meat
has to be bought, the chump-end of a fore-loin will
be found to answer best. The fine well-fed meat of
a full-grown pig, known in London as "hog-meat," is
every way preferable to that called "dairy-fed pork."
The fat should be nearly in equal proportion to the
lean, but of course this matter must be arranged to
suit the taste of those who will eat the sausages. If
young pork is used, remove the skin as thinly as you
can—it is useful for various purposes—and then with
a sharp knife cut all the flesh from the bones, take
away all sinew and gristle, and cut the fat and lean
into strips. Some mincing-machines require the meat
longer than others; for Kent's Combination, cut it into
pieces about an inch long and half-an-inch thick. To
each pound of meat put half a gill of gravy made
from the bones, or water will do; then mix equally
with it two ounces of bread-crumbs, a large teaspoonful
of salt, a small one of black pepper, dried sage, and
a pinch of allspice. This seasoning should be well
mixed with the bread, as the meat will then be
flavoured properly throughout the mass. Arrange the
skin on the filler, tie it at the end, put the meat, a
little at a time, into the hopper, turn the handle of the
machine briskly, and take care the skin is only lightly
filled. When the sausages are made, tie the skin at
the other end, pinch them into shape, and then loop
them by passing one through another, giving a twist
to each as you do them. Sausage-skins, especially if
preserved, should be well soaked before using, or they
may make the sausages too salt. It is a good plan to
put the skin on the water-tap and allow the water to
run through it, as thus it will be well washed on the
inside. Fifteen to twenty minutes should be allowed
for frying sausages, and when done they should be
nicely browned. A little butter or lard is best for
frying, and some pieces of light bread may be fried in
it when the sausages are done, and placed round the
dish by way of garnish. Cooks cannot do better
than remember Dr. Kitchener's directions for frying
sausages. After saying, "They are best when quite
fresh made," he adds: "put a bit of butter or dripping
into a clean frying-pan; as soon as it is melted, before
it gets hot, put in the sausages, and shake the pan for
a minute, and keep turning them. Be careful not to
break or prick them in so doing. Fry them over a
very slow fire till they are nicely browned on all sides.
The secret of frying sausages is to let them get hot
very gradually; they then will not break if they are
not stale. The common practice to prevent them
bursting is to prick them with a fork, but this lets the
We give this pudding first because it affords an
opportunity for giving hints on making milk puddings
generally, and because, properly made, there is no
more delicious pudding than this. It is besides most
useful and nutritious, not only for the dinner of
healthy people, but for children and invalids. But
few cooks, however, make it properly; as a rule too
many eggs are used, to which the milk is added cold,
and the pudding is baked in a quick oven. The consequence
is that the pudding curdles and comes to
table swimming in whey; or, even if this does not
happen, the custard is full of holes and is tough.
In the first place, milk for all puddings with eggs
should be poured on to the eggs boiling hot; in the
next, the baking must be very slowly done, if possible,
as directed in the recipe; the dish containing the
pudding to be placed in another half-full of water.
This, of course, prevents the baking proceeding too
rapidly, and also prevents the pudding acquiring a
sort of burned greasy flavour, which is injurious for
invalids. Lastly, too many eggs should not be used;
the quantity given, two to the pint of milk, is in
all cases quite sufficient, and will make a fine rich
We never knew a pudding curdle, even with
London milk a day old, if all these directions were
observed; but it is almost needless to say, that the
pudding made with new rich milk is much finer than
one of inferior milk.
Boil a pint and a half of milk with two ounces of
lump sugar, or rather more if a sweet pudding is
liked, and pour it boiling hot on three eggs lightly
beaten—that is, just sufficiently so to mix whites
and yolks. Flavour the custard with nutmeg, grated
lemon-peel, or anything which may be preferred and
pour it into a tart-dish. Place this dish in another
three-parts full of boiling water, and bake slowly for
forty minutes, or until the custard is firm. There is
no need to butter the dish if the pudding is baked as
This is a delicious pudding, and to insure its
success great care and exactness are required. In
the first place, to avoid failure it is necessary that the
butter, flour, sugar, and milk, should be stirred long
enough over a moderate fire to make a stiff paste,
because if this is thin the eggs will separate, and the
pudding when done resemble a batter with froth on
Before beginning to make the pudding, prepare a
pint tin by buttering it inside and fastening round it
with string on the outside a buttered band of writing-paper,
which will stand two inches above the tin and
prevent the pudding running over as it rises. Melt
an ounce of butter in a stewpan, add one ounce of
sifted sugar, stir in an ounce and a half of Vienna
flour, mix well together, add a gill of milk, and stir
over the fire with a wooden spoon until it boils and
is thick. Take the stewpan off the fire, beat up the
yolks of three eggs with half a teaspoonful of extract
of vanilla, and stir a little at a time into the paste, to
insure both being thoroughly mixed together. Put
a small pinch of salt to the whites of four eggs, whip
them as stiff as possible, and stir lightly into the
pudding, which pour immediately into the prepared
mould. Have ready a saucepan with enough boiling
water to reach a little way up the tin, which is best
placed on a trivet, so that the water cannot touch the
paper band. Let the pudding steam very gently for
twenty minutes, or until it is firm in the middle, and
will turn out.
For sauce, boil two tablespoonfuls of apricot jam
in a gill of water, with two ounces of lump sugar, stir
in a wine-glassful of sherry, add a few drops of Nelson's
Vanilla Flavouring, pour over the pudding and serve.
Put the yolks of two eggs into a basin with an ounce
of sifted sugar and a few drops of Nelson's Vanilla
Essence; beat the yolks and sugar together for six
minutes, or until the mixture becomes thick. Then
whip the whites very stiff, so that they will turn out
of the basin like a jelly. Mix the yolks and whites
lightly together, have ready an ounce of butter dissolved
in the omelet-pan, pour in the eggs, hold this
pan over a slow fire for two minutes, then put the
frying-pan into a quick oven and bake until the
omelet has risen; four minutes ought to be sufficient
to finish the omelet in the oven; when done, slide it
on to a warm dish, double it, sift sugar over, and
Cover the bottom of a tart-dish with sponge-cakes,
pour over a little brandy and sherry; put in a moderate
oven until hot, then pour on the cakes an egg whip
made of two packets of Nelson's Albumen, beaten
to a strong froth with a little sugar. Bake for a
quarter of an hour in a slow oven.
Butter very thickly a pint pudding-basin, and cover
it neatly with stoned muscatel raisins, the outer side
of them being kept to the basin. Lightly fill up the
basin with alternate layers of sponge-cake and ratafias,
and when ready to steam the pudding, pour by
degrees over the cake a custard made of half-a-pint
of boiling milk, an egg, three lumps of sugar, a tablespoonful
of brandy, and a little lemon flavouring.
Cover the basin with a paper cap and steam or boil
gently for three-quarters of an hour. Great care
should be taken not to boil puddings of this class fast,
as it renders them tough and flavourless.
Mix a tablespoonful of fine flour with a gill of cold
water, put it into a gill of boiling water, and, having
stirred over the fire until it is thick, add the yolk of
an egg. Continue stirring for five minutes, and
sweeten with two ounces of castor sugar. Mix a wine-glass
of brandy with two tablespoonfuls of sherry, stir
it into the sauce, and pour it round the pudding. If
liked, a grate of nutmeg may be added to the sauce,
and, if required to be rich, an ounce of butter may be
stirred in before the brandy.
Butter a pint-and-a-half tart-dish, lay in it a layer of
light bread, cut thin, on this sprinkle a portion of two
ounces of shred suet, and of one ounce of lemon
candied-peel, chopped very fine. Fill the dish lightly
with layers of bread, sprinkling over each a little of
the suet and peel.
Boil a pint of milk with two ounces of sugar, pour
it on two eggs, beaten for a minute, and add it to the
pudding just before putting it into the oven; a little
of Nelson's Essence of Lemon or Almonds may be
added to the custard. Bake the pudding in a very
slow oven for an hour.
VANILLA RUSK PUDDING.
Dissolve, but do not oil, an ounce of butter, mix in
a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, stir over the fire
for a few minutes, add an egg well beaten, and half a
teaspoonful of Nelson's Vanilla Extract, or as much
as will give a good flavour to the paste, which continue
stirring until it gets thick.
Spread four slices of rusk with the vanilla paste,
put them in a buttered tart-dish. Boil half-a-pint of
new milk, pour it on to an egg well beaten, then add
it to the rusk, and put the pudding to bake in a
slow oven for an hour. Turn out when done, and
sift sugar over the pudding. If a superior pudding is
desired, boil a tablespoonful of apricot jam in a teacupful
of plain sugar syrup, add a little vanilla
flavouring, and pour over the pudding at the moment
Pour a pint of boiling milk on two ounces of
Rizine, stir over the fire for ten minutes, add half an
ounce of butter, the yolks of two eggs, an ounce of
castor sugar, and six drops of Nelson's Essence of
Almonds. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish,
and bake in a moderate oven for a quarter of an
hour. When taken from the oven, spread over it a
thin layer of apricot jam, and on this the whites of
the eggs beaten to a strong froth, with half an ounce
of castor sugar. Return the pudding to a slow oven
for about four minutes, in order to set the meringue.
Soak half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint
of cold water until it is soft, when add the grated
peel of half a lemon, the juice of two lemons, the
beaten yolks of three eggs, and six ounces of lump
sugar dissolved in half-a-pint of boiling water. Stir
the mixture over the fire until it thickens, taking care
that it does not boil. Have ready the whites of the eggs
well whisked, stir all together, pour into a fancy mould,
which put into a cold place until the pudding is set.
Half-a-pound of bread-crumbs, a pint of new milk,
two ounces of butter, the yolks of four eggs, and a little
Nelson's Essence of Lemon. Boil the bread-crumbs and
milk together, then add the sugar, butter, and eggs;
when these are well mixed, bake in a tart-dish until a
light brown. Then put a layer of strawberry jam, and
on the top of this the whites of the eggs beaten to
a stiff froth, with a little sifted sugar. Smooth over
the meringue with a knife dipped in boiling water,
and bake for ten minutes in a slow oven.
Boil half-a-pound of light stale bread in a pint of
new milk. Stir continually until it becomes a thick
paste; then add an ounce of butter, a quarter of a
pound of sifted sugar, and two large teaspoonfuls of
Schweitzer's Cocoatina, with a little Nelson's Essence
of Vanilla. Take the pudding off the fire, and mix in,
first, the yolks of three eggs, then the whites beaten
to a strong froth. Put into a buttered tart-dish and
bake in a moderate oven for three-quarters of an hour.
Choose a large nut, with the milk in it, grate it
finely, mix it with an equal weight of finely-sifted sugar,
half its weight of butter, the yolks of four eggs, and the
milk of the nut. Let the butter be beaten to a cream,
and when all the other ingredients are mixed with it,
add the whites of the eggs, whisked to a strong froth.
Line a tart-dish with puff-paste, put in the pudding
mixture and bake slowly for an hour. Butter a sheet
of paper and cover the top of the pudding, as it should
not get brown.
RASPBERRY AND CURRANT PUDDING.
Stew raspberries and currants with sugar and water,
taking care to have plenty of juice. Cut the crumb
of a stale tin-loaf in slices about half-an-inch thick and
put in a pie-dish, leaving room for the bread to swell,
with alternate layers of fruit, until the dish is full. Then
put in as much of the juice as you can without causing
the bread to rise. When it is soaked up put in the
rest of the juice, cover with a plate, and let the pudding
stand until the next day. When required for use turn
out and pour over it a good custard or cream. The
excellence of this pudding depends on there being
plenty of syrup to soak the bread thoroughly. This is
useful when pastry is objected to.
THE CAPITAL PUDDING.
Shred a quarter of a pound of suet, mix it with half
a pound of flour, one small teaspoonful each of baking-powder
and carbonate of soda, then add four tablespoonfuls
of strawberry or raspberry jam, and stir well
with a gill of milk. Boil for four hours in a high
mould, and serve with wine or fruit sauce. The latter
is made by stirring jam into thin butter sauce.
Cut slices of very light bread half-an-inch thick,
with a round paste-cutter, divide them into neat
shapes all alike in size. Throw them into boiling fat
and fry quickly of a rich golden brown, dry them on
paper, place on a dish, and pour over orange or lemon
syrup, or any kind of preserve made hot. Honey or
golden syrup may be used for those who like them.
DUCHESS OF FIFE'S PUDDING.
Boil two ounces of rice in a pint of milk until
quite tender. When done, mix with it a quarter of
an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine soaked in a tablespoonful
of water. Line the inside of a plain mould
with the rice, and when it is set fill it up with half-a-pint
of cream, whipped very stiff and mixed with
some nice preserve, stewed fruit, or marmalade. After
standing some hours turn out the pudding, and pour
over it a delicate syrup made of the same fruit as
that put inside the rice.
Dry a quarter of a pound of fine flour, mix with
two ounces of sifted loaf-sugar, and add it by degrees
to two ounces of butter beaten to a cream; then work
in three well-beaten eggs, flavour with Nelson's Essence
of Lemon. Line patty-pans with short crust, put in
the above mixture, and bake in a quick oven.
Make six moderate-sized apples into sauce, sweeten
with powdered loaf-sugar, stir in two ounces of butter,
and when cold, mix with two well-beaten eggs. Butter
a tart-dish, and strew the bottom and sides thickly
with bread-crumbs, then put in the apple-sauce, and
cover with bread-crumbs to the depth of a quarter of
an inch, put a little dissolved butter on the top, and
bake for an hour in a good oven. When done, turn
it out, and sift sugar over it.
COMPOTE OF APPLES WITH FRIED BREAD.
Bake a dozen good cooking apples, scrape out the
pulp, boil this with half-a-pound of sugar to a pound
of pulp, until it becomes stiff. It must be stirred all
the time it is boiling. When done, place the compote
in the centre of the dish, piling it up high. Have
ready some triangular pieces of fried bread, arrange
some like a crown on the top, the remainder at the
bottom of the compote. Have ready warmed half a
pot of apricot marmalade mixed with a little plain
sugar-syrup, and pour it over the compote, taking
care that each piece of bread is well covered.
Bake good sharp apples; when done, remove the
pulp and rub it through a sieve, sweeten and flavour
with Nelson's Essence of Lemon; when cold add to
it a custard made of eggs and milk, or milk or cream
sweetened will be very good. Keep the fool quite
thick. Serve with rusks or sponge finger biscuits.
Beat up two packets of Nelson's Albumen with six
small teaspoonfuls of water, and stir them into half-a-pound
of stiff apple-sauce flavoured with Nelson's
Essence of Lemon. Put the meringue on a bright
tin or silver dish, pile it up high in a rocky shape,
and bake in a quick oven for ten minutes.
STEWED PEARS WITH RICE.
Put four large pears cut in halves into a stewpan
with a pint of claret, Burgundy, or water, and eight
ounces of sugar, simmer them until perfectly tender.
Take out the pears and let the syrup boil down to
half; flavour it with vanilla. Have ready a teacupful
of rice, nicely boiled in milk and sweetened, spread it
on a dish, lay the pears on it, pour the syrup over,
and serve. This is best eaten cold.
COMPOTE OF PRUNES.
Wash the fruit in warm water, put it on to boil in
cold water in which lump sugar has been dissolved.
To a pound of prunes put half-a-pound of sugar, a
pint of water, with the thin rind and juice of a
lemon. Let them simmer for an hour, or until so
tender that they will mash when pressed. Strain the
fruit and set it aside. Boil the syrup until it becomes
very thick and is on the point of returning to sugar,
then pour it over the prunes, turn them about so that
they become thoroughly coated, taking care not to
break them, let them lie for twelve hours, then pile up
on a glass dish for dessert.
It is within the memory of many persons that jelly
was only to be made from calves' feet by a slow,
difficult, and expensive process. There is, indeed, a
story told of the wife of a lawyer, early in this century,
having appropriated some valuable parchment deeds
to make jelly, when she could not procure calves' feet.
But the secret that it could be so made was carefully
guarded by the possessors of it, and it was not until
the introduction of Nelson's Gelatine that people were
brought to believe that jelly could be made other
than in the old-fashioned way. Even now there is
a lingering superstition that there is more nourishment
in jelly made of calves' feet than that made from
Gelatine. The fact is, however, that Gelatine is
equally nutritious from whatever source it is procured.
Foreign Gelatine, as is well known, does sometimes
contain substances which, if not absolutely deleterious,
are certainly undesirable; but Messrs. Nelson warrant
their Gelatine of equal purity with that derived from
It is unnecessary to enlarge on the economy both
in time and money of using Gelatine, or the more
certain result obtained from it. If the recipe given
for making "a quart of jelly" is closely followed, a
most excellent and brilliant jelly will be produced.
Many cooks get worried about their jelly-bags, and are
much divided in opinion as to the best kind to use.
It is not a point of great consequence whether a felt
or close flannel is selected. We incline to the latter,
which must be of good quality, and if the material is
not thick it should be used double.
When put away otherwise than perfectly clean and
dry, or when stored in a damp place, flannel bags are
sure to acquire a strong mouldy flavour, which is
communicated to all jelly afterwards strained through
The great matter, therefore, to observe in respect of
the jelly-bag, is that it be put away in a proper condition,
that is, perfectly free from all stiffness and
from any smell whatever.
As soon as the bag is done with, turn it inside out,
throw it into a pan of boiling water, stir it about with
a spoon until it is cleansed. Then, have another pan
of boiling water, and again treat the bag in the same
manner. Add as much cold water as will enable you
to wring the bag out dry, or it can be wrung out in a
cloth. This done, finally rinse in hot water, wring,
and, if possible, dry the bag in the open air. See
that it is perfectly free from smell; if not, wash in
very hot water again. Wrap the bag in several folds
of clean paper and keep it in a dry place.
A thing to be observed is that, if the jelly is allowed
to come very slowly to boiling-point it will be more
effectually cleared, as the impurities of the sugar and
the thicker portions of the lemons thus rise more
surely with the egg than if this part of the process is
too rapidly carried out. In straining, if the jelly is
well made, it is best to pour all into the bag at one
time, doing it slowly, so as not to break up the scum
more than necessary. Should the jelly not be perfectly
bright on a first straining, it should be kept hot, and
slowly poured again through the bag. The contents
of the bag should not be disturbed, nor should the
slightest pressure be applied, as this is certain to
cloud the jelly. If brandy is used, it should be put in
after the jelly is strained, as by boiling both the spirit
and flavour of it are lost.
In order that jelly may turn out well, do
not put it into the mould until it is on the
point of setting. If attention is paid to this there
will never be any difficulty in getting jelly to turn out
of a mould, and putting it into hot water or using hot
cloths will be unnecessary. A mould should be used
as cold as possible, because then when the jelly comes
into contact with it, it is at once set and cannot stick.
Any kind of mould may be used. If the direction to
put the jelly in when just setting is followed, it will
turn out as well from an earthenware as from a copper
It should be unnecessary to say that the utmost
cleanliness is imperative to insure the perfection of
jelly. So delicate a substance not only contracts any
disagreeable flavour, but is rendered cloudy by the
least touch of any greasy spoon, or by a stewpan
which has not been properly cleansed.
HOW TO USE GELATINE.
There are a few points connected with the use of
Gelatine for culinary purposes which cannot be too
strongly impressed upon housekeepers and cooks.
1. Gelatine should always be soaked in cold water
till it is thoroughly saturated—say, till it is so soft
that it will tear with the fingers—whether this is
specified in the recipe or not.
2. Nelson's Gelatine being cut very fine will soak in
about an hour, but whenever possible it is desirable
to give it a longer time. When convenient, it is a
good plan to put Gelatine to soak over-night. It will
then dissolve in liquid below boiling-point.
When jelly has to be cleared with white of egg do
not boil it longer than necessary. Two minutes is
quite sufficient to set the egg and clarify the jelly.
Use as little Gelatine as possible; that is to say,
never use more than will suffice to make a jelly strong
enough to retain its form when turned out of the
mould. The prejudice against Gelatine which existed
in former years was doubtless caused by persons unacquainted
with its qualities using too large a quantity,
and producing a jelly hard, tough, and unpalatable,
which compared very unfavourably with the delicate
jellies they had been accustomed to make from
calves' feet, the delicacy of which arose from the
simple fact that the Gelatine derived from calves' feet
is so weak that it is almost impossible to make the
jellies too strong.
Persons accustomed to use Gelatine will know that
its "setting" power is very much affected by the
temperature. In the recipes contained in the following
pages the quantity of Gelatine named is that which
experience has shown to be best suited to the average
temperature of this country. In hot weather and
foreign climates a little more Gelatine should be
TO MAKE A QUART OF BRILLIANT JELLY.
Soak one ounce of Nelson's Opaque Gelatine in half-a-pint
of cold water for two or three hours, and then
add the same quantity of boiling water; stir until
dissolved, and add the juice and peel of two lemons,
with wine and sugar sufficient to make the whole
quantity one quart; have ready the white and shell of
an egg, well beaten together, or a packet of Nelson's
Albumen, and stir these briskly into the jelly; boil for
two minutes without stirring it; remove from the fire,
allow it to stand two minutes, and strain through a
close flannel bag. Let it be on the point of setting
before putting into the mould.
AN ECONOMICAL JELLY.
For general family use it is not necessary to clear
jelly through the bag, and a quart of excellent jelly
can be made as follows: Soak one ounce of Nelson's
Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water for two or three
hours, then add a 3d. packet of Nelson's Citric
Acid and three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar;
pour on half-a-pint of boiling water and half-a-pint
of sherry, orange or other wine (cold), and add
one-twelfth part of a bottle of Nelson's Essence of
Lemon; stir for a few minutes before pouring into the
The effect of citric acid in the above quantity is to
make the jelly clearer. When this is not of consequence,
a third of a packet can be used, and six
ounces of sugar. Wine can be omitted if desired,
and water substituted for it. Ginger-beer makes an
excellent jelly for those who do not wish for wine,
and hedozone is also very good.
JELLY WITH FRUIT.
This is an elegant sweetmeat, and with clear jelly
and care in moulding, can be made by inexperienced
persons, particularly if Nelson's Bottled Jelly is used.
If the jelly is home-made the recipe for making a
"quart of jelly" will be followed. When the jelly
is on the point of setting, put sufficient into a cold
mould to cover the bottom of it. Then place in the
centre, according to taste, any fine fruit you choose,
a few grapes, cherries, strawberries, currants, anything
you like, provided it is not too heavy to break the
jelly. Put in another layer of jelly, and when it is
set enough, a little more fruit, then fill up your mould
with jelly, and let it stand for some hours.
Soak one ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine in
half-a-pint of cold water for twenty minutes, then add
the same quantity of boiling water. Stir until dissolved,
and add the juice and peel of two lemons,
with wine and sugar sufficient to make the whole
quantity one quart. Have ready the white and shell
of an egg, well beaten together, and stir these briskly
into the jelly; then boil for two minutes without
stirring, and remove it from the fire; allow it to
stand two minutes, then strain it through a close
flannel bag. Divide the jelly in two equal parts,
leaving one pint of a yellow colour, and adding a few
drops of prepared cochineal to colour the remainder
a bright red. Put a small quantity of red jelly into a
mould previously soaked in cold water. Let this set,
then pour in a small quantity of the pale jelly, and
repeat this until the mould is full, taking care that
each layer is perfectly firm before pouring in the other.
Put it in a cool place, and the next day turn it out.
Or, the mould may be partly filled with the yellow
jelly, and when this is thoroughly set, fill up with the
Ribbon jelly and jelly of two colours can be made
in any pretty fancy mould (there are many to be had
for the purpose); of course one colour must always
be perfectly firm before the other is put in, or the
effect would be spoilt by the two colours running into
each other. Ribbon jelly can be made with two kinds
of Nelson's Bottled Jelly. The Sherry will be used
for the pale, and Cherry or Port Wine jelly for the red
colour. Thus an elegant jelly will be made in a few
Take one ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine, soak
for twenty minutes in half-a-pint of cold water, then
dissolve. Add three-quarters of a pound of sugar, a
pot of red-currant jelly, and a bottle of good ordinary
claret, and stir over the fire till the sugar is dissolved.
Beat the whites and shells of three eggs, stir them
briskly into the preparation, boil for two minutes
longer, take it off the fire, and when it has stood for
two minutes pass it through the bag. This should be
a beautiful red jelly, and perfectly clear.
Soak an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint
of water for an hour or more, dissolve it in a pint-and-a-half
of boiling water with half-a-pound of sugar.
Clear it with white of egg, and run through a jelly-bag
as directed for making "a quart of brilliant jelly."
This done, stir in a tablespoonful, or rather more if
liked, of Allen and Hanbury's Café Vierge, which is a
very fine essence of coffee. Or, instead of dissolving
the Gelatine in water, use strong coffee.
Make half-a-pint of cocoa from the nibs, taking
care to have it clear. Soak half-an-ounce of Nelson's
Gelatine in half-a-pint of water; add a quarter of a
pound of sugar, dissolve, and clear the jelly with the
whites and shells of two eggs in the usual way.
Flavour with Nelson's Essence of Vanilla after the
jelly has been through the bag.
When a clear jelly is not required, the cocoa can
be made of Schweitzer's Cocoatina, double the quantity
required for a beverage being used. Mix this with half-an-ounce
of Nelson's Gelatine and flavour with vanilla.
ORANGES FILLED WITH JELLY.
Cut a small round from the stalk end of each
orange, and scoop out the inside. Throw the skins
into cold water for an hour to harden them, drain,
and when quite dry inside, half fill with pink jelly.
Put in a cool place, and when the jelly is firm, fill up
with pale jelly or blanc-mange; set aside again, and
cut into quarters before serving. Arrange with a
sprig of myrtle between each quarter. Use lemons
instead of oranges if preferred.
ORANGE FRUIT JELLY.
Boil half-a-pound of lump sugar in a gill of water
until melted. Stir in half-an-ounce of Nelson's
Gelatine previously soaked in a gill of cold water;
when it is dissolved beat a little, and let it stand until
cold. Rub four lumps of sugar on the peel of two
fine oranges, so as to get the full and delicate flavour;
add this sugar with the juice of a lemon and sufficient
orange juice strained to make half-a-pint to the above.
Beat well together, and when on the point of setting,
add the fruit of two oranges prepared as follows:
Peel the oranges, cut away all the white you can
without drawing the juice, divide the orange in
quarters, take out seeds and all pith, and cut the
quarters into three or four pieces. Mix these with
the jelly, which at once put into a mould, allowing it
to stand a few hours before turning out.
Take one pound of apples, peel them with a sharp
knife, cut them in two, take out the core, and cut the
fruit into small pieces. Place the apples in a stewpan,
with three ounces of lump sugar, half-a-pint of water,
a small teaspoonful of Nelson's Citric Acid, and
six drops of Nelson's Essence of Lemon. Put the
stewpan on the fire, and boil the apples till they
are quite tender, stirring occasionally to prevent
the fruit sticking to the bottom of the pan;
or the apples can be steamed in a potato-steamer,
afterwards adding lemon-juice and sugar. Soak an
ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of cold water,
dissolve it, and when the apples are cooked to a pulp,
place a hair sieve over a basin and rub the apples
through with a wooden spoon; stir the melted Gelatine
into the apples, taking care that it is quite
smoothly dissolved. If liked, colour part of the
apples by stirring in half a spoonful of cochineal
Rinse a pint-and-a-half mould in boiling water, and
then in cold water; ornament the bottom of the
mould with pistachio nuts cut in small pieces, or
preserved cherries, according to taste. When on the
point of setting put the apples into the mould, and
if any part of the apples are coloured, fill the mould
alternately with layers of coloured and plain apples.
Stand the mould aside in a cool place to set the
apples, then turn out the jelly carefully on a dish,
and send to table with cream whipped to a stiff froth.
To an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine add one pint
of cold water, let it stand for twenty minutes,
then dissolve it over the fire, add the rind of two
lemons thinly pared, three-quarters of a pound of
lump sugar, and the juice of three lemons; boil all
together two minutes, strain it and let it remain till
nearly cold, then add the whites of two eggs well
beaten, and whisk ten minutes, when it will become
the consistence of sponge. Put it lightly into a glass
dish immediately, leaving it in appearance as rocky as
This favourite sweetmeat is also most easily and
successfully made with Nelson's Lemon Sponge.
Dissolve the contents of a tin in half-a-pint of boiling
water, let it stand until it is on the point of setting,
then whip it until very white and thick.
If any difficulty is experienced in getting the Lemon
Sponge out of the tin, set it in a saucepan of boiling
water for fifteen minutes. In cold weather also, should
the sponge be slow in dissolving, put it in a stewpan
with the boiling water and stir until dissolved; but
do not boil it. It is waste of time to begin whipping
until the sponge is on the point of setting. A gill of
sherry may be added if liked, when the whipping of
the sponge is nearly completed. Put the sponge into
a mould rinsed with cold water. It will be ready for
use in two or three hours. A very pretty effect is
produced by ornamenting this snow-white sponge
with preserved barberries, or cherries, and a little
angelica cut into pieces to represent leaves.
Put one ounce each of sago, ground rice, pearl
barley, and Nelson's Gelatine—previously soaked in
cold water—into a saucepan, with two quarts of water;
boil gently till the liquid is reduced one-half. Strain
and set aside till wanted. A few spoonfuls of this
jelly may be dissolved in broth, tea, or milk. It is
nourishing and easily digested.
To an ounce and a half of Nelson's Patent Gelatine
add a pint of cold water; let it steep, then pour it
into a saucepan, with the rinds of three lemons or
oranges; stir till the Gelatine is dissolved; beat the
yolk of three eggs with a pint of good raisin or white
wine, add the juice of the fruit, and three-quarters of
a pound of lump sugar. Mix the whole well together,
boil one minute, strain through muslin, stir occasionally
till cold; then pour into moulds.
Were it not for the trouble of making Aspic Jelly, it
would be more generally used than it is, for it gives
not only elegance but value to a number of cold
dishes. We have now the means of making this with
the greatest ease, rapidity, and cheapness. Soak an
ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a pint of cold water,
dissolve it in a pint of boiling water, add a large
teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of French vinegar,
and the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat
dissolved in a gill of boiling water. Wash the shell of
an egg before breaking it, beat up white and shell to
a strong froth, and stir into the aspic. Let it come
slowly to the boil, and when it has boiled two minutes,
let it stand for another two minutes, then strain through
a flannel bag kept for the purpose. If a stiff aspic is
required, use rather less water.
HOW TO MAKE A JELLY-BAG.
The very stout flannel called double-mill, used for
ironing blankets, is a good material for a jelly-bag.
Take care that the seam of the bag be stitched twice,
to secure the jelly against unequal filtration. The bag
may, of course, be made any size, but one of twelve
or fourteen inches deep, and seven or eight across the
mouth, will be sufficient for ordinary use. The most
convenient way of using the bag is to tie it upon a
hoop the exact size of the outside of its mouth, and
to do this tape should be sewn round it at equal
If there is no jelly-bag in a house, a good substitute
may be made thus: Take a clean cloth folded over
corner-ways, and sew it up one side, making it in the
shape of a jelly-bag. Place two chairs back to back,
then take the sewn-up cloth and hang it between the
two chairs by pinning it open to the top bar of each
chair. Place a basin underneath the bag. Here is
another substitute: Turn a kitchen stool upside down,
and tie a fine diaper broth napkin, previously rinsed
in hot water, to the four legs, place a basin underneath
and strain through the napkin.
The careful housekeeper of modern times has been
accustomed to class creams among the luxuries which
can only be given on special occasions, both because
they take so much time and trouble to make, and
because the materials are expensive. It is, nevertheless,
possible to have excellent creams made on
a simple plan and at a moderate cost. Cream of a
superior kind is now everywhere to be had in jars,
condensed milk answers well, and by the use of
Nelson's Gelatine, and any flavouring or syrup, excellent
creams can be made. Our readers will find
that the method of the following recipes is simple, the
cost moderate, and the result satisfactory. A hint
which, if acted on, will save time and trouble, may be
given to inexperienced persons intending to make
creams similar to Lemon Cream, which is light and
frothy. Do not add the lemon-juice until the mixture
of cream and lemon-juice is nearly cold, and do not
commence whipping until it is on the point of setting.
Delicious and inexpensive creams can be made by
dissolving any of Nelson's Tablet Jellies in half the
quantity of water given in the directions for making
the jelly, and adding cream, either plain or whipped,
in the same way as directed for Orange Cream and
Soak an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint
of milk, dissolve it in a pint of boiling milk with a
quarter of a pound of lump sugar. When nearly cold,
add a gill of lemon-juice and whisk the cream until it
is light and sponge-like. Then stir in a gill of whipped
cream, put into a mould, and let it stand for two or
Or, dissolve a pint tablet of Nelson's Lemon Tablet
Jelly in half-a-pint of hot water. When cool, add to
it half-a-pint of cream, and whisk together until on
the point of setting, when mould it.
Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously
soaked in a gill of cold water, in a pint of hot milk.
When it is so nearly cold as to be on the point of
setting, add half-a-pint of strawberry syrup, and sufficient
rose colouring to make it a delicate pink; whisk
the cream until it is light and frothy, stir in lightly a
gill of whipped cream, then mould it.
A good syrup can be made for this cream by
putting half-a-pound of strawberry and half-a-pound
of raspberry jam into half-a-pint of boiling water, and,
after having well stirred it, rubbing it through a fine
sieve. The syrup should not be too sweet, and the
addition of the juice of one or two lemons, or a little
citric acid, will be an advantage.
Creams, which have cochineal colouring in them,
should not be put into tin moulds, as this metal turns
them of a mauve shade. Breton's Rose Colouring is
recommended, because it is prepared from vegetables,
and is free from acid.
Dissolve a pint tablet of Nelson's Orange Tablet
Jelly in half-a-pint of hot water. When cool, mix with
it half-a-pint of cream or milk, and whip together until
the cream is on the point of setting.
IMITATION LEMON CREAM.
This will be found useful when cream is not to be
had. Put the thin peel of two lemons into half-a-pint
of boiling water, and when it has stood a little, dissolve
half-a-pound of loaf sugar in it. When nearly
cold, add three eggs, the yolks and whites well beaten
together, and the juice of the lemons. Strain this into
a stewpan, and stir until it is well thickened. After
taking from the fire, stir occasionally until cold, then
mix into it a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine
soaked and dissolved in half a gill of water, also
Drain the juice from a tin of preserved apricots,
add to it an equal quantity of water; make a syrup
by boiling with this half-a-pound of lump sugar until
it begins to thicken; then put in the apricots and
simmer them gently for ten minutes. Drain away
the syrup, and put both it and the fruit aside
separately for use as directed.
Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously
soaked, in a quart of boiling milk lightly sweetened,
and, when at the point of setting, put a teacupful
of it gently into a mould, then a layer of the apricots;
wait a minute or two before putting in another cup of
cream, then fill up the mould with alternate layers of
fruit and cream. Let the cream stand some hours
before turning out, and when it is on its dish pour
round it the syrup of apricots.
Drain the syrup from a tin of pineapple, boil it
down to half. Cut the best part of the pineapple
into neat little squares, pound the remainder, which
press through a strainer. Make a custard with half-a-pint
of milk and three yolks of eggs. Measure the
quantity of syrup and fruit juice, and dissolve
Nelson's Gelatine in the proportion of half-an-ounce
to a pint of it and custard together. Mix the gelatine
with the custard, then put in the pieces of pineapple,
and when it is cold the syrup, the juice, and two
tablespoonfuls of whipped cream. Have ready a
little of Nelson's Bottled Cherry or Port Wine
Jelly melted in a fancy mould, which turn round so
that it adheres to the sides, and when the first
quantity is set, put in a little more. As the cream is
on the point of setting, put it into the mould and
allow it to stand until firm. When turned out,
ornament the cream with the remainder of the
bottled jelly lightly chopped.
Make a custard of three eggs and a pint-and-a-half
of milk sweetened, when it is ready dissolve in it an
ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in half-a-pint
of milk. When made, the quantity of custard
should be fully a pint-and-a-half, otherwise the cream
may be too stiff. When the cream is cool, put a little
into a mould, previously ornamented with glacé
cherries and little pieces of angelica to represent
leaves. The fruit is all the better if soaked in a little
brandy, as are the cakes, but milk can be used for
these last. Put a portion of two ounces of sponge-cakes
and one ounce of ratafias on the first layer of
cream, keeping it well in the centre, and then fill up
the mould with alternate layers of cakes and cream.
When turned out, a little liqueur or any kind of syrup
can be poured round the cream.
Strain the juice from a bottle of raspberries and
currants on to three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar,
boil up, then simmer for half-an-hour. Mix the fruit
and a large tablespoonful of raspberry jam with the
syrup, and rub it through a hair sieve. Dissolve
Nelson's Gelatine, in the proportion of half-an-ounce
to a pint of the fruit, in a little water, stir well
together. When cold put it into a border mould,
and as soon as it is firm turn out and fill the centre
with a cream, which make with half-an-ounce of
Nelson's Gelatine and three gills of milk, sweetened and
flavoured with Nelson's Essence of Vanilla. Whisk
until cool, when stir in a gill of whipped cream.
Dissolve half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously
soaked in half-a-pint of cold milk, in half-a-pint
of sweetened boiling milk or cream. Dissolve a
pint bottle of Cherry Jelly as directed. When the
last is on the point of setting put a layer into a mould,
then a layer of the cream, each of these about an inch
deep, and fill up the mould in this way. This quantity
of material will make two handsome moulds, suitable
for a supper party.
To an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine add half-a-pint of
new milk, let it soak for twenty minutes, boil two or three
laurel leaves in a pint of cream and half-a-pint of milk;
when boiling pour over the soaked gelatine, stir it till
it dissolves, add four or five ounces of lump sugar and
a little brandy if approved; strain it through muslin, stir
occasionally till it thickens, and then put it into moulds.
Soak an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine twenty minutes
in three-quarters of a pint of water, add the juice and
peel of two large lemons, a quarter of a pint of sherry,
five or six ounces of lump sugar; boil the above two
minutes, then pour upon it a pint of warm cream, stir
it quickly till it boils, then strain and stir till it thickens,
and pour it into moulds.
Line a plain mould at the bottom and sides with
sponge finger-biscuits, fill it with strawberry cream, or
cream made as directed in the several recipes. If
the weather is warm it will be necessary to place the
Charlotte on ice for an hour or two, but in the winter
it will turn out without this. The biscuits for a
Charlotte Russe should be made quite straight, and
in arranging them in the mould they should lap
slightly one over the other.
Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously
soaked in half-a-pint of cold milk, in a pint-and-a-half
of boiling milk; when it is nearly cold stir into it an
ounce of rice, well boiled or baked; flavour the
pudding to taste, and when on the point of setting
put it into a mould and let it stand for two or three
hours; serve plain or with stewed fruit.
Dissolve a pint tablet of Nelson's Cherry Tablet
Jelly in half-a-pint of hot water. When cool, mix with
it half-a-pint of cream or milk, and whip together
until the cream is on the point of setting.
Soak three-quarters of an ounce of Nelson's Patent
Gelatine in half-a-pint of sherry or raisin wine, then
dissolve it over the fire, stirring all the time; rub the
rinds of two lemons with six ounces of lump sugar,
add this, with the juice, to the hot solution, which is
then to be poured gently into a pint of cream; stir
the whole until quite cold, and then put into moulds.
This can be made with a pint of boiling milk, in
which an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously
soaked in half-a-pint of cold milk, has been dissolved,
and flavoured and sweetened.
Take three-quarters of an ounce of Nelson's Patent
Gelatine and steep it in half-a-pint of cold water;
boil the rind of a lemon, pared thinly, in a pint of
cream; add the juice of the lemon and three tablespoonfuls
of raspberry or strawberry syrup to the
soaked Gelatine; then pour the hot cream upon the
above ingredients, gently stirring the while. Sweeten
to taste, and add a drop or two of prepared cochineal.
Whisk till the mixture is thick, then pour into moulds.
CHEESE AND MACARONI CREAM.
Boil two ounces of macaroni, in water slightly salted,
until tender, when drain; cut it into tiny rings, and
put it into a stewpan with half-a-pint of milk or cream,
keeping it hot on the stove without boiling for half-an-hour.
Soak and dissolve half-an-ounce of Nelson's
Gelatine in half-a-pint of milk, and when this and the
macaroni are cold, stir together, add two ounces of
grated Parmesan cheese, with salt and cayenne pepper
to taste. Stir occasionally until the cream is on the
point of setting, when mould it. Should the cream be
absorbed by the macaroni, more must be added to
bring the whole quantity of liquid to one pint. If
preferred, rice well boiled or baked in milk, or vermicelli
paste, can be substituted for the macaroni.
Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously
soaked in half-a-pint of cold milk, in a pint-and-a-half
of boiling milk with two ounces of sugar; stir in
sufficient strong Essence of Coffee to flavour it, and
when on the point of setting put it into a mould.
Boil a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar in a pint of
milk. Dissolve in it an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine,
previously soaked in half-a-pint of cold milk, and stir
into it three teaspoonfuls of Schweitzer's Cocoatina,
dissolved in half-a-pint of boiling milk. Beat until on
the point of setting, and put the cream into a mould.
A few drops of Nelson's Essence of Vanilla can be
added with advantage.
CHARTREUSE OF ORANGES.
Peel four or five oranges, carefully take out the
divisions which put on a hair sieve in a cool place to
drain all night. Melt a little Nelson's Bottled
Orange Jelly, pour it into a saucer and dip in each
piece of orange, which arrange in a close circle round
the bottom of a small pudding-basin. Keep the
thick part of the orange downwards in the first row,
in the next put them the reverse way. Continue
thus until the basin is covered. Pour in a little of
the melted jelly, then of cream, made by mixing a
quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine soaked and
dissolved in a gill of milk, into a gill of rich cream,
sweetened. Fill up the basin with alternate layers of
jelly and cream, allowing each of these to set before
the other is put in, making the jelly layers last. The
Chartreuse will turn out easily if the jelly is gently
pressed from the basin all round. Garnish with two
colours of Nelson's Bottled Jelly lightly chopped.
Preserved green figs are used for this cream—those
of Fernando Rodrigues are excellent. Place the figs
in a plain mould, and pour in gently, when on the
point of setting, a cream made with a pint of cream
and half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, and lightly
sweetened. When the cream is turned out of the
mould, pour round it the syrup in which the figs were
Although this is properly a jelly, when well made
it eats so rich that it is usually called cream. It is
chiefly used in cases of illness, when it is desirable
to administer champagne in the form of jelly. Soak
half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of cold
water, dissolve it in a stewpan with one or two ounces
of sugar, according as the jelly is required sweet or
otherwise. When cool, add three gills of champagne
and two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, whip until it
is beginning to set and is light and frothy; put into
a mould, and it will be ready for use in two hours,
if put in a cold place.
Rub the zest of the peel of two oranges on to a
quarter of a pound of lump sugar, which boil with
half-a-gill of water to a thick syrup. Beat the juice of
three large oranges with two whole eggs, and having
whisked them slightly, add the syrup and Nelson's
Gelatine, dissolved, in the proportion of half-an-ounce
to a pint of liquid. Whisk the mixture over a saucepan
of hot water until it is warm, then place the
basin in another with cold water and continue whisking
until it is beginning to set, when put it into a fancy
Put a layer of strawberry jam at the bottom of a
trifle dish. Dissolve a half-pint tablet of Nelson's
Raspberry Jelly, and when it is set break it up and
strew it over the jam. Upon this lay sponge finger
biscuits and ratafia cakes, and pour over just enough
new milk to make them soft. Make a thick custard,
flavoured with Nelson's Essence of Vanilla, and spread
it over the cakes. Finally place on the top a handsome
quantity of cream, whisked with a little powdered sugar
and flavoured with vanilla.
To half-a-pint of cream put a tablespoonful of fine
sifted sugar, add sufficient of any of Nelson's Essences
to give it a delicate flavour. With a whisk or wire spoon,
raise a froth on the cream, remove this as soon as it
rises, put it on a fine hair, or, still better, lawn sieve;
repeat this process until the cream is used up. Should
the cream get thick in the whisking, add a very little
cold water. Put the sieve containing the whisked
cream in a basin and let it stand for some hours,
which will allow it to become more solid and fit for
such purposes as filling meringues.
The proper beating of the whites of the eggs is
an important matter in cake-making. There are a
number of machines for this purpose, which are in
turn eagerly adopted by inexperienced persons; but
for private use not one of them is comparable to
hand-beating. When once the knack of beating eggs
is acquired but little labour is needed to bring them
to the right consistency; indeed, the most successful
result is that which is the most rapidly attained. The
whites of eggs for beating should be fresh, and should
be carefully separated from the yolks by passing and
repassing them in the two halves of the shell. It is
best to beat the whites immediately they are broken,
but if this is not possible, they must be kept in a
cool place until wanted. If ice is at hand, it will be
found advantageous to keep the eggs in it. In well-furnished
kitchens a copper beating-bowl is provided;
it should not be tinned, as contact with this metal will
blacken the eggs; for this reason, the whisk, if of
iron wire, should not be new. An earthenware bowl
with circular bottom, and sufficiently large to admit
of a good stroke in beating, answers the purpose perfectly
well. A pinch of salt may be added to the
whites, and if an inexperienced beater finds them
assume a granulated appearance, a little lemon-juice
will remedy it.
Begin by beating gently, increasing the pace as the
egg thickens. As it is the air mixing with the albumen
of the eggs which causes them to froth, it is necessary
to beat them in a well-ventilated and cool place, so
that they may absorb as much air as possible.
If these simple and important conditions are
observed, the whites of a dozen eggs may be beaten
to the strongest point, without fatigue to the operator,
in five minutes. When the whites are properly beaten
they should turn out of the bowl in one mass, and, after
standing a little while, will not show signs of returning
to their original state.
In order more easily to make cakes and biscuits
into the composition of which almonds and cocoa-nut
enter largely, manufacturers supply both of these
pounded or desiccated. It is, however, preferable to
prepare the former fresh, and much time and trouble
may be saved in passing almonds through Kent's
Combination Mincer, 199, High Holborn, instead of
laboriously pounding them in a mortar. The result is,
besides, more satisfactory, the paste being smoother
than it can otherwise be made in domestic practice.
Cakes of the description for which we now give
recipes cannot be made well unless the materials
are properly prepared and thoroughly beaten. It is
clear that if eggs are not beaten to such a consistency
that they will bear the weight of the other ingredients,
the result must be a heavy cake.
Currants for cakes, after they have been washed
and picked, should be scalded, in order to swell them
and make them more tender.
Put the currants into a basin, pour boiling water
over them, cover the basin with a plate; after they
have stood a minute, drain away the water and throw
the fruit on a cloth to absorb the moisture. Put the
currants on a dish or plate in a very cool oven,
turning occasionally until thoroughly dry; dust a little
flour over them, and they will be ready for use.
Castor sugar for cakes works more easily when it is
fine. For superior cakes raw sugar will not answer.
One pound fresh butter, one pound Vienna flour,
six eggs (or seven, if small), one pound castor sugar,
quarter of a pound almonds cut small, half-a-pound
of currants or sultanas, three ounces of candied peel,
a few drops of essence of ratafia.
The butter to be beaten to a cream. If it is hard
warm the pan. Add the sugar gradually; next the
eggs, which must previously be well beaten up; then
sift in the flour; and, last of all, put in fruit, almonds,
This cake takes about half-an-hour to mix, as all
the ingredients must be well beaten together with an
iron spoon from left to right. Bake in small tins, for
about forty minutes, in a moderate oven.
PLAIN POUND CAKE.
Half-a-pound of fresh butter, three eggs, one pound
of Vienna flour, one pound of castor sugar, a quarter
of a pound of almonds cut small, half-a-pound of
currants, three ounces of candied peel, a few drops of
essence of ratafia.
Beat the butter to a cream, from left to right, and
mix in the sugar gradually. Beat the eggs up, and
mix them with half-a-pint of new milk; stir into the
butter; then add the flour; and, last of all, the fruit.
SAVOY SPONGE CAKE.
Beat half-a-pound of finely sifted sugar with the
yolks of four eggs until you have a thick batter,
stir in lightly six ounces of fine dry sifted flour, then
the whites of the eggs beaten to a very strong froth.
Have ready a tin which has been lightly buttered,
and then covered with as much sifted sugar as will
adhere to it. Pour in the cake mixture, taking care
the tin is not more than half full, and bake for half-an-hour.
LEMON SAVOY SPONGE.
Half-a-pound of loaf sugar, rub some of the lumps
on the peel of two lemons, so as to get all the flavour
from them; dissolve the sugar in half a gill of boiling
water; add the juice of the lemons, or one of them if
a large size, and beat with the yolks of four eggs until
very white and thick; stir in a quarter of a pound of
fine flour, beat the whites of the eggs to a strong
froth, and mix as thoroughly but as lightly as possible;
butter and sift sugar over a mould, nearly fill
it with cake mixture, and bake at dark yellow paper
heat for thirty minutes.
Beat up a packet of Nelson's Albumen with
three teaspoonfuls of cold water to a strong froth, mix
in half-a-pound of finely-sifted sugar and two ounces
each of pounded sweet and bitter almonds. Flour
a baking-sheet, and lay on it sheets of wafer-paper,
which can be bought at the confectioner's, and
drop on to them at equal distances, a small piece
of the paste. Bake in a moderate oven for ten
minutes, or until the macaroons are crisp and of a
golden colour. When done cut round the wafer-paper
with a knife, and put the cakes on a sieve
In following recipes for this class of cake some
judgment is required in the choice of the sugar, and
the result will vary greatly according as this is of the
right sort, or otherwise. A little more or less sugar
may be required, and only practice can make perfect
in this matter. As a general direction, it may be
given that the sugar must be of the finest quality,
and be very finely sifted, but not flour-like.
Beat up a packet of Nelson's Albumen with three
teaspoonfuls of cold water to a strong froth, mix with
it a quarter of a pound of finely sifted sugar, and two
ounces of Edwards' Desiccated Cokernut. Put sheets
of wafer-paper on a baking-tin, drop small pieces of the
cake mixture on to it, keeping them in a rocky shape.
Bake in a moderate oven for ten minutes, or until
Whisk a packet of Nelson's Albumen with three
teaspoonfuls of cold water to the strongest possible
froth, mix in half-a-pound of finely sifted sugar, two
teaspoonfuls of Schweitzer's Cocoatina, and six drops
of Nelson's Essence of Vanilla; sift paper thickly
with sugar, and drop small teaspoonfuls of the mixture
at equal distances on it, allowing space for the
cakes to spread a little. Bake for ten minutes in a
Boil half-a-pound of loaf sugar in a gill of water until
it is beginning to return again to sugar, when cool add
a packet of Nelson's Albumen whisked to a strong
froth with three teaspoonfuls of water, and stir in a
quarter of a pound of Edwards' Desiccated Cokernut.
Spread the mixture, not more than an inch thick, in
a greased pudding-tin, and place in a cool oven to
dry. When done cut in neat squares, and keep in
tins in a cool, dry place.
No icing can be successfully done unless the sugar
is of the finest kind, perfectly white, and so finely
sifted as hardly to be distinguished by the eye from
potato-flour. Such sugar can now generally be procured
of the best grocers at a moderate price. The
process of sifting the sugar at home is somewhat
slow and troublesome, but by so doing a perfectly
pure article is secured. After being crushed the sugar
should be passed through sieves of varying fineness,
and, finally, through one made for the purpose, or
failing this, very fine muslin will answer. When the
sugar has been sifted at home, and it is certain there
is no admixture of any kind with it, a small quantity
of "fécule de pommes de terre" (potato-flour) may be
added; it reduces sweetness, and does not interfere
with the result of the process. If the sugar is not
sifted very fine a much longer time will be required to
make the icing, and in the end it will not look so
smooth as it ought to do. Confectioners use pyroligneous
acid instead of lemon-juice, and there is no
objection to it in small quantities. To make the icing,
beat up a packet of Nelson's Albumen dissolved with
three teaspoonfuls of cold water, work in by degrees
one pound of fine icing sugar, adding a teaspoonful of
lemon-juice or a few drops of pyroligneous acid, which
will assist in keeping the icing white, or a slight tinge
of stone-blue will have the same effect. If potato-flour
is used, mix it thoroughly with the sugar before adding
it to the white of egg. A little more or less sugar
may be required, as the result is in great measure
determined by the method of the operator; and when
the paste is perfectly smooth, and will spread without
running, it is fit for use. For icing large cakes confectioners
use a stand which has a revolving board, so
that cakes can conveniently be turned about; failing
this, an ordinary board or inverted plate can be made
to answer. As soon as the icing is spread on the cake
it must be dried in an oven with the door open. It
is sometimes found sufficient to keep the cake in a
hot room for some hours. If too great heat is used
the icing will crack.
Blanch one pound of sweet and two ounces of
bitter almonds, pound them in a mortar, adding a
little rose-water as you go on, to prevent oiling; and
when all the almonds are reduced to a perfectly
smooth paste, mix them with an equal weight of icing
sugar. Moisten the paste with a packet of Nelson's
Albumen dissolved in three teaspoonfuls of cold
water, and spread it evenly on the cake, allowing
it to become dry and firm before spreading the icing
over it. This paste can be used for making
several kinds of cakes and sweetmeats, and without
the Albumen can be kept in bottles for some
time. Almond paste can be made from bitter
almonds which have been infused in spirit to make
an extract for flavouring, and in this case no sweet
almonds will be required.
Among the most useful preparations which have ever
been introduced to the public for the immediate production
of delicious beverages, are Nelson's Bottled
Jellies. These beverages are highly approved for
ordinary use at luncheon and dinner, as well as for
afternoon and evening entertainments, and have a
special value for invalids, as they contain nourishment
and are at the same time very refreshing.
When required for use, dissolve a bottle of the jelly,
and mix with it five times its bulk of water, the
beverage can then be used either hot or cold; if in
standing it should be slightly thickened it will only be
necessary briskly to stir it with a spoon. Lemon,
orange, and cherry jelly, with the addition of water as
directed, will be found superior to any other beverage
of the kind, and specially excellent for children's
The following "cups" are delicious made with the
jelly as directed.
Claret Cup, made merely with seltzer water, claret,
and Port Wine Jelly, will be found superior to the
ordinary preparation. A little sugar may be added if
desired. To a bottle of claret and a pint of seltzer-water
use a half-pint bottle of Port Wine Jelly, stir
briskly until well mixed, put in a sprig of balm and
borage, three thick slices of cucumber; place the vessel
containing the claret cup covered over on ice for an
hour; strain out the herbs before serving.
Badminton Cup is made with Burgundy, in the
same way as the above, with the addition of a bottle
of Orange Jelly.
Champagne Cup requires equal quantities of the
wine and seltzer-water, with a bottle of Orange
Cider Cup is made with a pint and a half of cider,
a bottle of soda-water, and a bottle of either Orange,
Lemon, or Sherry Jelly.
Cherry Cup.—Half-a-pint of claret, a quart of
soda-water, and a half-pint bottle of Cherry Jelly.
MULLED PORT WINE.
Dissolve a bottle of Port Wine Jelly and add to it
four times its bulk of boiling water with a little nutmeg,
and, if liked, a crushed clove.
Half-a-teaspoonful of Nelson's Citric Acid dissolved
in a quart of water, with a sliced lemon and
sweetened with sugar, forms a good lemonade, and
is a cooling and refreshing drink. A small pinch of
the Citric Acid dissolved in a tumbler of water with
a little sugar and a pinch of bicarbonate of potash,
makes an effervescing draught. These acidulated
drinks are exceedingly useful for allaying thirst; and
as refrigerants in feverish and inflammatory complaints
they are invaluable.
LEMONADE (A NEW RECIPE).
Dissolve three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar
and the contents of a threepenny packet of Nelson's
Citric Acid in a quart of boiling water; then add two
quarts of fresh cold water and one-twelfth part of a
bottle of Nelson's Essence of Lemon. The above
quantity of sugar may be increased or decreased
according to taste.
Crush an ounce of whole ginger, pour over it a
quart of boiling water, cover the vessel, and let the
infusion stand until cold. (The Extract of Ginger
may be used in place of this infusion). Strain through
flannel; add a teaspoonful of Nelson's Citric Acid,
six drops of Nelson's Lemon Flavouring, and a quarter
of a pound of lump sugar; stir until dissolved, and
the Gingerade will be ready.
AN EXTRACT OF GINGER FOR FAMILY USE.
An Extract of Ginger made as follows is most
useful for family purposes, and can be substituted for
the infusion in Gingerade. Crush half-a-pound of
fine whole ginger in the mortar, or cut into small
pieces. Put into a bottle with half-a-pint of unsweetened
gin, let it stand for a month, shaking it
occasionally, then drain it off into another bottle,
allowing it to stand until it has become clear, when
it will be fit for use.
Boil a pound of fine loaf sugar in a pint-and-a-half
of water. Remove all scum as it rises, and continue
boiling gently until the syrup begins to thicken and
assumes a golden tinge, then add a pint of strained
lemon-juice or a packet of Nelson's Citric Acid dissolved
in water, and allow both to boil together for
half-an-hour. Pour the syrup into a jug, to each pint
add one-twelfth part of a bottle of Nelson's Essence
of Lemon, and when cold bottle and cork well.
The juice of Seville oranges may be made into a
syrup in the same way as that of lemons, or lemon and
orange juice may be used in equal quantities. These
syrups are useful for making summer drinks, and for
invalids as lemonade or orangeade.
A very agreeable and useful beverage is made by
dissolving a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine
in a pint of milk. A spoonful of cream can, if preferred,
be used with a bottle of soda-water. For
invalids, this beverage can be used instead of tea or
coffee, and may be preferable in many cases on
account of the nourishment it contains; it will also
be found an excellent substitute, taken hot, for wine-whey,
or posset, as a remedy for a cold. For summer
use, Milk Beverage is delicious, and may be flavoured
with raspberry or strawberry syrup. If on standing it
should thicken, it will only be necessary briskly to
beat it up with a spoon.
This acid exists in the juice of many fruits, such as
the orange, currant, and quince, but especially in that
of the lemon. It is chiefly made from the concentrated
juice of lemons, imported from Sicily and
Southern Italy, and which, after undergoing certain
methods of preparation, yields the crystals termed
Citric Acid. These crystals may be used for all the
purposes for which lemon-juice is employed. In the
manufacture of the Citric Acid now offered to the
public by Messrs. G. Nelson, Dale, and Co., only the
pure juice of the lemon is used.
ESSENCE OF LEMON.
This well-known essence is extracted from the little
cells visible in the rind of lemons, by submitting
raspings of the fruit to pressure. The greater portion
of the oil of lemons sold in England is imported from
Portugal, Italy, and France. It is very frequently
adulterated with oil of turpentine. In order to present
the public with a perfectly pure commodity, G. Nelson,
Dale, and Co. import their Essence of Lemon direct
from Sicily, and from a manufacturer in whom they
have the fullest confidence.
Nelson's Essence of Lemon is sold in graduated
bottles, eightpence each, each bottle containing
sufficient for twelve quarts of jelly.
We now give recipes for a few useful little dishes, chiefly
of macaroni, which can be had at such a price as to
bring it within the reach of all classes. English-made
macaroni can be bought at fourpence, and even less,
the pound, and the finest Italian at sixpence. The
Naples, or pipe-macaroni, is the most useful for
families, and the Genoa, or twisted, for high-class
dishes. The English taste is in favour of macaroni
boiled soft, and in order to make it so, many cooks
soak it. But this is not correct, and it is not at all
necessary to soak macaroni. If kept boiling in
sufficient water, the macaroni requires no attention—ebullition
prevents it sticking to the saucepan.
Although we give several ways of finishing macaroni,
it is excellent when merely boiled in water with salt,
as in the first recipe, eaten as an accompaniment to
meat, or with stewed fruit.
MACARONI WITH CHEESE.
Throw a quarter of a pound of macaroni broken
into pieces an inch long, into three pints of boiling
water, with a large pinch of salt. The saucepan
should be large, or the water will rise over when the
macaroni boils fast, which it should do for twenty or
twenty-five minutes. When done, strain the macaroni
through a colander, put it back into the saucepan
with an ounce of fresh butter, a small pinch of white
pepper and of salt, if necessary, and shake it over the
fire for a minute or two. Take the saucepan off the
fire, and stir into the macaroni two ounces or more,
if liked, of grated Parmesan cheese. Serve immediately
with crisp dry toast, cut in neat pieces. If
not convenient to use Parmesan, a mild dry English
or American cheese will answer very well. Some
cooks prefer, when the macaroni is boiled, to put
a fourth part of it on to a hot dish, then to strew
over it a fourth part of the grated cheese, and so on
till all of both are used, cheese, of course, covering
Boil and drain the macaroni, mix with a quarter of
a pound an ounce of butter, and two ounces of grated
cheese; pepper or cayenne pepper and salt to taste.
Put the macaroni in a dish and strew over it sufficient
grated cheese to cover it up, run a little dissolved
butter over the top, and put it in the oven till it is a
bright-yellow colour; serve quickly.
MACARONI WITH BACON.
Boil two ounces of streaky bacon, cut it into dice
or mince it, stir it into a quarter of a pound of
macaroni boiled as for macaroni cheese: if liked, add
a few drops of vinegar, pepper, and salt, and serve
MACARONI WITH ONIONS.
Boil the macaroni as above, mix with it two or three
onions sliced and fried a delicate brown, add a few
spoonfuls of gravy, stir over the fire for a few minutes
Throw a quarter of a pound of macaroni into three
pints of boiling water with a teaspoonful of salt, and
let it boil for twenty minutes. Drain in a colander,
then put it into a stewpan with half a tin of Nelson's
Extract of Meat dissolved in half-a-pint of water, and
stir over the fire for five minutes. Take it off the
fire and stir in one ounce of grated cheese, pepper
and salt to taste.
MACARONI WITH TOMATOES.
Prepare the macaroni as in the above recipe, put
it into a stewpan with a small piece of butter and a
teacupful of tomato sauce, or a small bottle of conserve
of tomatoes, and stir briskly over the fire for
Boil the macaroni as for the other dishes, but with
only a pinch of salt, until tender, when drained put
into a stewpan with a gill of milk to each two ounces,
and two ounces of sifted lump sugar. Any flavouring
may be used, but perhaps there is nothing better
than grated lemon-peel, and for those who like it,
powdered cinnamon or grated nutmeg. Stir over the
fire until all the milk is absorbed; a little cream is,
of course, an improvement. For those who do not
like milk, the juice of a lemon, or a little sherry, may
be substituted, and for a superior dish vanilla can be
used for flavouring.
Put four tablespoonfuls of beer into a small saucepan,
shred into it a quarter of a pound of good new
cheese, and stir briskly over the fire until all is dissolved
and is on the point of boiling, then take it
off instantly, for, if the cheese is allowed to boil, it
will become tough. Have ready slices of toasted
bread, spread the cheese on it, and serve as quickly
LES CANAPÉS AU PARMESAN.
Take the crumb of a French roll, cut it into rounds
a quarter of an inch thick, put them into a wire
frying-basket, immerse in hot fat, and crisp the bread
instantly. Throw it on to paper, dry, and sprinkle
over each piece a thick layer of grated Parmesan
cheese, pepper, and salt. Put the canapés in a Dutch
oven before a clear fire, just to melt the cheese, and
serve immediately they are done.
RICE WITH PARMESAN CHEESE.
Boil a quarter of a pound of Patna rice in water
with salt; drain it, toss it up in a stewpan with two
ounces of fresh butter, and a pinch of cayenne
pepper. Put a quarter of the rice on a hot dish,
strew over it equally an ounce of grated Parmesan
cheese, then put another portion of rice and cheese
until all is used. Serve immediately.
Take a cupful of finely-sifted bread-crumbs, moisten
them with a little cold milk, cream, or gravy, and
season nicely with pepper and salt. Put a thin layer
of the moistened crumbs on a lightly-buttered dish,
cut two hard eggs into slices, and dip each piece in very
thick well-seasoned white sauce, or Nelson's Extract
of Meat dissolved in a little water, so as to glaze the
eggs. Having arranged the slices of egg neatly on
the layer of moistened bread-crumbs, cover them
with another layer of it, and on the top strew
thickly some pale gold-coloured raspings. Bake in
a moderate oven for ten minutes. If potatoes are
liked, they make a nice substitute for bread-crumbs.
Take some mashed potatoes, add to them a spoonful
of cream or gravy, and proceed as with bread-crumbs.
Serve gravy made of Nelson's Extract of Meat with
Melt a small piece of butter the size of a nut in a
stewpan, break into it two eggs, with a spoonful of
milk or gravy, and pepper and salt, stir round quickly
until the eggs begin to thicken, keep the yolks whole
as long as you can. When finished, pour on to a
buttered toast, to which has been added a little essence
of anchovy or anchovy paste, and serve.
MUSHROOMS WITH CREAM SAUCE.
Dissolve two ounces of butter in a stewpan, mix in
the yolks of two eggs lightly beaten, the juice of a
lemon, and a pinch of pepper and salt, stir this over
the fire until thickened. Have ready half-a-pint of
plain butter sauce, and mix all gradually together,
with a small tin of champignons, or about the same
quantity of fresh mushrooms chopped and stewed
gently for ten minutes in a little broth or milk.
Stir them with the liquor in which they have stewed
into the sauce, and let them stand for a few minutes,
then spread the mixture on to neat slices of toasted
bread. The sauce must be a good thickness, so that
it will not run off the toast, and care must be taken
in the first process not to oil the butter or make the
TO BOIL RICE (A BLACK MAN'S RECIPE).
As rice is so often badly cooked, we make no
apology for giving the black man's celebrated recipe.
Although he does not recommend a little salt in the
water, we think that a small quantity should always
be used, even when the rice has to be served as a
sweet dish. "Wash him well, much wash in cold
water, rice flour, make him stick. Water boil all
ready, very fast. Shove him in; rice can't burn,
water shake him too much. Boil quarter of an hour
or little more. Rub one rice in thumb and finger;
if all rub away him quite done. Put rice in colander,
hot water run away. Pour cup of cold water on him,
put back in saucepan, keep him covered near the
fire, then rice all ready. Eat him up."
TO MINCE VEGETABLES.
Peel the onion or turnip, put it on the board, cut
it first one way in slices, not quite through, lest it
should fall to pieces, then cut it in slices the other
way, which will produce long cubes. Finally turn
the onion on its side and cut through, when it will
fall into dice-like pieces. The inconvenience and
sometimes positive pain caused to the eyes by
mincing or chopping the onions on a board is thus
obviated, and a large quantity can be quickly prepared
in the above way.
HINTS ON HOUSEKEEPING.
How many people are crying, "How can we save?
Where can we retrench? Shall the lot fall on the
house-furnishing, or the garden, or the toilet, or the
breakfast or the dinner table? Shall we do with one
servant less, move into a cheaper neighbourhood, or
into a smaller house? No, we cannot make any
such great changes in our way of life. There are the
boys and girls growing up; we must keep up appearances
for their sakes. We remember the old proverb
that, 'however bad it may be to be poor, it is much
worse to look poor.'" Yet, although, for many
reasons, it is often most difficult to retrench on a
large scale, there are people who find it easier, for
instance, to put down the carriage than to see that
the small outgoings of housekeeping are more duly
regulated. It is seldom, indeed, that a wife can
assist her husband save by lightening his expenses by
her prudence and economy. Too many husbands,
nowadays, can vouch for the truth of the old saying,
"A woman can throw out with a spoon faster than a
man can throw in with a shovel." The prosperity of
a middle-class home depends very much on what is
saved, and the reason that this branch of a woman's
business is so neglected is that it is very difficult and
"Take care of your pence and the pounds will take
care of themselves," is a maxim that was much in use
when we were young. Nowadays it is more fashionable
to speak of this kind of thing as "penny wise
and pound foolish." Looking to the outgoings of pence
is voted slow work, and it is thought fine to show a
languid indifference to small savings. "Such a fuss
over a pennyworth of this or that, it's not worth while."
Yes, but it is not that particular pennyworth which is
alone in question, there is the principle involved—the
great principle of thrift—which must underlie all good
government. The heads of households little think of
what evils they perpetuate when they shut their eyes to
wasteful practices, because it is easier to bear the cost
than to prevent waste.
The young servant trained under one careless how
she uses, or rather misuses, that which is entrusted to
her, carries in her turn the wasteful habits she has
learned into another household, and trains others in a
contempt for thrifty ways, until the knowledge of how
to do things at once well and economically is entirely
We often hear it urged that it is bad for the mind
of a lady to be harassed by the petty details of small
savings, and that if she can afford to let things go
easily she should not be so harassed. But under
no circumstances must any mistress of a household
permit habitual waste in such matters. When the
establishment is so large as to be to a great extent
removed from the immediate supervision of the
mistress, all she can do is to keep a careful watch
over every item of expenditure, and by every means
in her power to let her servants feel that it is
to their interest as well as to her own to keep
within due bounds. A good cook is always a good
manager. She makes many a meal of what an inferior
cook would waste. The housekeeper should
therefore insist on having good cooking at a reasonable
cost, and never keep a cook who does not make
the most of everything. In a large household a
mistress cannot look after the sifting of cinders, but
she can check her coal bills, and by observation find
out in what department the waste is going on. It
may not be possible to pay periodical visits to the
gas-meter to see if the tap is turned on to the full
when such force is not necessary, but she can from
quarter to quarter compare notes, or have fixed, where
it is easy for her to get at it, one of the gas-regulators
now in use. And thus, by the exercise of judicious
control and supervision, the guiding mind of the mistress
will make itself felt in every department of
the household without any undue worry to herself.
The mistress of a small household who has things
more under her immediate control, and whose income,
no less than her sense of moral obligation,
obliges her to look carefully after the outgoings,
need not be told what a trial it is to be constantly
on the watch to prevent waste. Probably she is
compelled to leave a certain quantity of stores for
general use; indeed, we doubt very much if there is
anything saved by the daily giving out of ounces and
spoonfuls of groceries, for if a servant is disposed to
be wasteful, she will be equally so with the small as
the larger quantity.
What perpetual worry is caused by seeing how soap
is left in the water until it is so soft as to have lost half
its value! How many pence go in most households
in that way every week, we wonder!
The scrubbing-brush also is left in water with
the soap. A fairly good brush costs at least two
shillings, and as one so treated only lasts half the
proper time you may safely calculate that a shilling is
soon wasted in that way. Brushes of all sorts are, as
a rule, most carelessly used, and left about anyhow
instead of being hung up. How much loss there is
in a year in the careless use of knives and plate!
Whenever possible both of these get into the hands
of the cook. Her own tools from neglect or misuse
have become blunt or worse, and she takes the
best blade and the plated or silver spoon whenever she
has a chance.
The plate gets thrown in a heap into an earthenware
bowl to be bruised and scratched. The knives
are either put insufficiently wiped through the cleaner,
which is thus spoiled and made fit rather to dirty than
clean knives, or they are left lying in hot water to
have the handles loosened and discoloured.
Probably jars, tin boxes, and canisters are provided
in sufficient quantity to put away and keep
stores properly. But for all that, as it would seem in
a most ingenious manner, loss and waste are contrived.
Raw sugar is kept in the paper until it rots through it.
Macaroni, rice, and such things are left a prey to
mice or insects. The vinegar and sauce bottles stand
without the corks. Delicate things, which soon lose
their fine aroma, as tea, coffee, and spices, are kept in
uncovered canisters: the lid is first left off, then mislaid.
The treacle jar stands open for stray fingers
and flies to disport themselves therein. Capers are
put away uncovered with vinegar, and when next
wanted are found to be mouldy. Perhaps the juice
of a lemon has been used; the peel, instead of being
preserved, is thrown away, or left lying about till
valueless. Herbs, which should have been at once
dried and sifted, are hid away in some corner to
become flavourless and dirty, and so on with every
kind of store and provision.
It is impossible to calculate how many pennies
are lost daily, in a large number of houses, by the
absolute waste of pieces of bread left to mould or
thrown out because trouble to utilise them cannot
be taken. Whoever thinks anything of the small
quantities of good beer left in the jug; it is so much
easier to throw it away than put it in a bottle? Or
who will be at the trouble of boiling up that "drop"
of milk, which, nevertheless, cost a penny, and would
make, or help to make, a small pudding for the next
day? Then, again, how many bits of fat and suet
are lost because it is too much trouble to melt down
the first, and preserve the other by very simple and
Butter in summer is allowed to remain melting in
the paper in which it is sent in, or perhaps it is put
on a plate, to which some pennyworths of the costly
stuff will stick and be lost. One would think it would
be as easy at once to put it into cold salted water, if
better means of cooling could not be used.
If we pause here, it is not because we have
exhausted the list of things most woefully wasted,
mainly from want of thought, but because we have
not space to enumerate more of them. We can only
add that the importance of small household savings
cannot well be overrated, both because of the principle
involved and because of the substantial sum they represent
together. There is no need in any household
for even a penny a day to be wasted; and yet if we
look closely into things, how much money value is
lost daily in some one or other of the ways we have
mentioned. In the course of the year, the daily
pennies mount up to many pounds, and we are sure
that it is much safer once in a way lavishly to spend
the shillings than to be habitually careless of the outgoings
of the pence.
Although it is not necessary that the mistress of a
household who can afford to keep servants should
herself do the cooking, or spend much time in her
kitchen, it is absolutely necessary that she should
understand the best methods, and know how everything
should be done.
Many people will say that it is unbecoming for
women to be gourmands; we agree with them, and
that it is equally unbecoming for men to be so. But
to be a gourmet is another thing; and we ought not
to lose sight of the fact that food eaten with real
enjoyment and the satisfaction which accompanies a
well-prepared meal, is greatly enhanced in value.
Professor C. Voit has clearly pointed out, in his
experiments and researches into diet, the great
value of palatable food as nourishment, and how
indispensable is a certain variety in our meals.
"We think," he says, "we are only tickling the
palate, and that it is nothing to the stomach and
digestive organs whether food is agreeable to the
palate or not, since they will digest it, if it is
digestible at all. But it is not so indifferent after
all, for the nerves of the tongue are connected
with other nerves and with nerve-centres, so that
the pleasure of the palate, or some pleasure, at any
rate, even if it is only imagination, which can only
originate in the central organ—the brain—often has
an active effect on other organs. This is a matter of
daily experience. Without the secretion of gastric
juice the assimilation of nourishment would be impossible.
If, therefore, some provocatives induce and
increase certain sensations and useful processes, they
are of essential value to health, and it is no bad
economy to spend something on them."
It is surely somewhat singular that Englishwomen,
who have excelled in almost every other craft, should
be remarkable for their want of skill in cookery.
They have not been dismayed by any difficulties in
literature, art, or science, and yet how few are there
among us who can make a dish of porridge like a
Scotchwoman, or an omelette like a Frenchwoman!
The fact would seem to be, that educated women
having disdained to occupy themselves either theoretically
or practically with cookery, those whose
legitimate business it has been have become indifferent
also. The whole aim of the modern British cook
seems to be to save herself trouble, and she will give
as much time and thought to finding out ways of
doing things in a slovenly manner as would go to
doing them properly.
No doubt cooks have often so much work of other
kinds to do that they cannot give the necessary time
to cooking. In a case of this kind, the mistress
should herself give such help as she can, and bring
up her daughters to help in the kitchen. People in
middle-class life often expect the cook to do all the
kitchen work, and frequently some of the house work.
Of course, in small families, this is quite possible to
be done, and it is always best for servants, as for
other people, to be fully employed. But in large
families it is impossible the cooking can be properly
done, when the cook is harassed by so many other
occupations. Thus, because it takes less time and
attention than cooking smaller dishes, huge pieces of
meat are roasted or boiled daily, and the leg-of-mutton
style of dietary is perpetuated—declared to
be the most economical, and, in short, the best for all
Probably it is because bread and butter can be
bought ready made, and involve no trouble, that they
are held to be the chief necessaries of life in every
English household. Some children almost live, if
they do not thrive, on bread and butter. Thoughtless
housekeepers think they have done their duty
when they have seen that a sufficient supply of these
articles has been sent in from the shops. When we
insist that everyone should have home-baked bread,
at once we shall be met with the "penny-wise"
suggestion that home-baked bread costs more than
baker's, because, being so nice, people eat more of it.
Good bread, we need not say, is far more nourishing
than that which is made from inferior materials or
adulterated even with non-injurious substances for
wheaten flour. Then all the other difficulties come
to the fore: cook spoils the bakings, the oven is not
suitable, and so on. To all these we answer: A good
housekeeper, one who looks beyond the sum total of
her weekly bills, who thinks no trouble too great to
provide such food as will maintain the health of her
family, will have home-baked bread.
There are other points in domestic management
which do not receive the attention they deserve. Of
these we may cite the use of labour-saving machines
and of gas for cooking.
How often do we hear it said: "I always have such
and such a thing done in that way, because it was my
This may be very nice and very natural, but it is
nevertheless a sentimental reason. What should we
think of a person who insisted on riding pillion,
because her mother rode pillion? Yet, this really is
pretty much the same thing as we see every day,
when ladies are so wedded to old ways that they
persist in employing the rough-and-ready implements
of domestic use, the pattern whereof has been handed
down from the Ark, instead of modern and scientific
inventions which save both time and trouble. In no
other department of the national life have the people
been so slow to adopt simple machinery as in that of
It is alleged, in the first place, that labour-saving
machines are expensive; in the next place, that
servants do not understand them, and that they are
always getting out of order.
As to the first objection, we would say that as these
machines—we speak only, of course, of really good
machines—are made, not only with the object of
saving labour, but material, the original cost of them
is in a short time repaid. As regards the second
objection, it seems incomprehensible that servants
should not use with care and thoughtfulness machines,
which not only save time and trouble, but greatly help
in making their work perfect.
There is no doubt that by the more general
adoption of machinery household work would be
much lightened, and that if there were a demand for
it, enterprise would be much stimulated, and many
more useful helps would be produced. As it is,
manufacturers hesitate to bring out new inventions at
a great expense, when there is a doubt of securing the
appreciation of the public.
Only the other day we were inquiring for a little
machine we had seen years ago, and were told by the
maker that, "like many other useful things, it had
been shelved by the public, and ultimately lost."
Let us take the case of making bread at home.
By the use of a little simple dough-mixing machine,
supplied by Kent, 199, High Holborn, the operation
is easy, quick, cleanly, and certain. We have had one
of these in use for more than ten years, and during
that time have never had a bad batch of bread. Not
only in this machine do we make ten to eleven pounds
of dough in five minutes, but the kneading is most
perfectly done, and there is the great advantage of
securing perfect cleanliness, the hands not being used
at all in the process. Yet we do not suppose that
any number of the people who have admired the
bread have set up the machine. It cannot be the
cost of the machine, as it is inconsiderable, which
prevents its more general use, since in households
where expense is not an object the primitive process
is still in vogue.
Many people imagine that washing machines are
only needed in large families where all the washing is
got up at home. But, if ever so small or only an
occasional wash is done, there is no exaggerating the
comfort and advantage of a machine which washes,
wrings, and mangles. So far from injuring linen,
machines of the best kind wear it far less than rough
hand labour, and with reasonable care it will be
found that delicate fabrics are not split in the wringing
by a good machine, as they so frequently are by
Then there is the case of the knife-cleaning machine.
There are families who, instead of using one, employ a
boy to ruin their knives by rubbing them on a board with
Bath brick. They do so, they will tell you, "because
machines wear out the knives." The slightest acquaintance
with the mechanism of a good knife-cleaning
machine should suffice to show that the
brushes cannot wear out the knives, whereas the
action of the board and brick is the most destructive
that can be imagined. The objection of undue wear
being disposed of, we are told that the machines
soon get out of order, and are a constant expense.
Of course, with careless usage anything will come to
grief, but the fact remains that Kent, the leading
manufacturer of knife-cleaners, has published a certificate
from a lady who has had in constant use, for
thirty years, one of his machines, which during that
time has required no repairs. As to knives, we know
of some which have been cleaned daily for twenty-five
years in a machine, and are very little the worse
Dressmakers tell us that, but for the sewing
machine, an elaborate style of trimming ladies'
dresses would be impossible. We know that many
inexpensive delicacies, which it is not practicable
to have now because of the time and trouble they
require, could easily be managed by the use of little
articles of domestic machinery. For instance, take
potted meat. There is the excellent Combination
Mincer, also Kent's, by which this is rapidly and
perfectly done, and which enables cooks to use
up many scraps of material in a most acceptable
way, and without the labour of the pestle and
mortar. This machine, however, is but little known.
It costs but a sovereign, is useful for all mincing
purposes, and makes the best sausages in the
To make sausages properly, a machine must have
an adjustment of the cutters by which the sinews of
the meat and bits of skin are retained on them, as
nothing is so unpleasant as to find these when eating
the sausages. Thus it will be seen how necessary it
is, in setting up machinery which should last a lifetime,
to have the best inventions in the market.
Not very long ago, a friend asked our opinion on
the merits of the different makers of knife-cleaning
machines. We explained to her the mechanism of
the best of them, pointed out the superior workmanship,
and that she should not grudge the money to
have one which would do its work properly and be
durable. Probably under the impression that "in
the multitude of counsellors there is wisdom," our
friend made further inquiries, and ended by buying
a much-advertised machine which, she was assured,
was better and cheaper than that of Kent, the original
patentee. When she had the machine home, and
calculated, together with the cost of carriage, her own
expenses in going to London to choose it, she found
that she had saved exactly eighteenpence, and then
that her bargain would not clean the knives!
The prejudices which for a long time existed against
cooking by gas have gradually cleared away now that
improved stoves have been introduced, and the public
have experience of its many advantages. There are
yet some difficulties to be met in bringing gas into
more general use, one of which, the high price
charged for it, is beyond the control of the housekeeper,
and another, that of teaching servants to be
economical and careful in its use. When this last
can be overcome, even with the first named drawback,
gas will not be found more expensive than
coal. The cost of wood, of sweeping the chimney,
and the extra wear and tear occasioned by the soot,
smoke, and dust of a coal fire, must be calculated in
addition to the fuel itself.
It will be seen, when we say that the entire cooking
for a small family having late dinners, bread baked,
and much water heated, is done for something under
£2 a quarter, that gas as a fuel is not so great an
extravagance after all. The stove used has the oven
lined with a non-conducting substance, which has the
advantage of keeping the heat within instead of
sending it into the kitchen, as stoves made only of
iron plates are apt to do. We have but space to add
that the benefit to health, the cleanliness, the saving
of time, labour, and temper, to say nothing of the
superiority of cooking done by gas in such a stove as
has been described, can only be fully appreciated by
those who, like the writer, have had twenty years'
experience of all these advantages.
NEW ZEALAND FROZEN MUTTON.
The high price at which meat has stood for some
years has made it necessary for the working classes to
restrict themselves to a scanty allowance of animal
food, and this often of poor quality. The difficulty
of providing joints of meat for their families has,
indeed, also been felt severely by people who are
comparatively well-to-do. Under these circumstances
capitalists have thought it worth a considerable investment
of money to discover some means of bringing
the cheap and magnificent supplies of New Zealand
into the English market. After many failures, success
has at length crowned the enterprise, and nothing can
exceed the perfection in which New Zealand mutton is
now placed on the English market. It is universally
admitted that the meat, both as respects its nutritive
value and its flavour, is unsurpassed, while the price is
very moderate. The same remarks apply to New Zealand
lamb. It commences to arrive in January, and is in
the height of its season when our English lamb is a
luxury which can only be enjoyed by the few.
Nelson Brothers, Limited, stand foremost among
the importers of this invaluable food supply. The
mutton and lamb selected by them is of the highest
quality, and their system of refrigeration is perfect. In
summer these New Zealand meats have a great advantage
over the home supply, as although in keeping
they may lose colour, they remain good and sweet
much longer than English-killed meat.
The Company have large refrigerating stores under
Cannon Street Station capable of holding some 70,000
sheep, and have recently erected stores of treble
that capacity at Nelson's Wharf, Commercial Road,
Lambeth, wherein the latest improvements both as
regards construction and refrigerating machinery have
been adopted, in order to facilitate the development of
the frozen meat trade.
Nelson Brothers have also Branch Offices at—
- 15a, Richmond Street, Liverpool.
- Lease Lane, Birmingham.
- Lawns Lane, Leeds.
- The Abattoirs, Manchester.
- Baltic Chambers, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
- Tresillian Terrace, Cardiff.
If any of our readers are anxious to try the meat,
and are unable to procure it, a postcard to the Head
Office, 15, Dowgate Hill, London, E.C., or to any of
the Branch Offices, will at once put them in the way
of carrying out their desire.
As it occasionally happens that from want of some
little precaution New Zealand meat does not come to
table in its best condition, we offer the following hints
for the treatment of it:
Frozen mutton, like that which is freshly killed,
requires to be hung a certain time—this is most essential
to remember, otherwise the meat eats hard and
tough—and it is important to observe, both when hanging
and roasting, that it is so placed that the juice shall
not run out of the cut end. Hind-quarters, haunches,
and legs should be hung with the knuckle end downwards;
loins and saddles by the flaps, thus giving them
a horizontal position. The meat in winter should be
kept in the kitchen some time before cooking, and
after being exposed for a few minutes to a rapid heat
in order to seal up and keep the gravy in the joint, it
should be cooked rather slowly, thus taking a little
more time than is usually given to English meat.
- Beverages, 93
- Badminton Cup, 94
- Champagne Cup, 94
- Cherry Cup, 94
- Cider Cup, 94
- Citric Acid, 97
- Claret Cup, 93
- Ginger, an Extract of, for family use, 95
- Gingerade, 95
- Lemon, Essence of, 97
- Lemonade, 94
- Milk, 96
- Port Wine, Mulled, 94
- Cakes, 85
- Almond Paste, 92
- Chocolate, 90
- Cocoa-nut, 89
- Macaroons, 89
- Pound, 87
- Savoy Sponge, 88
- Sugar Icing, 90
- Apricot, 76
- Champagne, 83
- Charlotte Russe, 79
- Cheese and Macaroni, 81
- Cherry, 80
- Chocolate, 82
- Coffee, 81
- Fig, 83
- Fruit, 78
- Lemon, 75
- Mandarin, 78
- Orange, 76
- Oranges, Chartreuse of, 82
- Palace, 77
- Pineapple, 77
- Strawberry, 75
- Syllabub, Solid, 79
- Velvet, 80
- Whipped, 84
- Almonds, 9
- Lemon, 9
- Vanilla, 9
- Fish, Little Dishes of, 22
- Cod Cutlets, 26
- Eels, Collared, 30
- Fish, Galantine of, 28
- Herrings, Fried, 27
- Sole, Filleted, 24
- " Fillets of, en Aspic, 29
- " " Fried, 25
- " " Sautés, 25
- " " with Lobster, 25
- ", Fried, 23
- Whiting, Baked, 26
- Housekeeping, Hints on, 105
- Jellies, Nelson's Bottled—
- Calf's Foot, 8
- Cherry, 8
- Lemon, 8
- Orange, 8
- Port, 8
- Sherry, 8
Jelly-Making, On, 61
- Jelly, Apple, 69
- " Aspic, 72
- " Brilliant, 65
- " Claret, 67
- " Cocoa, 68
- " Coffee, 68
" Orange Fruit, 69
- " Oranges filled with, 69
- " Ribbon, 66
- " Strengthening, 71
- " with Fruit, 66
- Jelly-bag, how to make a, 73
- Macaroni, etc., 98
- Canapés au Parmesan, 101
- Cheese, Boiled, 101
- Eggs, Scalloped, 102
- Macaroni Cheese, 99
- " Stewed, 100
- " Sweet, 100
- " with Bacon, 99
- " " Cheese, 98
- " " Onions, 100
- " " Tomatoes, 100
- Mushrooms with Cream Sauce, 103
- Rice, to Boil (a black man's recipe), 103
- Rice with Parmesan Cheese, 101
- Scotch Woodcock, 102
- Vegetables, to Mince, 104
- Meat, Little Dishes of, 31
- Brain Fritters, 35
- Chicken, Brown Fricassée of, 42
- Chicken Sauté, 43
- Croquettes, 44
- Curry, Dry, 44
- Kidneys, Broiled, 39
- " Sautés, 37
- " with Mushrooms, 38
- " with Piccalilli, 39
- Lamb's Fry, 40
- Marrow Toast, 35
- Meat Cakes à l'Italienne, 45
- Mutton, Cold, Potted, 33
- " Collops, 33
- " Cutlets, 31
- " Pies, 34
- " Roulades of, 32
- " Sauté, 33
- Ox Brain, 34
- Pork Pie, Raised, 46
- Potato Hash, 43
- Sausages, Pork, 47
- Veal à la Casserole, 41
- Veal and Ham Pie, 47
- Veal Cutlets in White Sauce, 37
- Apple Fool, 59
- Baden-Baden, 80
- Brandy Sauce, 53
- Cabinet, 53
- Capital, The, 57
- Cheesecake, Welsh, 58
- Chocolate, 56
- Cocoa-nut, 56
- Compote of Apples with Fried Bread, 59
- Compote of Prunes, 60
- Custard, 50
- Duchess of Fife's, 58
- Fritters, Italian, 58
- Jubilee, 55
- Natal, 55
- Omelet, Friar's, 58
- Pears, Stewed, with Rice, 60
- Queen's, 56
- Raspberry and Currant, 57
- Soufflé, 51
- Sponge Soufflé, 53
- Vanilla Rusk, 54
- Warwickshire, 54
- Soups, 11, 14
- Artichoke, Brown, 19
- Beef and Onion, 14
- Beef, Lentil, and Vegetable, 15
- Beef, Pea, and Vegetable, 15
- Glaze, 21
- Gravy, 21
- Hare, 17
- Julienne, 16
- Mulligatawny, 18
- " Nelson's, 14
- " Thin, 18
- Rabbit, Brown; Clear, 17
- Turtle, 19
- Vermicelli, Clear, 16
CHARLES DICKENS AND EVANS, CRYSTAL PALACE PRESS.
For First Class Jellies
SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED.
See Recipe, Page 65.
Orange, Lemon, Calf's Foot, Cherry, Raspberry,
Vanilla, Apricot, Pear, Apple, Black Currant,
Pine Apple, Noyeau, etc.
Quarts, 9d.; Pints, 6d.; Half-Pints, 3d.
WINE TABLET JELLIES.
Port, Sherry, Orange.
Pints only, 9d.
These new Jellies are perfectly pure and wholesome, and
the flavours excellent, while their exceeding cheapness brings
them within the reach of all classes.
G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.
These Soups are already thoroughly cooked and seasoned,
and can be prepared for the table in a few minutes.
BEEF AND CARROTS.
BEEF AND CELERY.
BEEF AND ONIONS.
In Pint Packets, 6d. each.
BEEF, PEAS, AND VEGETABLES.
BEEF, LENTILS, AND VEGETABLES.
In Quart Packets, 6d. each.
Penny Packets of Soup for charitable purposes.
EXTRACT OF MEAT,
FOR MAKING AND IMPROVING
SOUPS, GRAVIES, BEEF-TEA, etc., etc.
In Ounce Packets, 4d. each, and 1 lb. Tins, 5s. each.
One packet is sufficient for a Pint of Strong Soup.
G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.
On RECEIPT of POSTAL ORDER for 2/6
A BOX CONTAINING SAMPLES OF
AND A COPY OF
"NELSON'S HOME COMFORTS,"
Will be sent, CARRIAGE PAID, to any address
in the United Kingdom, by
G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., LIMITED,
14, Dowgate Hill, London, E.C.
May also be obtained through any Grocer at the same price.
N.B.—A Copy of "Home Comforts" will be sent,
gratis, on receipt of Penny Postage Stamp.
G. NELSON, DALE, & CO, Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.