drinkable water without a pronounced odor or taste is suitable as
mixing water for concrete. Mixing water should contain less than 2000
ppm of dissolved solids. Sodium carbonate in the water causes rapid
setting. Sodium and potassium bicarbonates can speed up or slow down
setting times. Large concentrations of carbonates and bicarbonates in
the water can reduce concrete strength. Chloride ions from salt can
corrode embedded steel and sulphates can cause expansion and
deterioration of the concrete. Manganese, zinc, tin, copper and lead
salts can reduce concrete strength and change setting times. Sea water
will corrode reinforced steel and prestressed concrete, and react with
the alkalies in some aggregates. Water containing alkali, organic
material, sugar, oil and algae can reduce concrete strength.
Materials In Concrete.
2.Concrete Aggregates - Concrete Slump.
3.Concrete Placement - Vibration - Hydration.
4.Types of Portland Cement - Concrete Moisture & Cracking.
5.Watertight Concrete - Supplementary Cementing Materials.
6.Supplementary Cementing Materials.
7.Chemicals That Damage Concrete.
8.Concrete Aggregate Properties.
9.Angular & Smooth Aggregate Properties.
12.Air Entraining Admixtures.
13.Air Entraining Admixtures Continued.
14.Conditions Affecting Concrete Air Volume.
15.Superplasticizers & Other Admixtures.
16.Ordering & Mixing Concrete.
17.Concrete Mixing - Subgrade Preparation.
18.Subbase Preparation - Concrete Placement.
22.Hot Weather Concreting.
23.Cold Weather Concreting.
24.Concrete Slump Test.