Complete Manual of Manufacturing Hats of All Kinds
Translated from the French
Such as various markers, schakos hats, silk, cotton and other fabrics filamentous hats, feathers, leather, straw, wood, wicker, etc., placed at the progress of the chemical arts, and enriched all the patents that have been made on making hats.
BY MM. Cluz. and F. FABRICANS,
Mr. JULIA DE FONTENELLE
PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY,
Chopped wood Logwood.
Wales crushed nuts.
Gum country, ditto.
gray-green (acetate of copper).
4-1 / 2
Boiled for about half past two, logwood, nut galls and gum in water, stirring the mixture frequently; we drop broth and green and gray-iron sulfate is added. After a few moments, it is possible to dye. Page 116 Here is how to carry it out according to Mr. Robiquet 38 . bathing caps were placed on head covers; on this first layer is in place a second form of shape; the third is available as the first, and the second as the fourth, and so on until half caps (one hundred and fifty) to be placed. We cover boards it reads, and loaded weight so that all the hats can also dive, and the bathroom has a more even heat. This would leave about an hour and a half, then falls, allowed to drain for a few moments on the banks of the boiler, and the hats are placed on shelves. After that, three or four pouring buckets of cold water into the boiler is boiled, and then was dipped hundred fifty other caps in the same manner as above. Meanwhile, the first bath hats remain exposed to air; With this exhibition, vent in times of art, black takes more intensity as the oxide gallate iron, absorbing oxygen, passes pinnacle of oxidation. It gives an alternately hot , or immersion, and vent ; but like every hot felt absorbs some of the coloring matter, it is good to add new proportions of the main materials used. So Mr. Robiquet additions required to:
Note 38: (return) Loco cit.
1 ° For the first hot the second half hats:
Gray-green powder. 3 pounds.
Iron sulphate. 4 id.
This addition is repeated until the fifth and sixth hot, and hot and Evens is repeated three or four times for each half of hats, and sometimes beyond. We recommend adding Page 117 before two pounds of nuts crushed galls. It is dyers who use larger proportions of these Ingrediens, but we believe unnecessary.
It shortens much this operation, said the chemist supra, using iron sulfate dissolved in water, which has been long exposed to the air for suroxider iron, or by boiling it with a little nitric acid. May also desiccate and even somewhat calcining iron sulfate; thereby obtained more quickly a beautiful black, and some even believe fabricans stronger. In this method we just substitute a more advantageous and expeditious; that is, instead of iron sulfate, the use of the pyro-acetate or iron acetate. The latter salt is preferable, unless the former is well stripped tar that pyro-acetic (pyroligneous acid) contains, and, making the sticky hairs, making it difficult to desiccation. The English use to great advantage ferric citrate.
The dye bath should be kept at a high temperature; because, according to an old adage dyers, which boils well complexion well . After each operation, the dyers usually plunge hats in a boiling water bath, and the drip room 39 , to drive out all the impurities, and make the felt more able to take the new dye.
Note 39: (return) The piece is a tool of copper, which is used to make the liquid and impurities that may contain the felt out.
If the caps are to be dyed the same quality, you should not overlook, every hot 40 , to place Page 118 turn at the bottom of the boiler. When on the contrary, the hats are of various qualities, we must make the finest in the bottom of the boiler, and the other above, since the finest materials are those who unite over dyestuff. The fine hats, Flemish way, pure hair back winter hare, can safely receive eight or nine hot ; it is the same knee-haired, teddy bears and golden; but it must operate at a lower temperature, and by using less of iron sulfate. In all cases, the felts must store in the boiler so that they can not undergo any alteration.
Note 40: (return) The hot is also known as diving or fire; its duration is 1:30 to 2:00.
For an intense and solid black, prepare a bath of rich color dye, and not to use the old exhausted to galling felts bath. This process, says Mr. Mackenzie 41 is very vicious, and opposes sure the new color may attach to the hair that is already steeped in the mud swimming in color and prevents water from reaching the old bath. New and clear gloss makes bath down, while the old bath is always muddy and makes it dull. Mr. Mackenzie is right. However, we believe that we ought not to let loose the old bath. Perhaps it would be better to settle the top sludge, filter and replace much of the water bath by this new dye exhausted but still quite responsible colorans principles. As the economy is the core factories, it seems to us to deserve some consideration.
Note 41: (return) Loco cit.
Dye bath for 200 hats, Mr. Morel.
Bois d'Inde, Logwood wood, finely chopped.
nuts black Aleppo galls, crushed.
gray-green Montpellier42 .
Note 42: (return) M. Mackenzie gives, with good reason, preference green verdigris Mr. Mollerat, which is much purer than that of Montpellier.
This bath is prepared as we said above. As for additions to be done before the third, seventh, ninth and twelfth hot, he advises for each, the same amount of sulphate of iron, gray-green, and nut galls, for the primitive bath; hats, according to his method, must pass all eight times in the boiler, that is to say, get eight hot and eight Evens.
Once the stain or browning is complete, there is a rush to strip the felt of all impurities and uncombined dye it. This is achieved through many washings in the boiler scouring containing pure heated to about fifty degrees water; they brush several waters, and were then immersed in boiling water for well disgorge 43 ; they are then brought to the river, and were sansouille until the water comes out clear of the felt. This has three advantages washing hairy, to disgorge felt, and set the color at the same time. The hats are well drained, they are immersed in boiling water, put them back on form, and we take care to wash by rubbing them in the brush half-luster until the hairy or clear and bright. They are then carefully drained, and allowed to dry in an oven heated to about thirty-five degrees, not the sun alters the dark, and sometimes does go to bronze.
Note 43: (return) There are fabricans which plunge them into boiling water points; they just immersion in the boiler to fifty degrees.
The same manufacturer reports the following recipe for Page 120 his father Mr. Morel-Beaujolin for 200 caps. Assuming that the amount of water we had to pay the way usitée be twenty-five tracks, and that which is lost every hot or three buckets, making twenty to three lanes lost or evaporated for all, we must make the process after its forty-eight waterways, where it is boiled for eight to nine hours, the same proportions of Ingrediens; that is to say, first:
Wood from India. 100 pounds.
Aleppo gall nuts. 24 id .
Cherry gum. 5 id .
After the boil, the amount of decoction equal to that excess water was added, about twenty-three lanes was removed and poured into four equal parts in four vats or barrels placed near the boiler at bottom of each of which was set:
Iron sulphate. 5 pounds.
Acetate of copper (verdigris). 3
It then flows into the boiler:
Iron sulphate. 5 pounds.
Green verdigris. 4
These proportions are the same as those usually takes; but their use is different. Stirring good bath, and half an hour after the last drug you put the first half of hats. The subsequent procedure as for the other methods, with the difference that the evaporation of water is replaced every hot by the liquor placed in each bucket and barrel, and stirred well before pouring into the boiler .
Whatever the merit of Mr. Morel-Beaujolin, we do not believe that this mode is ever adopted by the fabricans, since it offers only changes which seemed to us lengthen the operation, and complicate, rather simplification.
These are the modes that were most taken for dyeing. We will now see the new processes that have been proposed; we'll start with that of Mr. Guichardière, which was copied in large part by Mr. Mackenzie, and we can be convinced by comparison.
Description of the processes to be followed for dyeing hats, and comments on perfectionnemens achieved in the art of millinery; Mr. GUICHARDIÈRE. (Ann. Of industr. Nat. Etrang and., May 1824, p.131.)
For an intense and solid black, it is necessary, according to the author, compose a rich color bath, and never use it, as do almost all dyers, exhausted old bath galling felts. New and clear gloss makes bath down, while the old bath is always muddy and makes it dull. We must use the powdered verdigris Mr. Mollerat, which is much purer than that which comes in rolls of Montpellier, and rosacea calcined (colcothar elders, tritoxide red iron modern); by this method is much faster brown, and black is much nicer, provided the temperature is set correctly, and suitable for the felt is not altered height. The author meant to say that the highest temperature is the one that best color sets. After each operation, it is essential to disgorge many hats in a bath of water to the boil, and then drain well in the room 44 , to drive out all foreign matter.
Note 44: (return) The play is a tool whose hatter copper used to make the liquid and dirt that contains the felt out.
When the bath is prepared, if the objects to be dyed Page 122 is one quality, care must be taken in the various lights or dives they suffer, make them get to the bottom of the boiler alternately; without this precaution we would miss the end proposed.
When you have several qualities of hats dyed in the same bath, one must place the finest in the bottom of the boiler, and less for above, since the atoms colorans always rush, and that the most material fine absorb a greater amount. The fine hats, Flemish way, pure hair back winter hare, can safely receive eight or nine dives 45 ; those called mid-haired, teddy bears and gold may receive as much, but at a much lower temperature, and we must use less iron sulfate (green blotches.)
Note 45: (return) is called diving or hot, in hat, what ordinary dyers call fire. The duration of each dive or fire is 1:30 to 2:00.
As soon as the bruiture is complete, remove the felt should any grime that may contain, and which is produced by the residues of the ingredients employed in the composition of the bath. For this, as soon as the felts exit from the boiler, one in the door where the river and washed twists until clear water so. This has three advantages washing hairy, to disgorge felt, and set the color at the same time. You must then dive hats in boiling water, put them back on form, and take care to wash by rubbing with a brush half-luster until the hairy is clear and bright. They are drained as far as possible, then they are dried in an oven moderately Page 123 heated by a stove to prevent the bronze produced by the oxygen which combines with the surface at a high temperature. When the caps are dry, they should be beading with the greatest care to ensure that it does more dust; then the luster with river water, they are dried and are strongly stick again.
For two or three years dyeing has made some progress, and several factories provide beautiful black enough; as their products are highly sought after, as it is true that it is the intensity of the color, rather than the goodness of felt that sells hats. It is important to note that the English would make beautiful black since they substituted citrate iron sulfate of the same metal; the author believes that tartrate, gallate and iron acetate could produce the same effects; he proposes to do a series of experiments on all these salts, and to publish the results as soon as they are completed. He then states, such that they were communicated to him, the processes employed in Naples and Trieste to dye hats. We will provide us with the name, having found described in the work of Mackenzie where we have already extracted.
A process for dyeing hats; Mr. BUFFUM.
The caps to be dyed are placed on the dowels of a wheel rotating about a vertical axis in the tank. As the wheel rotates, the cap is immersed in the dyeing and exits. We can rotate the wheel of a very slow movement, for a gear that connects its axis at any engine, or you can make it do just a half-revolution, at intervals of about ten minutes. By this method, the caps will be placed on the pegs alternately Page 124 for ten minutes immersed in the dye, and then they will be exposed for the same time in the atmospheric air. The author believes that this method of dyeing caps is very advantageous, because by successively passing the dye bath in the air, and the air in the dye bath, the atmospheric air by oxygenation fix more securely and more readily in the coloring material of the fabric hat, with prolonged for a much longer immersion time. (Lond. Journ. Of Arts, September 1828)
Improvement in the dyeing of hats; Mr. PICHARD.
The author identifies various perfectionnemens including dyeing hats is likely. It offers: 1st set of dyeing with wicker forms in order to avoid breaking bones and tearing the edges; 2º to substitute round boilers boilers long; 3rd set of caps in an openwork wheel, half bathe in the tank, while the other half is exposed to an air stream, so that half of the caps could become stale during a time given, while the other half teindrait, and vice versa. By this method, would no longer caps in contact with the bottom of the tank, they could be agitated in the bath and air at the same time, by imparting a movement to the wheel; there would be a great saving of time, and we will get a more beautiful black as hats, suspended and stirred in the air, take a lot more oxygen than on the streets, where they are usually throws.
To dye hundred hats purposes, the author employs the following preparation: boiled, for two hours in a copper boiler filled with a sufficient amount of water, six pounds of crushed nuts Wales Page 125 and fifty pounds of logwood. When this bath, which will be designated by the No. 1 will be prepared, we put half in a boiler; after adding twenty pounds of copper sulphate, we will spend the hats for a quarter of an hour, it will be noted for half an hour.
Poured into the boiler third of what remains of No. 1, thirty pounds of iron pyrolignite; we keep the fire is being called into boiler, we go for a quarter of an hour are slaughtered for half past one, there are a half-hour on fans.
We cool again with the rest of the bath No. 1 second third; was heated at 75 ° was added fifteen liters pyrolignite iron caps is brought for one-half hour, half an hour is fanned.
Was re-boiler for an hour, half an hour on fans; cooled again with the remaining bath No. 1; are heated to 75 °, fifteen liters pyrolignite iron is added; hats are put for one hour, fans.
Was re-boiler for an hour and a half, it falls to wash under running water; dried in an oven, is put on the form and luster. (Industrial, December 1828)
Processes that employ Triestains to dye hats five or six dives, each lasting two hours and as a vent.
To dye twenty hats bell with formillons the Triestains use:
8 pounds of good wood from India,
seven ounces of nuts black gall,
eight ounces of yellow wood,
2 pounds of green blotches,
7 ounces of green verdigris;
8 ounces of calcined vitriol of Cyprus,
20 small stones sunflower
2 ounces of fine powdered gum arabic,
16 oz 3/4 flaxseed.
Note . I give here the old name, to be better understood workers.
To prepare the bath, it takes 1 ° soak the wood from India within four days, and then prepared for six hours;
2 Soak separately rosacea, the verdigris and sunflowers in human urine for four days and then boil them for a few minutes;
3 Bath composition. It puts into the decoction of wood from India half of verdigris, gum arabic, three quarters of an ounce of flax seed and eighteen ounces of rosacea. It leaves dissolve these substances.
First dive. It immerses twenty hats; the temperature is raised to 75 °; they are left for two hours; they are lifted and you give two hours of vent.
Second dive. Bath half of verdigris non employee and two ounces of rosacea is added; two hours bathing and as a vent.
Third dive. Bath half of verdigris non employee and two ounces of rosacea is added; two hours bathing and as a vent.
Fourth dive. Half bath decoction of galls half sunflower whole concoction of yellow woods and two ounces of rosacea are added,.
Fifth dive. Six ounces of ash gravel is added; this alkali is, in terms of the art, to wash the copper, that is to say to prevent the effect of bronze which is formed usually on the surface; eight ounces of rosacea and remaining of the remaining nuts decoction Page 127 gall. Care must be taken to prevent the bronze, well run with a stick hats in the bath.
Sixth operation. So that the black hats or shiny, they are immersed in a boiling water bath in which we threw a pound of flour flax seed sieved, taking care to drain the caps in order to purge the principle oilseeds.
Observation. The effects of high temperature ovens produced on color hats deserve to be studied carefully. I think it would be extremely important for the progress of our industry to determine as far as possible the action exerted by the heat of the ovens on the black hats; for it is certain that we felt it dried are a deeper black and brighter than those left to dry in open air. The oxygen does not he play the main role here, and the temperature of the oven does it not promote its combination with substances that form the dye? I leave to others more learned than me, care to address this important issue and to find the cause of the fact that I point out.
Neapolitans process to dye hats in two dives.
Neapolitans dye in just two dives each three hours and a half hour vent 46 . This Page 128 which greatly facilitates this process and makes it shorter, is that they never dye their hats in shapes; they do not use that formillons 47 . Indeed, the form of which we fill our hats prevented from entering the bath with ease from outside to inside; color can not be communicated by the outside, it must therefore much more time and a larger number of dives that communicates bath from outside to inside across the entire thickness of the felt. Using the formillon while the cap is inside the vacuum bath and freely between the two surfaces, and more easily penetrates the felt. I look at this idea as extremely happy.
Note 46: (return) Previously it was thought that it was possible to get a nice coloring by the assistance of the air. For this reason they gave vent to a long duration diving. The Neapolitans, between the two fires, give a half-hour vent, time to prepare for the second dive or hot. This practice would seem to prove that the vent is useless: I'll make sure by experience.
Note 47: (return) is called formillon a slice of wood an inch thick that engages in the bottom of the head of the hat to keep it extended and prevent resume conical shape.
The first bath consists of a strong decoction of wood from India, in which we add a suitable dose of verdigris to do turn black, and a certain amount of indigo liquor (I think that's the indigo dissolved in sulfuric acid, or indigo sulfate, this known composition). As soon as the bath is prepared, it plunges hats, left there a quarter past three in the boiling heat. Meanwhile, hats are imbued with a beautiful black, but that has no strength. They leave fan for half an hour, enough time to prepare the second bath.
The second bath is prepared as the first; but include calcined rosacea, that is to say, the iron oxidized at maximum, colcothar I mentioned (as far we have not found a way to produce black without iron oxide) ; was dipped in a row for the hats Page 129 like period that the first hot, but at a lower temperature, 75-78 ° Réaumur. The second fire is intended only to provide color.
Three hours after that quarter plunged hats for the second time, removed, washed carefully in cold water wells, the hairy one brush, it twists them until the pores felt to be fully cleared of dirty parts. They were then immersed in a full cauldron of boiling water to complete their disgorge dirty parts they may still contain, and put them on the form. They dried their hats in an oven whose temperature is very sweet: after drying, they baguettent and shined like us.
Neapolitans know their dye is good, when they realize that their bathroom is to actually exhausted.
I think this way of dying is better than ours, since our hats are at the temperature of 72 degrees, under the influence of oxide of iron, for sixteen, eighteen and twenty hours often, which affects and corrodes felts; while their stay there only for three hours and a quarter; so that there remain ours at least six times as long. That's why their hats are softer and more intense than ours black.
Give the name of primer caps to the introduction of a glue, leaving the fabric flexibility in matted clumps parts, making it more consistent, firmer, and more likely to retain the shape it is given; finally makes them impervious to water. The liquor for the primer is usually a solution of gum and strong adhesive. Some fabricans use the ox gall, vinegar and a few others Page 130 substances; gum and glue are preferable. Among the large number of known recipes, we will only mention that Mr. Morel published; here it is:
Gum country, depending on its purity
12 to 30 pounds.
routes from May to June.
Without follow step Morel, we will say that we must clean the gum as much as possible, reduce to a coarse powder, then the project slowly in boiling water, stirring with a large wooden spoon; when the gum is dissolved, it must pass the liquor through a cloth to remove impurities. This prevents boil for twelve or fifteen hours, as recommended by Mr. Morel; this boiling is unnecessary; it is only long, expensive and without any results. Just boil a quarter of an hour and skim; This solution is then poured into a barrel of gum.
The worker then takes the necessary glue, and put half soaked in water for twenty-four hours, and the other half in the gum solution. Was dissolved separately in each of these adhesives such liquids; glue solution in water gum takes the name of primer head . One that has been melted in water is usually united with water in equal parts of gum, and sometimes in different proportions, depending on the felt should be more or less firm and consistent. It is this liquor called, in terms of art, finishing the edge . Here is how to give the primer cap:
It begins with heat and maintain approximately Page 131 50 or 60 ° C, the primer head ; Then, using a large brush, is thoroughly coated inside and knit hats having previously arranged on a large table, called block, in which are formed holes for receiving large hat shape. The hats in this state are named dressed head ; they are dried in an oven, and places them in the same way on the block. Then we heated the finishing edge 65 and up to 60 ° C. and the dresser coated bottom edge of the cap, which then has the upper surface, using a large brush, a layer finishing the edge, and gently striking the flat of the hand on the parts of the cap and coated, rotating slowly hat in the block. After that, it gives a second coat of primer, it does go with the hand, as we have to make it known, and has been dropped a little primer on the inside of the head, there pass the brush lightly to make it smooth.
Mr. Robiquet described the operation in a way that seemed more rational; we will let him speak. Is placed next to a pool bath primer polished iron, fitted with its furnace, and covered on the bottom with a wet cloth; the dresser backwards hat on the block, dip the brush into the primer, and marks the inner edge of the cap, taking care not to reach to turn; he strongly asparagus canvas basin to develop a lot of steam; there applies the cap side of the primer, which is introduced as steam enters. Is removed after two or three minutes, then replace the cap in the block, and it is recognized, to the flat of the hand, if the surface is no longer sticky; which would imply that the primer did not penetrate enough before; then it should expose it to steam. The opposite extreme is to be carefully avoided; for if the primer reaches the other surface, the cap becomes scabby and Page 132 they are obliged to disgorge warm soap and start again. When the primer is over the edge, it prepares the cap at the top, using a brush, around the middle of the back, a rosette glue strong, which covers on-the-field with two coats of primer, thicker and cooler than the one used for the edge, and that extends throughout the inside of the hat to make it fit without waited inside the head is covered by the cap. This process is more expeditious than the previous one, which also requires the following to its complement.
Basin primer and rewash.
This method involves placing a circular, convex plate on melting furnace, which it covers exactly the hearth. When the plate is hot, we place a layer of wet straw and well wrinkled, they are secured with a triple burlap too clear; is then sprayed the canvas with a very fine brush or watering can, hat is placed on the canvas, and it is covered with a kind of brass bell, which is removed and lowered by a pulley. During this operation, the heat of the furnace to heat the sheet continues, and transmits it to its caloric water vapors in the reduced fill the bell and the primer are returned; one passes successively all caps to finish by sprinkling the canvas every time we are introducing a new hat. As and when the hats come out of the basin, it is quick to gently wipe it with a piece of cloth rough dry well; it then releases the hair through the dip; they were then in the oven door for submission to the operation of rewash. This operation aims to rid the surface markers of the excess primer for therein and keeps hair glued together, this Page 133 notes that those who have not been subjected to the pelvis. For this, the edges of these hats are dipped in a weak solution of soap in boiling water; it is dripping then it is wiped, there emerges the hair, and it is dried in an oven for submission to the appropriage.
The operation of the primer requires great care; because a poorly dressed hat not only loses its value, but it is still discarded. Glue called gelatin deserves preference over ordinary glue, because it was recognized that it is more resilient, stronger, less soluble and less humidity. Today, the basin rewash is almost entirely unusual; However, it is not no use to the broad-brimmed hats, called cocked hats : this operation rewash dates only from the removal of hats including ras primer merely the gummed water. But for how Flemish hats, such as felt less tight, it was essential to have a primer bodied ; was therefore combined with the gummed the gelatin water solution. In England, when the cap is primed to remove excess primer remaining on its surface, boiled water containing a solution of soap, and is plunged into the middle of the hats head, until the excess primer is dissolved. The subsequent procedure as we have already announced.
hats arrived at the point of manufacture we did know, have neither the bright nor the sweetness that is the beauty. It is these qualities that give them by appropriage . As for the felts for the salon, we merely pass to iron or put them in the press to catir as wool fabrics.
We will transcribe various times this:
This training is a painful and difficult at the same time operation, since the forms are broken into six or seven pieces, and should be introduced piecemeal in the head. Before that we put the hats in the cellar for a day or two to fully soften the felt; this softening is completed by smoking , as they say, the shoe . This is done by placing the hot iron on the approprieur, a wet cloth, called fumerette and covering everything with the hat that does the work of a bell. The water vapor given off makes the elastic felt. In this state it is placed immediately in shape, and is doing well and thoroughly on all sides, so that it fits well on any form, and retains all the contours; it is good to note that we must secure the hat on his form, with a string placed at its base, as in the crushing. When this work is completed, and that the edges are well laid out, the cap is tightened, that is to say, the dry approprieur hat with a hot iron. Usually, it uses two hot iron to the head, and at least to the edge, taking care to wet occasionally the hat with the chandelier brush ; because without it felt hollow and would be dull, and uneven finish, while it should be tight, with a finish equal and shiny. One acknowledges it reappears again a few jars, they are torn off. When the hat is so dry outside, you take it out of shape, and heated in a dry place so that the inside is also dry. In this state, is subjected to a new hat or second clamping , called second pass . This tends to give the hair all gloss, sheen and velvety as possible. Thus passes alternately iron chandelier and brush, and on the end, to give more brilliant Page 135 -haired, one walks over a piece of padded down, which is called ball . There are fabricans which, for a more beautiful luster, luster dip their brush in a suitable liquid instead of water. I analyzed some similar compositions, and many I found the indigo solution, and a bit of gum arabic in indeterminate proportions, but we believe we can establish in the following proportions:
Pure water. 25 kilos.
Acacia dissolved in water. 4 oz.
Neutral solution of indigo in acid
sulfuric. 1 oz.
Hats who have undergone this second clamping are carried in stores; but if they stay long unsold, to restore their luster, they clamp a third time. In these various operations, the worker must be careful that the iron is not too hot, not to burn the hair felt, or, as they say, shave the felt ; they must also avoid making gutters , which occurs when the felt was too wet, and it was then passed to the stuffy and slowly iron with a hot iron or too fast. In this case, all the water is not sprayed, the remaining primer and tempera fact gutters . To remove them, you must completely remove the primer which forms the gutters, through boiling soapy water, and then apply a new finish. It could also impose parties to water vapor, which would go this primer.
The cardboard hats.
This operation consists of sticking to the bottom of the hat bond paper, and another lighter around the shape. Page 136 It is necessary, especially when the shapes are a large diameter; the carton is used to keep the hat shape, and make it stronger; we usually practice before straightening. We have to note that it is also a lot of these hats that are not cardboard. Merchants merely put a bottom and a round end paper.
This work is in no way the responsibility of the manufacturer of hats, it is the sharing of merchant hatter , which gives them the appearance, and the proper cut, the borders and applies the cap, turn, etc. We will limit ourselves to say about it, formerly felt they crossed the needle to sew it around in leather. It followed that if the cap was reached in dyeing the hair was thickly or not, there perished in this fashion, since the felt point cut by two-thirds of its circumference. Now, we made a small frame on which the leather is sewn. In England, they invented a kind of knife, which not only cuts the leather, but still track all points of the needle, making it shorter and less painful labor. Some hatters, in France, have already adopted.
These are the various operations that practice for confections felt hats. Now we will know most of the improvements that have been proposed. We begin by giving an extract from the memory of Mr. Guichardière, which is recorded in the Annals of the domestic industry and foreign, 1824. Page 137
Memory on new methods for making felt hats ; Mr. GUICHARDIÈRE, hat manufacturer in Paris .
In this brief, Mr. Guichardière establishes that to make hats like the Italians, one can use the hair hare in every country, but that of France's best and those of Savoy, the Switzerland, Tyrol, Carinthia, Carniola, Styria, etc., since the down of these skins felt more strongly than those in the north. This work is divided into paragraphs, and we find the method followed in this new kind of manufacturing.
The first paragraph contains the preparation and cleaning it did to the skin before trimming. This preparation involves scraping the hair several times and the beading alternately until the jar down and be free, and that so much dust. This operation is used to rid hair of blood soiled skin.
Deburring .-- This is the operation by which we cut with scissors jar height down. This precaution requires a light hand to cut only the jar without reaching down. Without this preparation it would be difficult to have a smooth or plain felt.
Sécrétage .-- The sécrétage is touching the hair with a solution of six ounces of pure mercury in a book of nitric acid, extended sixteen parts of decoction of marshmallow and comfrey decoction of plants giving the felt softness and helping felting. Dissolution prepared, we must immerse the brush into the liquid, and rub the hair with light pressure until they have fallen by two-thirds of their length, and more if possible. They must then make Page 138 dry in an oven at a very high temperature; being weak acid, the hair can not be burned.
How to moisten the skin to arrange to drop them down .-- This is done by means of an alkaline water preparation, containing one-twentieth of lime water, with which the leather is soaked. One must have the care to join in pairs to prevent the hair does get wet; we put them in a pile of fifty, they are then covered with a board on which is placed a heavy burden for the move and soften the leather, which can be done in twenty-four hours.
Uprooting .-- For the new manufacturing system, we must pluck hairs, what we do by pinching between the blade of a knife and thumb, and a high pressure is in fact extraction. The hair is pulled until it is none left on the leather, taking care to separate the various qualities, hair back, sides, throat and stomach.
Comment on the difference between the hairs plucked and cut pile .-- hairs plucked, being obtuse side of the root, and deprived of their jars, more difficult to produce the felt; their action must be slower than that of the cut pile, but they produce brilliant solid and hats. Many primitive operations for the system preparation hats by this new method are more difficult, but we have the advantage of using the common belly hair hare, which is very little value. Moreover, by this method, never a hat withers under the hand of the worker; the more he works, the more he brilliant, and it is similar in all its parts.
Arçonnage and basting the quality .-- Under this name we understand the operations necessary to weigh the hair according to the force that we want to give it, then mix it with a big pile of beautiful red vicuna. It puts the Page 139 all over the hurdle, and is mixed with the tree until the mixture is of the same hue, and all foreign bodies and garbage are separated.
Arranged that way, we remove the hurdle, we clean the table, and the juices to help grip hair. We divide the material into two equal parts to form two parts; they arçonne, and we care to extend as much as possible, and to be very high. Before the start you have to open the stuff, well split hairs, extract all the little trash that might have escaped the initial operations, make them more manageable, to be better able to expand in the feutrière canvas; and when those parts are branded by high pressure tank, you have to close very large hat, and high at the same time; the base and side of a thin, the fairly strong edge, as well as the link and edge untied. When the hat is also packing, care must be taken to make the hairs well adherents, that is to say the need for the basting is hushed enough to brush as soon as possible to the crowd.
Fulling Fulling .-- hat is done in a very acidulated with cream of tartar bath, and a decoction of oak bark. It tempering cap, when the boiling; care is taken that it is well soaked everywhere; if any part was not, there would supply the brush; To crush two or three windows without canned in camera rolling without soaking much, and when the felt is formed, the pressure of the brush is used; but first we must clean his hat by rubbing with bare hands; the felt is still tender, jars escape more easily than when it is more formed. Fulling so we continue to make small enough to be able to cap it on the form.
The second quality is manufactured with more pain than Page 140 the first; it is with the hair side, and the most beautiful of those grooves, with less than felting hair back action. It adds a big beautiful vicuna, and golden hat pelvis, an ounce and a quarter of hair on the back secreted. This addition gives solidity and beauty at the same time. The crowd is painful, since the gilding of secreted hair and ripped, ride very long.
The third quality, similar to the previous one, is with the common belly hair and two large vicuna, and gold with an ounce and a quarter of hair on the back secreted. These caps need to be vigorously crushed because it is difficult to get the ride.
Dressage .-- For this operation, the work is the same as that of other hats. One must always form the hat with warm, clear water. This precaution strength to pull the hat color, and facilitates its brilliance.
The draw must be done carefully. One has to use a very soft net, and use a light touch, not to break down the felt and make a scrap.
Stain .-- hats so prepared are easier to dye than those made in the usual way, since the dregs of pressed wine contains two principles, one acid and one alkaline. The first is used to felting, and the second makes the hairs to give it shine; so that the hat has more ability to take its color. The finer is always the darkest and most rude is not. It should, according to Guichardière, take care that the salts used for dyeing are not with iron overload, excess iron damaging the beauty of the color, which does not occur by an excess of acid. It is necessary to turn the bath, mild temperatures, and give eight to ten fires. Without this precaution it would alter the second grade, and it would burn the third. We must have Page 141 of boiling water to disgorge hats; without this precaution hats are dull and full of dust. It should be dried by a gentle heat, in an oven, where it does not place caps after combustion.
The appropriage hat is less easy to train, since the felt is more nervous; but in recompense there was less difficulty in plucking, since there are far fewer jar to extract than in hats made by the ordinary method. Mr. Guichardière also made known in the same journal (1825), the approach taken by the English in France, here it is:
Eleventh note on a new kind of felt hats made in France by English fabricans ; Mr. GUICHARDIÈRE. (Indust Annal. Of. Nation and Etrang., August 1825, page 207)
Since about three or four years, the British established in Caen (Calvados) factory Economic hats, such as are manufactured in England and the United States. All workers employed in this factory are English, no French there is allowed. Here is what's about the way they operate.
First operation .-- They use the wool of lambs from all countries, but preferably those of Sologne. They give the wool a preliminary preparation by macerating is rotten in the urine or in a tannin-rich decoction; that is to say, in all the concoctions that have the ability to give a wool felting and tuck action. The background, which is to form the base of the hat, wool is very coarse material to the truth, but has the advantage of producing a solid hat because of its strength. When the background is Page 142 frame, they trample in a solution of gravel (or crude tartar), which has the double advantage of back and felt at the same time because of its astringent principle. Before wearing the hats to the crowd, they are careful to boil in decoctions or dissolutions mentioned above, and after having trodden they boil back into astringens bathrooms, for that pores are also felt tight as possible. After this operation they blaze and cleaned with a brush, so that it remains at the bottom or garbage or burning hair.
Second operation .-- To produce furry suits the size of the funds, they use the hair of rabbit, preferably that of Britain. Before using it, they do trim and cut as hare, and they make it stick in the same way that we use for the hare and beaver, with funds made with the finest materials, with this difference, however, that when the foil is a member, they are careful to cover it with a layer or foil cotton forcing the first foil adhere to the bottom, but that does not adhere to itself, since it is true that the milling operation, it is partly detached, and that of sansouillage it separates all-of-fact as true gilding develops. After this operation, which opens the pores of the felt, and gives ease to put the hat on the form, the biggest challenge in this new kind of production, is to find a way to properly tighten the cap. The bottom may, indeed, withstand the high temperature of the bath, but can not resist gilding. There is a total difference between these hats and caps mid-hairs whose bottom is made with common materials in hares and rabbits. The bottom of these is guaranteed by the gilding, while in others, the gilding is guaranteed by the bottom. Page 143 To overcome the disadvantage of the dye, the author believes that it would be more appropriate to use the iron dissolved in vinegar (or iron acetate), less corrosive than the same metal, dissolved oil of vitriol (iron sulfate); should be used preferably copper to iron, that is to say, to avoid, or use sparingly, anything that can harm the material. The author points out that this kind of production is perfect for the junk, and it would also be very useful for the consumption of our rabbit hair.
New ways to make the round hats ; by PERRIN. (Invention Patent of five years.)
So far hatters were in the habit of making hats on round shapes, though the head has a more or less regular oval. This figure has the inconvenience of injury, as the head did not form at the entrance of the hat.
The edges of the ordinary hats still have the disadvantage of being on the same plane, which hampers their wearers; we are only happy to bend them a little by a stroke of iron; but soon after they take their flat shape.
To overcome these disadvantages, I draw the hats on an oval, and I give a curved shape to the party making the edge. By this means the head is not affected in the hat, and the ears are free and clear.
Explanation of figures .
Fig. 14 . Hat dyed Primed and softened by the hot water vapor, which must be manufactured with
A thick lips two, opposed, intended to form a continuation of the front and back shape. Fig. 15 Shape Balloon broken front view.; it is from the top round, oval, and ends by its base. It is on this form that primed hat is placed
fig. 14 . Fig. 16 . Same shape in profile. Fig. 17 Saddle profile view.; it is disposed to receive the form Fig. 15 .
Fig. 18 . Shape balloon mounted on his saddle and profile view.Fig. 19 . Same as front view. Fig. 20 . hat shape mounted on the balloon after it is shocked, the bumps are formed, and the link destroyed; it is added to a second saddle curve B, front view, on which shade and lays flat the brim. The form is fixed to the saddle by means of two pins. Fig. 21 . The previous figure front view. Fig. 22 and 23 . Elevation and horizontal section of the press. C. Piece of wood that forms the press, and lobbied by the screw D, E on the cap placed in the frame. F. open to introduce the hat. chassis Fig. 24 . Iron the brim on the frame of the press. Fig. 25 copper mold in profile.; it serves to raise the brim. Fig. 26 . The previous figure front view.
Manufacturing hats, perfected by BORRADAILLE. ( London journal of arts, July 1826, page 353 .)
The body of men's hats whose outside is covered with hair beaver or other, is usually made of carded wool, and embraced by hand in the form of a conical cap, may take various other forms in the fashion and using molds prepared therefor.
The author has aimed to prepare the body mechanics hats: for this he has devised two truncated cones, applied base to base and rotating assembly. Two more truncated cones of the same height, but the base is smaller, each rotated about its axis and cause their movement, the double cone on which they support slightly. A lock of wool out of a carding machine is spread, and passes between the double cone and small; it is wound around the first, and a small reciprocating back and forth to print one crossed filaments and is a kind of felting. When the thickness is sufficient, a sharp instrument cut the fabric at the junction of the bases of the double cone, thus obtaining two conical hats ready to form hats.
Development in the manufacture of hats . Patent to Th. Chaming Moore. ( London Journ. of Arts, April 1829, p. 26 .)
This improvement consists in the construction and the use of machines with which a series of filaments of wool or other suitable material is taken from a card and wrapped in a round mold to make the hull or as two or hats Page 146 caps in a single operation. The shape of the mold is cylindrical, approximately fifteen inches long, and twelve inches in diameter; its conical ends are rounded at the top, and a projection are about ten inches at each end of the cylinder. This mold, disposed to rotate on its axis, is carried on a carriage which moves back and forth at the top of the drawing roller carding machine. When it was covered with a sufficient amount of filaments of wool or other material, this fabric is cut circularly to the center of the roll, and it is slid towards each of its ends; is obtained by this means two hats or caps, which worked according to known methods is likely to take the form that it gives ordinary hats. The mold should be as light as possible so that it can rotate easily; the author advises, for this purpose, to make hollow and light wood.
Method to varnish hats to make them waterproof.
MM. Ritchard and Franks have recently taken a license for the following method to make waterproof hats. Ingrediens the employees are so numerous that they have no savings. We denote by italics those that composition contains useful, noting that the amount of alcohol should be in proportion.
Outside the cap is prepared with ordinary materials, it is dyed, and the shape. When completely dry, treated to the inner surface with the following composition:
A pound of gum kino , eight ounces of gum elemi, three pounds of frankincense gum , gum copal three pounds, two pounds of gum juniper , a pound of Page 147 ladanum gum , a pound of gum mastic, ten pounds and eight ounces of lacquer incense. All these materials are ground, and they are mixed together; then they were stirred into an earthen vessel where it took about four liters of alcohol, and stirred frequently.
When all these Ingrediens have dissolved, the mixture was added a pint of liquid ammonia and an ounce of lavender oil with a pound of myrrh gum , and gum opopanax, which was dissolved in three quarts spirit of wine . '
All these materials and incorporated perfectly well dissolved, form the mixture to test , with which it treats the inside of the hat.
Where the outer skin is formed and completely dry, the varnishing by means of a brush the inner surface thereof, and the underside of the board, with this composition. The cap is then placed in a dryer, is repeated several times this operation, taking care that the varnish does not penetrate the workpiece, so as to appear on the other side. We give solution to sweating of the head through small holes in the crown of the hat hair beaver, etc., is arranged in the usual way, and copal varnish is applied on the opposite side.
Report by M. LASTEYRIE, on behalf of the Committee on Economic arts, the goats down the Hautes-Alpes.
The hat is perfectly crafted, felting is equal, solid, firm and elastic: the dye is a beautiful black and appears to be solid, but it does not gloss found in hair hats rabbit. Hatter Lyon who made it believed that the dye destroys the soft and shiny hair. We see, in fact, for both samples felt caught in the same song, as one who spent dyeing is hard and stiff, while the one who has not undergone this operation is much smoother and softer. This kind of hat is also a lack of beautiful shiny hair that gives the beaver or the rabbit, but it would be easy to get this quality by mixing one of these hairs with the goat down. It is even noted that with equal dimensions, the weight of a hat down goats is less than an eighth, compared with a hat made with hare. Moreover, it seems that the use of goat down in the hat has been known for long as the Chevron Abyssinia; it was recognized that strengthens many felt.
It follows from these facts that can be made of excellent hats with the down of our native goats, and all indications are that they will have as much strength and durability than ordinary hats. The manufacturing cost is roughly the same.
The material used in the one that was sent to you
is estimated by the Hatter Lyon 6 fr. 90 c.
The felting March 30
Dyeing, finishing and trim, 5 "
Total 15 fr. 20 c.
Serres also sent a small sample of knitting, the finesse, the silky softness and especially, are very commendable. It's still a kind of industry that deserves attention fabricans and can be applied to other parts of hosiery; Finally, experience has taught that one can, by advising indigenous breeds with goats Asia, get thin, and as abundant as those which removes the last products.
We believe the company incentive must thank the sub-prefect of Embrun, for both the zeal he has shown in seeking to give new impetus to our industry, and beg to inform you, as well as it suggests, the method he uses to extract the down goats.
Signed DE LASTEYRIE rapporteur.
Adopted in session, May 9, 1822.
How to make hats hair otter, by Mr. TROUSIER.
To prepare the skin, it begins by tearing the jar above the skin; this is a common hair that is no good, then the skin is rubbed with etching primed with mercury; it is prepared by mixing, for a dozen skins, three ounces of mercury by etching book: it is digested in a water bath for six hours. Then we put three pounds of river water by each etching book primed and rubbed said skin.
It is left for forty-eight hours before putting it to dry ovens, care is taken to cover it with a canvas on which you put something heavy, for it is thoroughly wet, and that secrecy evaporates item.
The hair is cut, we put three ounces of this hair otter secreted, and two ounces of natural hair flabby, half an ounce of castor secreted, and half an ounce of fine red vicuna; one card all together, which is six ounces of fabric to make a hat.
The six oz fabric is partitioned into four equal parts which can arçonne one after another; four capades being made, it's about a half ounce of cloth used to what we call through, which starts in two parts to form the link of the hat; requires that the arçonnage gives a close-knit fabric to form the four capades, and there are no four hairs together, since it would make a default in the hat.
You start with two capades, between which puts the paper that there is the head and sides that hold together.
This assembly is called a canvas feutrière wherein one starts to felting; feutrière then develops, which is the beginning of the hat.
It adds around to give strength; after it is sprayed with a brush on the cross; we put the last two capades, and everything is wrapped in feutrière so that everything is felted together.
Taking hat said, it is dipped in a bucket of cold water, since hot water would felt too strongly, and we put it to the crowd, poured into a boiler three buckets of water into which we put half a bucket of wine dregs of pressed; boiled the water, in which the cap is crowd about four hours.
Composition of a second quality hats.
Two and a half ounces of castor secreted, half an ounce of otter secreted two and a half ounces of spineless otter, half an ounce of fine vicuna.
Beaver hats three quarters consist of three ounces of secreted hare, half an ounce beaver secreted, half an ounce of fine vicuna.
For gilding, one shot beaver spineless.
Mix half beavers.
Two and a half ounces of hare secreted, one shot rabbit spineless, an ounce rabbit secreted, two large fine vicuna.
For gilding, one ounce of castor spineless.
To secrete beaver, hare and rabbit, I put two pounds of water of river water and a strong book primed with the same amount of mercury as I marked above.
My new way of making my hats beaver, beaver three quarters, half beaver and others, gives much more strength and finesse to hats, because I put my foil between my capades lowering my hat, and thereby beaver is well built and well penetrated, and pumice or clothing can not be damaged; it appears that the beaver also above and below; The caps are also fine after having ironed and returned, being new, and are not prone to taking on water, which is an essential thing for the public. The difference is that all fabricans hats inserting their gilding that when the cap is advanced work the crowd; thereby gilding are only on one side, and can not penetrate into the hat, so that the gilding Page 152 is cut by half pumice and carried away by the dress, and when the cap is turned, it is much more common and much less use.
Method to manufacture silk hats mingled ; Mr. Miraglio of Paris.
We take the cocoon seed which has not been suppressed in the furnace, and the card, which produces a hair which is cut out of the card without any other primer, the length of eighteen lines ; two ounces of mixed four big hair and cut it with one ounce six large rabbit secreted six big feather hare no secret, and six large brown hare; one card all together; we arçonne; it meets the hair in the shape of the hat size that is desired; is tightened hat in the tree, and the crowd in the usual way.
The hat made changes to the dye, it takes a nice black; Finally, it undergoes regular primer, which is done with much success.
By this method, a much lighter hat, more beautiful, very soft, more durable and less prone we get to take on water. In truth, it is necessary to mix either with hair beaver, rabbit or any other animal, but only half.
The hair cocoon is handled very well with pet hair, it even has the advantage of giving more strength and more luster. Since it is much longer, they are exempt from the pass sécrétage mercury and etching; pernicious operation for the workers.
Mr. Robiquet in his excellent article Technological dictionary on the art of hat, announced that Mr. Guichardière had succeeded in making a felt unusually light and thin, with the hair of the sea otter. This Page 153 manufacturer wrote him for saying that he had made a mistake and had only covered hats with this hair, which is different. Mr. Robiquet believes to be sure he was not mistaken. As evidence, he cites the passage of the Memory of Mr. Guichardière inserted in the Annals of the industry for 1824 in which he announced this fact as follows: That he was able to felting bear hair sailor , etc. If he wanted to divorce his discovery, Mr. Trousier did well to seize and carry it away.
Finally, Mr. Lousteau received a patent for an improvement of five years, for hats made of any filamentous material coated with a primer and adhesive gum-high, and covered with a tissue mimicking beaver on wherein a coating is applied consisting of linseed oil, white lead and litharge.
Description of the method.
It takes a small ring, wherein feathers, is clamped between the two in one pass son with a node that can not loosen. It starts with eight or ten son attached to a small round piece of leather; we double the proportion that the work grows: the leather runs vertically to the worker and to the bottom edge, and moves horizontally to form the body of the hat; feathers are placed at each node, to clamp the pipes.
Are obtained in this manner, warmer than those which are used usually, which weigh only four ounces and which, besides the advantage of being impermeable, yet it has not deform, do hats Page 154 to lose their luster, and last far longer time than others.
First patent for an improvement and addition to the following mechanism specific to making hats in poultry feathers.
This mechanism is formed of an iron frame, representing the shape of the cap, and which can make more smaller, depending on the size of the caps. The side on which the work is done, the two cylinders are used and amount of which are brought together so that there can pass between them only one pen. The worker sets the pen in one hand and with the other he sews with a needle and thread, feathers against each other, taking care with the tip of the needle to move down in the outside. The book turns to the worker between the two cylinders, giving the united and form requested. One can make use of all the items requested in the seam for making a hat with feathers; are also used brass wire, but it has the disadvantage of making the heavier work.
Caps poultry feathers may be suitable in the same way as those of felt with water and gummed, which is applied to bond the top down, which then passes the iron; they are given the smooth and glistening glass.
Second patent development and addition of 7 April 1826.
Pen for making hats must be dyed, unless one uses it in its natural color. Feathers are taken one after the other, is bonded to the tip down; this peak is placed on another edge glued, which are inserted in a small groove in the inside of a circle, either Page 155 wood, tin or lead, etc. Thus, the preparation of the pen contains the primer in the body of the structure, and turns down the same side. For making the brim, the feathers are glued upon each other, without grooves, and the rest down on both sides, which hair is above and below the edge. The pen thus prepared and bonded, form ribbons of the desired length, which can also be obtained with the wire end. The worker sews these ribbons in braids on top of each other, putting down the outside body of the hat, and he leaves the edge on both sides. We can still prepare the feathers in many ways, sticking on straw we wrapped down or on the wicker, whale, drawstring; or any other kind of strong and lightweight body. It can even, with the strips of feathers, made with glue or the wire, to obtain fabrics with a frame of any filamentary material; the stuff that we will obtain in this way can be used advantageously for salon or any other objects, according to the tastes and fashions. We can also build the pen which tore down which takes a pluïole, and, carefully put in a frame, still produces a beautiful fabric. The author adds that the mechanism he described in his first patent for an improvement has not given any results he expected.
Third improvement patent, etc., of October 27, 1826.
The great strength that have hats poultry feathers, that the processes by which they are obtained can be applied with advantage to the shoe and other useful objects. The pen down and can be torn with a woven weft to obtain a fabric which, when applied on waterproof paper, cardboard or braids, product Page 156 lightweight hats, raincoats, hoses and cleared the coast of the pen. The cut down against the coast, mixed with the hair of every kind and secreted themselves felt and gives pretty hats. Any kind of wire of any material that is soaked with glue, gum, etc., is immersed in the down, and which is attached by twists around a rotational movement, which then passes into a tube of a suitable size, narrower side where the wire, which is entirely wrapped is pulled down, and then weaves with one weft of any filamentary material, provides a fabric which can be used to an infinite number of useful things. Hats then confectionnent such as silk and plush. This fabric is glued on paper, canvas, and the edges and the bottom is sewn.
Silk hats are remarkable for their beautiful colors, their shiny, elegance and beauty. Blacks especially offer brilliant that seems far superior to that of felt hats. As to the latter, it is easy to give them all the forms we desire; but they felt over the precious advantage of being lighter, such a long time, a more pleasing appearance 48 , and a much lower price. Silk hats were USIT since a long time in Spain before being known in France. It's hardly that since the beginning of the nineteenth century that we began to gradually adopt the use: strictly speaking, one can even say that this use has become general since the exhibition 1823 . hats Spanish silk seem still certify the infancy of this art; but thanks to the happy few attempts French industrialists, such production has acquired such a degree of perfection, and so important was that the annuitant and the fashionable have generally adopted the most beautiful qualities, and side are now sold to all classes of society.
Note 48: (return) The silk hats for men outweigh their beauty all felt hats, with the exception of the first qualities you pay for working 30 to 35 francs, while the finest hats Silk arent beyond 12 to 18 francs, as black as gray or various other fancy colors.
Among the French fabricans who greatly contributed to the development of such an industry, we like to quote one of the ablest of Paris Hatters, Mr. Fontés, rue de la Harpe, whose hats waterproof silk vie for their beauty, elegance and took all those other fabricans of the capital, as was judged by those he exhibited in 1827; one of his hats among others was plunged past spectators in a tub full of water without being penetrated. Mr. Fontés never took a patent for an invention; modesty on his part is because many people have taken over some of his methods, because we must add that Mr. Fontés is very communicative.
Hats silk plush require two operations. First, the carcass is made of cardboard or cap, or by very strong hemp cloth or cotton, and then the various layers of varnish. However it is almost always that the cardboard is first and which is adhered (with an adhesive made impermeable) a canvas which covers also several layers of impermeable varnish. When the hat carcase is thus prepared, it is then stuffed adhesive coverage, after suitably disposed and sewn. The hat and being prepared is bordered wings, it adjusts the cap and passed to iron like felt hats.
It is needless to say that each has its own particular hatter waterproof varnish, and the method of preparation of the carcass, he believes much higher than that of his colleagues; but we who are not motivated by reasons of interest, we need to ensure, in the interests of art, all of these are varnished or coated waterproof this property with wax, resin solutions to alcohol or turpentine oil, incorporated into the starch glue, gum arabic, gelatin, etc. Without going into greater detail, we believe he could do better Page 159 about the procedures followed by the best fabricans here that in describing invention patents attained about it.
New processes for the manufacture of silk hats ; by JOHN WILCOX. (By patent.)
The body or felt my hats is composed of two fabrics of sufficient strength, a cotton canvas and other wholesale velvet, known as fault or plush.
I cut strips of cotton fabric with a width of about six inches, depending on whether I want to give more or less lift my hat and a relative length. I met the two ends of these bands, for a just and tight stitching, and I fit into the top piece of the same fabric, with a diameter equal to that of my forms.
I forms plush Similarly, taking care to form the side seams of the fabric placed within.
Thus arranged my forms, I coat externally and internally that of the cotton lint is to say the side of the fabric, an adhesive composed of half ordinary glue and glue half Flanders. I then take a form of cotton cloth and a soft toy; I dress the first with the second, arranging them so that the bottoms of two shapes match perfectly. Then I put on these two together forms a chuck wood consisting of four rooms and a living, such as those used by hatters as the broken forms. I push the corner as far as necessary to make sure that there are no fold, and that the adhesion surfaces of the two forms is perfect. Page 160
At this point, I let them dry for three or four days, even more, depending on the season and the degree of atmospheric temperature.
The edges of the cap are the same fabrics and in much the same way, only with the difference that the cotton fabric is coated on both sides of which are fixed strongly down by gluing and by means of a press: one attaches to the form when everything is dry and properly made by stitching.
To very light hats, I use instead of cotton cloth, a fabric formed of filaments released from willow.
We see that, according to my methods, silks adorning the hat can only be firmly attached and evenly distributed over its entire surface, since they are part of the fabric that makes up the body of the hat.
Method for making hats of men and women, waterproof felt silk. (Patent of invention and development of five years granted, December 31, 1821, to Messrs MIERQUE (Jacques François), owner and DRULHON, merchant, both in Anduze, Gard department.)
Felt that made these hats are made of good lambswool, which crowd; he is given the form as usual. The cap thus prepared was wrapped with a paper soaked in a gummy, resinous preparation that we'll see the recipe; is immediately applied after a second envelope perfectly just a crossover velvet, silk organzine longhaired, manufactured for this purpose, and that is glued forcefully through the gum which we have just spoken; this is fixed to the pile Page 161 of the wing or rise edge of the hat, and is completed by covering the rest of the felt in the same manner. Is then subjected to the action of hat hot iron half, still having treatment every time we put it on the hat to soak in cold water, less than the risk of burning the hair, which immediately frieze and then falls and its luster. We can not give too much attention to this, because it is she who keeps, when done well, his hat and his shiny black.
Recipe for the composition of the waterproof glue, for fifteen hats:
Four big gum arabic;
Half wholesale beeswax;
Two large almond oil;
Fourteen ounces of rosin.
Sprayed gum, they put it to heat over low heat in the oil, stir constantly with a spatula, until reduced into a soft dough: it is then that adds wax, cut open, continuing apply a gentle heat: the composition is complete when everything is melted and well mixed.
When we want to use this glue is melted apart rosin, to which is added after the merger, the composition above; obtained in this manner that the lacquer is spread over the hot fine paper, is applied to the felt.
Hats of men and women plush silk or cotton, mounted on carcasses made of cardboard, leather and canvas waterproof or not waterproof, and only those mounted on canvas and paper waterproof or not waterproof; by MM. Achard and AUDET Lyon. (Patent import and development.)
After letting soak for some time, the cardboard in water strongly impregnated with alum, it is removed and dried: they then form around the carcasses; is placed on the round top of that box, which is covered with a canvas cardboard for extra strength; it overflowed about six lines the perimeter of the top of the shape of the hat; whereupon adjusts the edge as follows.
Is formed with a strip of skin, divided into two parts, one of which is intended to reach the edge to the shape of the hat circle, and the other to receive the card which should give the necessary consistency to the edge or wing hat. This cardboard and adapted to this part of the skin is then covered over and under a cotton canvas just overlap the part of the circle of skin for joining the brim. The board arrived at this state, is attached to the shape of the hat by the first part of the circle of skin. This done, the carcass is coated with a varnish made with
Alcohol. 2 liters.
Shellac. 1/2 kg.
Isinglass. 2 hectograms.
Gum Elemi. 15 grams.
Soapstone. 20 grams.
The juice of six garlic cloves.
Treacle. 20 grams.
Was melted shellac in alcohol heat from the sand bath; conjoined with gum elemi, then the juice of garlic, stir it and we add the treacle; the other is melted glue at a gentle heat in a pint of spirits of wine, there stirred the soapstone impalpable powder, and the two compositions are mixed well.
This varnish is not only the property to make the cardboard waterproof to water, but to give it a flexibility that can be increased at will, depending on the degree of density we give coating. Carcasses coated with this varnish are then covered with plush black or variously colored silk; when the seams are finished, the plush is fixed as we shall see.
Is covered with a cloth dampened in spirit-the part of the plush you want make it adhere to the frame, and a hot iron is happening on the machine. The vapor of the spirit of wine, penetrating the plush, softens the nail, which is incorporated into the fabric of the plush and makes it stick to the frame; This prevents the moisture through the fabric of the toy, and therefore soften the carcass is truly impermeable. Hats mounted on canvas or paper are lighter than the preceding, while also being waterproof.
Manufacturing hats cotton fabric and all kinds of filamentous fabrics. (Invention Patent granted for five years, June 7, 1816, to Mr. GURY in Paris.)
Forming the inner lining of the hat box cardboard is smoothed and polished.
The top of the form, as cardboard, is supported by a thin circular timber.
The tower is made of wire, and lends itself very well to the curved shape curved or not we want to give him.
These hats are not greasy; they resist all the insults seasons without experiencing deterioration, because they do not need, such as felt hats, a preparation which has the disadvantage of deteriorating moisture and break drought; they are also much lighter and cost less than felt hats.
Additions certificate issued to Mr. LOUSTAU, assignee of Mr. GURY.
These additions are intended to eliminate the differences that existed between the cloth hats of Mr. Gury and felt hats for.
The fabric that covered the bottom caps of Mr. Gury was not set and the edges offered neither round nor firmness.
Now the fabric is attached to the outside of the bottom of the cap by means of a carefully prepared glue and stitches imperceptible, so as to have all the necessary strength.
Firmness and perfect roundness of the edges of facings is obtained by the use of a battered leather, which, although very thin, very light, however, is a force equal to that of the felt: this leather is coated on both sides by the fabric, that is applied with the adhesive; three rows of stitches of the consolidated so that it can not be altered or by moisture or drought. Page 165
Development in the manufacture of silk hats, patented to Mathew W. and W. White. (. journ of arts Lond., January 1826, page 388)
The patented point out that we made two objections to the use of silk hats: that the harshness of the body to which is attached silk, often hurt the head, and the edges of the form longer exposed to shocks, silk is subject to removal and exposes the cotton fabric from below, which is a plant material is not likely to receive such a beautiful dyeing the silk, and then wears the hat promptly.
To remedy these shortcomings, the body of the hat should be made of silk as usual, and to correct the hardness of the inner edge, it covers the beaver makes it soft and able to bend; is then dyed hat in a beautiful black color inside and out, and after enough gummed, it is covered with silk, and instead of using to fix the cotton that is poorly color, we made the silk cover only, so that the cap retains its color in all its parts.
Manufacturing process hats tanned sheepskins. (Invention Patent granted for five years, June 14, 1816, to Mr. Ch. Pebrec in Brest.)
Soak in warm water a sheepskin tanned the necessary strength to the object; crush the skin in a mortar for eight to ten minutes; Make it on Page 166 form sheet provided for that purpose; roll over a drying linseed oil layer made, in which was dissolved copal at the rate of one ounce per quart; do drink this amount of size to moderate heat in an oven: Repeat this operation three times, and after each, sand dry your hat, then you paint with two coats of a black color, composed of primer linseed oil above and ivory black; these disposions made, sand all around the hat with crushed pumice, soft and wet, and apply two coats of varnish, being careful to sand the first layer.
The shako is a particular hairstyle troops and takes various cylindrical shapes, sometimes descending slightly to the top, and sometimes rather widening much. The schakos are manufactured as wool felt hats; they can also be stuffed with silk, cotton, horsehair, leather, and generally in the same way that the various hats that we have listed. Strictly speaking the schakos hats are a particular shape, rimless, with the leather skullcap and often provided with a patent leather visor. As this manufacturing method is no different from that of hats, we pass over in silence; but true to our system to communicate the progress of the kinds of manufacturing in our care, we will know for invention patents that have been achieved in this regard.
Schakos two pens. (Invention Patent granted for five years, May 8, 1820, to Mr. DELPONT in Paris.)
These two compounds are schakos markers: one, which Page 167 is within, is not dyed and coated with a primer which we will see the composition; the other, which is outside, is without glue and no primer; it is strong enough not to be torn, and it can neither be ashamed nor become mangy; Finally, rain and moisture can damage it; it dries as a sheet.
These two markers are pure wool France.
Primer for the internal marker.
Cherry gum 4 parts.
Colle-strong Paris 8
Manufacturing schakos polished leather, especially for light infantry ; Mr. Bercy young. (By patent.)
With cowhides weighing fifteen to eighteen pounds, which manufactures these schakos.
We begin by scrape both surfaces of the skin, to make it spongy and have to receive finishes.
When the stitched schako, it is dipped into water heated to the point that it can hold the hand. It will softens and becomes capable of taking all forms we want to give him. He was then put on a form of copper to eight keys, whose background is isolated copper. It then places all in a press knives, which are made to take shape schako by high pressure.
He was removed from the press and shape to put on another form of wood, only five keys, but the size is the same. This shape is also topped by a buffer timber, which is intended to form Page 168 of the concave bottom schako whose depth is 15 lines by 8 inches 3 lines in diameter.
The shape and buffer are pressed and held against the other four iron flanges, down along the outside schako, will bind with many screws around the edge of the plateau of iron of the same caliber as schako which raises the form. It is in this state to be allowed to dry without being able to hide in any of its parts.
The shako is well prepared to receive the two following primers:
The first primer consists of a pound of good glue dissolved in four quarts of water that can actually reduce by boiling two pints and a half. Care is taken to remove the scum as it forms. This glue is allowed to cool until it is more than lukewarm, and we poured into the schako sufficient to coat. Left to dry in half; we substitute the form of wood well soaped and flanges to form copper; allowed to dry again in this state.
For the second primer is melted together in a double boiler, three pounds of yellow wax crude with a pound and a half of dry pitch. The boiler is removed from heat, and add a pound of ivory black powder, sifted silk; This mixture is stirred until it is dropped, since the ivory black is first up.
The shako is still on the form of wood and dry, iron flanges are also withdrawn, you coat brush outside schako a layer of this composition. After that you screw on the key medium in a hole provided for this purpose, an iron handle with which you are submitting this schako over a low heat, in order to penetrate the composition in the pores of the skin . As soon as the layer starts to disappear, we Page 169 remove from the heat and the brush to also expand strongly in what may remain on the surface.
While it is hot, you still put in the press, which, while cooling, it resumes its original shape. After which it is placed on the nose of a round in the air with its wooden form; and with a piece of wood carved properly given the polish is desired.
Fig. 27 . boiler mounted on the stove, in which we do soften the leather to make it suitable for work. Fig. 28 . Shape copper eight keys. Fig. 29 . Dice copper to form the bottom of the shako. Fig. 30 . Screw Press and balance. It is assumed that the shape of a copper lined schako is in press. Fig. 31 . Shape wooden five keys. Fig. 32 . Stamp wood which forms the bottom of the shako. Fig. 33 . Four iron flanges serving to maintain the shape and the pad against each other. Fig. 34 . Plateau iron placed against the form and which are fixed with clamps four screws above. Fig. 35
. Boiler with his furnace, in which the first preparations were
prepared: we only see the tip, because this device is similar to the
following. Fig. 36 . boiler on the stove for the second primer. Fig. 37 . Schako the form presented to the fire wood. Fig. 38 . handle iron screwed on form. Fig. 39 . Fireplace, called Prussian, sheet iron. Fig. 40 . scrub brush to extend the primer. Fig. 41 . Facing lathe to polish schakos. Fig. 42 . Piece of wood polish. Fig. 43 . Schako finished and trimmed his visor. Fig. 44 . Two concentric rings that are used to enter the upper circle schako to polish.
Fig. 45 . Chassis iron hinge mounted on a board, which is used to adjust and gather together the various pieces of brass that make up the jugular. Fig. 46 . Schako completely filled and placed on the head of an outfielder.
Process for dye the schakos cotton fabric whose color is altered.
This process involves boiling a quarter of wood from India or Logwood, cut up in three liters of water, enough to dye twenty schakos.
Extending this liqueur with a soft brush well stocked in the direction of the hair, being careful not to damage the tape, and so that the hair is soaked. When schako is dry, brush it with the other soft, dry brush to smooth the hair and décatir. ( Ann. March et al. , January and February 1824, page 47) Page 171
Italy has long been in possession of providing Europe with these beautiful straw hats that are so sought after by the ladies, and the price is still rising to 1,200 francs. for beautiful qualities made near Florence. Since the industry has taken a great boom in France, we focused on this type of manufacturing, to free ourselves from this luxury pays tribute to Italy. Already in 1819 we saw included in the exhibition of products of French industry straw hats due to our factories, whose beauty was remarkable. These fabricans there are:
Mr. 1º Clairvaux to Troyes (Aube) to the cutest tissue samples straw hat, imitating well enough hats Italy.
2º Mr. Thibault, of the same place, for her hats yellow and white straw, of any quality, very well made.
3rd MN, Saint-Loup (Haute-Saône), straw hats for the manufacture of which employed approximately 350 children.
4th MN, Ban-de-la-Roche (Vosges), beautiful samples of straw hats performed by young girls.
The exhibition in 1823 gave more satisfaisans results; finally that of 1827 largely implemented the hopes that 1823 had been conceived. Indeed, the departments of Ain and Isère seem Page 172 competed efforts to import this kind of industry that tests are usually non satisfaisans tended to be regarded as not being likely to flourish in France.
MM. Héricart Thury and Migneron, in their report on the products of French industry in 1827, submitted on behalf of the Central Board to the Minister of trade and manufactures, and Mr. Ad. Blanqui in his history of exposure to products 1827 reported the fabricans of these hats who got happier results. They are:
Mr. Dupré at Lagnieux (Ain), who was honorably mentioned in 1823, earned a silver medal . He outlined a series of straw hats, so Italy, in a variety of qualities: the most common are 2 fr. each and the finest 200 fr. Each type has a degree of finesse and soft corresponding to its price, and all are remarkable for careful preparation. This manufacturer occupied in 1827, fifteen hundred workers, instead of five hundred he occupied in 1823 his production, which was only eight to ten thousand hats, was increased from fifty to sixty thousand. One can judge by that development and progress in the industry.
Mr. Dupré also exposed samples of straw he uses to get the amount needed for maximum production indicated above; it took sow thirteen hundred and sixty bushels of wheat, which amounts to two bushels tenth for every hundred hats.
MM. Pecherand Dubois et Cie, Moirans (Isère), received a bronze medal . This is Moirans, near Grenoble, they have naturalized making straw hats in Italy. Those they display in the Louvre received no dressing; they come from the hands of the workers, and can stand comparison with what Italy has sent us more beautiful. Page 173
Any flaws, far from it, are not suitable for the manufacture of hats; those which are thinner, more flexible, longer, that is to say the most remote from each other node, and which are not rusted or stained, are most suitable for the manufacture; those of rye, the most beautiful of this cereal less are employed in the manufacture of certain grades of hats. For beautiful hats from Italy, quality wheat that is spelled variety is employed Triticum spelta , called spring wheat, Marzola or Marzolo , whose aborted fruiting. MM. Guy Harrison and obtained a patent in London for a process thereto, which is to pull the wheat with the root, when the ears are trained to assemble into bundles of about one hundred and fifty strands, and to dry celles- it carefully in the sun, avoiding shelters by the dews and rains. Straw acquires a beautiful yellow and very suitable for the manufacture of woven hats color. It also makes hats with straw prepared ryegrass, rice and rye. Regardless of what we have just stated, it is even more caring for straws: we must sow wheat that must occur in the soil be not exposed to mist or spring rains, because the straws of these localities are dotted with permanent stains. This grain can be grown in mountainous terrain; you must visit the field and choose only the finest straws. Having separated the leaves, in many mills, the straw above and beneath each node is cut; these nodes are discarded and the end straws: these pipes after their length in boxes compartments are classified then; the best have 15 to 20 inches in length; most valued are those that are thin, not stained, and are about the size of a pen ordinary. There is Page 174 of the pipes that have only 5-6 inches in length: one finds employment. Before this operation, usually straw bleaches as follows.
If any flaws offered the same color, this operation would be unnecessary; but as it is not so, we are forced to use them, especially when you want to dye them and give them delicate colors. To help them acquire a beautiful white, they are immersed in the liquid chloride lime.
But as we do not try to manufacture the white hats, recourse to the sulfur treatment, we practice as follows: We take a barrel of about 4-5 feet tall and smashed both ends on the walls internal paper which is glued to butcher carefully all the issues that could give vent to sulphurous acid gas; it stands on the one end thereof, and 15 or 16 centimeters of the upper part is fixed to support four lugs on a circle which is tensioned wire netting with a mesh size of 3 cm, and straws by which we arrange small handles, folding layers; the barrel is sealed by a lid surrounded by edges; we finally covered with a blanket. All being well prepared, is introduced into the barrel stove full of lit coals on which a vase sheet containing sulfur powder is placed, lying in the mud in a very thin layer to prevent it clumps; because in this case too with the sulfur flame burns and darkens the straw. The sulfurous acid gas, which is the product of burning sulfur in the barrel and filled the whole capacity, acts on the coloring of the straw which is largely destroyed in about ten to twelve hours. Page 175 is then arranged between the bleached straw wet cloth to make it more flexible, and withdraws it in three or four hours. It was after the straw is bleached ordinarily you cut it in knots and splits lengthwise strands. We will return.
Experience has shown that we can give some color to the straw, if we did previously opened. To achieve this we must not it is in a state of perfect dryness, because then it breaks; so you have to leave them overnight in a low place and a little wet; it is easy to incise, flatten and draw. For this, once employed a kind of wooden spindle A, fig. 47 ; hose straw left hand is held, we did get the time in one end, and tilting it and pushing it in the direction of the slot is extended it to the other end: after that straw was lying on the spindle, by rubbing it with the polisher, fig. 48 . Finally flatten it is also rubbed on his polished with very thick solid plank walnut and apple. The polisher is seen in profile in B and C. This face, which was all the longer we had to renew for each pipe was shortened and improved by ML Here is the process that has invented and described in Technological dictionary; we will borrow this description.
The fig. 49 represents the mill split, open and smooth straw. On board a rectangle applewood A, 20 to 15 centimeters, are assembled in two tenons and mortises strong binoculars BB, covered by an upper crossbar C, adjusted to the fork end Page 176 binoculars; it is between the binoculars are placed both cylinders D, E, seen perfectly in fig. 50 showing from behind the mill. The fig. 51 shows the profile of binoculars, so we can distinguish the projection has , upon which the cross b , to which is attached by two screws, the important part that is used to open the straw and navigate between the rolls of the mill. This cross member is placed on both ends of the twin projections, and is secured thereto by two wood screws, as shown at B, Fig. 49 . were seen in binoculars, fig. 51 , a notch c longitudinal receiving the two journals of the cylinders, the lower of which rests on a rounded notch, and is surmounted by a bearing of which is pressed by the screw f , so that the upper roller presses the straw sufficiently extend it. It is seen in these two screws fig. 49 .
The crossbar b door in the middle room g , which is secured by two screws, and bringing the woodcock's beak protruding h , which is seen on both sides, fig. 52 and 53 . The fig. 52 shown above, such as the present fig. 49 ; the fig. 53 shown from below, so that we can be conceived construction. The beak h is sharp protruding above, it is rounded downward, and will always widening, to direct the chaff as it flattens to engage it while extent, between the cylinders. Here is how to operate. We take the moist straw left hand, it brings the beak of woodcock in the pipe and it grows; straw splits, and we continue to grow until in turning the crank G, we feel that it is caught between the cylinders: one lets go of the straw; continue to crank until it is done all at last; then it all falls flat open and behind the mill. And ten thousand straws is prepared in a day, while the old process we do that preparing percent. These straws are thus disposed for dyeing. Page 177
Dyeing straw blue.
Indigo Guatimala powder quality.
Sulphuric acid 66 (oil of vitriol).
Indigo is introduced and sulfuric in a small flask or vial medicine that is heated in a sand bath acid; once we realize that there is more excitement, we add potash and allowed to digest for a day and a night. The thus prepared solution of indigo, was boiled in a pan of water in sufficient quantity so that the straws can take a bath; is then added gradually sulfate indigo with a wooden spoon handle very long until we have the color you desire. The pan from the heat is then removed, immersed in the liquor straws unopened, and when they contracted the color is desired, washed with fresh, pure water, and allowed to dry in the free of dust.
For the sky blue or azure there is far less sulphate of indigo, and straws must be open.
Boiled turmeric powder ( terra merita ) and more or less quantity, according to the yellow shade to be obtained; one passes through a screen, the liquor on fire is reset, it plunges straws unopened, and boiled until they have acquired the desired color; then they are removed, washed and allowed to dry. Tincture of turmeric is not exhausted after this operation; is used in order to obtain lower color yellow.
To dye black straws, it first starts Page 178 by engaller, that is to say, to immerse them in a decoction of galls; there is immersed in a bath of pyrolignite iron, and ultimately in a decoction or bath of logwood. Is washed and is dried.
We will pass over in silence the colors red, pink, green, brown, etc., since so far it does no use hats that color.
It is good to note that the flaws, though immersed in the same boat, do not all have the same color; so you have to sort and match. After that, either because they are naturally colored, sulfur, bleached or dyed, they must be resolved, smooth and submit them to the press in paper placed between two boards so that the wires are reduced in strips roughly purposes.
We have already said that after having cut the knots of the straw pipe is incised longitudinally into two or four ribbons, depending on the fineness of the hat: it is used for a small knife or knife blade tip curve . All these strands are then rounded up and placed in layers between wet cloth for about three hours to make them more flexible and able to be braided without this operation they would break at any moment.
straws for the manufacture of caps must be braided, and the size of the braid is on the size of the straw strands, depending on the quality of the caps, which is divided into two classes:
1 ° fine hats are those made with pigtails or braids which fourteen and even beyond, stitched together, offer a decimeter (47 lines) in length.
For those of straw or bark, the same width consists of less than ten braids; with this exception, the same mode of production.
It is good to note that for very fine straw hats, the division of the pipe into two or four strands using the knife is inadequate, and, as this division has to be much larger, we can not achieve this through the knife; also do you use a more convenient way. It is to set the embroidery needles muslin equidistant from each other and on the same line; for it is implanted in the head of the resin; these needles thus arranged form a kind of comb which is placed on the end of the straw, and wet pre-slit along its length; then it is obvious that this tape pulling straw to the other end it is divided into as many small strips as there are pins. These straws is matches, depending on their length and width, and are used according to the different degrees of beauty hats.
These are women who then braids with straws so prepared and moist. Notwithstanding this, they should always have their fingers a little wet, to keep the straw flexibility by preventing it from drying out. It is obvious that we must have intelligent working well for recorder straws and especially to weave a tight and equal manner so that the braids are united and bumpy spot on the sides. Once we have made enough of these braids and they were given the width and length on the quality hats with the manufacture of which they are intended, they go to another shop. There, other women sew in a way Page 180 almost imperceptible by rolling flat spiral on themselves, either edge to edge in the same plane, or to recovery. But the beauty of the work, it is essential that this be not apparent seam. It is in this state, or even the braid, which delivers the straw hats to merchants who shape or better give them the fashionable shape 49 and proper primer.
Note 49: (return) In this work, we proposed that we describe the first hat-making; preparation for high school, we refer to the manuals of ladies, ladies, etc.
Primer straw hats.
Whatever the skill of the workers, beauty and uniformity of straws; regardless of the care and skill with which the braids were made, we need to make this stuff straw is well connected and has the consistency and gloss, it receives a primer through the press or ironing. Here is how these two methods are practiced.
1º Primer by pressure . It starts by wetting hats with water, rice starch or gum arabic; when they are dry, they are piled on each other, placing between each of the timber trays well heated; in this state, they are subjected for twenty-four hours in the action of a strong pressure on the edges first, then the outline and top caps.
2º Primer by ironing . This average was largely abandoned in the previous one, since Mr. Mégnié has designed and built two machines that facilitate this singularly ironing. It is said MEM 50 , species Page 181 of turns in the air, one of which is intended to ironing the edges, and the other contour and top caps. In these two rounds, the bonnet, the same primer as cloth for the process of the press, is placed in a form that the timber exactly fills and which, rotating on itself slowly, using a gear angle that the worker Hatter puts himself in action, resulting in its rotation, and made him successively present all points of its outer surface to the action of hot iron and immobile, strongly pressed over a lever disposed suitably for this purpose. This process, which leaves nothing to be desired for the perfection of the work, is so short, a worker returns to his day hundred twenty hats, instead of twenty four he had trouble making board act iron hand still on the hat. We will add to it as polished and shiny hats that are smoothed and is much higher than they gain by pressure. We have shown fig. 54 , the press that people use, and fig. 55 , 56 and 57 , other instruments for splitting straws.
Note 50: (return) Dict. technolog.
We will now discuss some processes put to use by several French and foreign fabricans; they contain some concepts that, to avoid repetition, we thought it necessary to mention. In England we also engages successfully with this kind of production if we are to judge at least by the following section of Galignani's Messenger 51 .
Note 51: (return) In England straw of two-row barley is primarily used for such manufacture, said hinge, hordeum distycum .
The Royal Dublin Society recently adjudged for this branch of industry, four prizes of 20, 15, 10 and 5 pounds. A statement read on this occasion contains Page 182 the following: The extraordinary progress that has taken place over the last three years in this kind of industry, and the sophistication with which it is managed today, give reason to believe that manufacture, if it is pushed with all perseverance and proper activity, will soon put Ireland in a good condition to compete with Italy for this product. Merchants of Dublin, who do this kind of business, asked for their opinion on the quality of the six straw hats who got the first prize, said that if the same caps Livorno quality first, such as those to import into these lands, were mixed with them, there is none, the fact of the article, which could make a distinction between one and the other. These dealers reported further in respect of another hat that had only won the third prize, such a cap would do in London, according to the current price, no less than five guineas. The committee was further notes that the cristatus Cynosurus is not the best fit for this kind of manufacturing raw materials, since this substance is its too hard and fibrous nature, and generally uneven color. In the opinion of the committee, rye straw ( Secale cereale ) is much better; and he added that one of the hats that got the first prize, hat made of fragrant spring grass ( Anthoxanthum odoratum ) seemed a higher than any other part of the same competition quality. ( Dublin correspondent .) Page 183
Manufacture of straw hats in the Italian manner ; by WEBER. ( Verhandl of Vereins zur Befoerderung of Gewerbfl in Preussen.. , Jan and Feb 1826, p 45... 52 .)
Note 52: (return) The encouragement of Berlin Corporation proposed a price for such manufacture.
The hats of the most beautiful and the strongest straw are made in Italy. They are of two kinds: 1st hats Florence, bringing together the highest degree the strength to perfection of work, but are also the most expensive; 2 ° Those of Venice, not all-of-fact as thin and as strong as the first, but were less expensive.
Mats and hats of the most famous straw manufacture in Italy, in the Seven Towns ( Sette Communi ). This work is the main industry and the leading resource for this small country, the extent of which is about four square leagues of Germany, and the population of ten thousand.
The annual report of the production, including straw prices, amounts to three million pounds Venetian. It is in the towns of Lusiana and Giacomo that this industry has the greatest importance; this is also where the species grows mostly specific to this kind of work wheat. The straw is harvested and matched carefully, and torches, cut to equal lengths, gathered and sold by boots fabricans mats, at 8 fr. pound of twelve ounces. These sell their mats to fabricans hats.
The grass used by Ms. Wells is the poa pratensis , which grows throughout Germany in pastures and low meadows. As for Mr. Cobbett, he experimented not only on the same poa pratensis , but several other natives of England grasses, such are: melica caerulea , the bentgrass stolonifera , the perennial solium , the Avena flavescens , the Cynosurus cristatus , the Anthoxanthum odoratum , and bentgrass canina . All these plants have provided mats may be used.
Their methods for making straw vary. Mrs. Wells is harvesting of the plant since the time of flowering until the approach of the maturity of the seed: it employs only the part that is between the top and the top node; she pours over boiling water, and then dried in the sun; She repeats this process once or twice, or until the leaves around the stem as a sheath, stand out. So it whitens as follows: it starts with making water soap, to which it adds pearl ash potash until it dominates; it moistens the plant with this solution and place straight into a box; she is burning sulfur, and covers fund cloths to enclose the sulphurous vapor; and it continues to burn sulfur until moistened with soapy water to dry plant: which requires about two hours. During this process the sulfur is repeated once or twice. The plant is then able to be braided. This preparation is, as we see, very simple; it does not require special instruments, and all farmers can do it themselves without difficulty.
Mr. Cobbett otherwise runs laundering. He places the stems of the plant, gathered in bundles, in a small bowl, and he overwhelms boiling water; there he left for ten minutes, then it removes, and extends over Page 185 turf well short. After seven days, the bleaching is completed. June is the most suitable for harvesting and preparation of the plant.
Helped by the work of aliens, I took care of that manufacture, says Weber, and did comparative tests, with the following results:
1º poa pratensis is very clean in the making of straw hats. His torch is at least as fine as those of Italy; but they seem more solid.
2 ° the wild grasses of Prussia can be used for the same purpose.
3rd The color of straw depends on how the money; we should do this operation especially in fine weather and bright sunshine. Thus, the process of Mr. Cobbett is it much better than Mrs. Wells.
4th Straw and prepared to leave well weave and sew.
At the request of Mr. Weber, the encouragement Company for growing gardens, was responsible for the increase native grasses that can be used in the manufacture of straw hats, and bring enough seed from Italy plant employed there to look at the spread in Prussia. This plant, in the opinion of the most learned members of this Society is the tricticum aestivum , which, sown in a thin and smokeless field, provides a thin thatch. It is likely that in the course of next summer, the fabricans who will seek straw hats in the Italian manner have access to the Italian straw and straw native grasses, and may use these comparatively first two in making hats materials. Page 186
Hats made from native straw, imitating those Italian Straw by M. de Bernardière in Paris. (Invention Patent of five years.)
Straws used in the manufacture of these native hats are from Cotentin and around Paris; finest is more usually found in grasslands than anywhere else. Other straws in a less good quality, is more commonly found in rye sown slightly than in any other place.
One and the other of the spreader need to be a preparation of the straw color of Italy. This preparation is to put as promptly as possible after harvesting, the fetus not yet ripe in cold water, which is gradually reaching the boiling state; after which they are removed and exposed to the hot sun to dry, taking care to water them until the straw becomes a suitable binder and very yellow, or it breaks, and worthless to weave and even less to be sewn.
The braid is made with thirteen bits of straw; sewing to the plaits are disposed one in the other with a threaded through the inside of the mesh, and so that, to get them to a whole cap, it must travel all the stitches from one end to another.
Straw Hats from the Black Forest.
Once we did in the Black Forest as straw plaits very coarse; hats that were manufactured in only worn by the inhabitants of the country, and almost all were sold in France. The French government wanting to encourage this branch of industry in the Vosges, doubled entry fees straw hats, fixing to 8 francs per dozen 53 . This increase Page 187 tax put a stop to this lucrative trade with France. Mr. Huber, bailiff of Triberg, having knowledge of the methods used by the Italians for making hats for straw, urged his fellow citizens to give more finesse in their tissues, which were still very crude. In 1804 he was making instruments through which could be divided into ten parts, the straw finest; he cut the straw before the perfect ripeness, had bleach and distribute among the most skilled workers. So that in 1813 it had already reached to the straw hats such a degree of finesse and perfection, and a beautiful finish, they are usually sought not only in the country but also in France, Holland, Belgium, and even in Russia, where it makes large shipments. The sole bailiwick of Triberg, fifteen hundred people involved in this branch of industry and produce annually one hundred and twenty miles of fabric straw.
Note 53: (return) Bulletin Incentive Company, 1819.
Straw hats double tissue upside down on wicker sticks, whale, reed and other similar flexible materials , Mr. BLOUET, manufacturer of straw hats at the prison of Mont Saint-Michel, Department of Channel. (Patent of invention.)
Before splitting the straw, it is made a rule to flatten wood, scraping on both sides with a knife steals this operation a part of the spongy tissue that lines the inside of the tube and thus makes much more flexible less brittle; it is then split with a new tool called chain consisting simply several needles attached to a handle and Page 188 spaced from each other along the width as it is intended to give small blades of straw. By pushing these needles, and arranged on one end of the flattened straw and pulling themselves to this end, the tip of each needle and splits this straw reduces many equal portions as there are slots.
This is the straw so prepared that the manufacture of new hats; it bypasses the on extremely thin strips of willow and which one meets some fine blades whale for increased strength.
Private straw supports spongy by the operation of scraping that was just talk, being very thin, one double to implement it; this is the way to get a very tight fabric and also very equal, since the book does not present then these small bumps and imperfections that are inevitable when one uses straw to form a single point tissue; two straws give ease to adjust imperceptibly those just breaking. The hats are dyed and prepared by ordinary methods.
Men's hats and women in straw mats, wicker and whale, seamless , Mr. Michon eldest son. (Invention Patent of five years.)
These hats are made of a fabric with a warp in whale thinned using a kind of plane, consisting of a piece of wood three inches long and two inches wide, which houses a sharp iron .
The plot is filled or wicker or straw; wicker is split according to the form that we want to give to the fabric and preparing the same way that the whale. As for the straw, it is split by means of a tool or ivory knife or steel. Page 189
The hats are made by hand on wooden forms, and when they are completed, those intended for men are dyed in black or gray, and those women are in ecru. The women's hats are most commonly filled with straw or pieces of ears.
One can use the same process to make the schakos the use of the troops.
Improvement patent and adding issued December 28, 1822 , to Mr. ACHILLES OF Bernardière, assignee of the patent of Mr. Michon.
These perfectionnemens involve introducing the previous mode of production means to weave wicker with flat sides, to make the hats splints poplar, willow and generally any kind of green and dry wood frame; Finally, in the application of these various tissues in the making of schakos and other headgear for both civilian and for military
As for the preparation of various raw materials, it is absolutely the same as shown in the patent of Mr. Michon.
Straw hats sewn, etc .
These hats are for lower quality than those we have described; we see the one braid sewn around the edges slightly from each other and so that when the straw cutting with scissors, they fight it out easily. We also made with flat straws of varying widths glued or sewn on a base strip; sometimes it interweaves these braids more or less fine. All these hats that varies infinitely are lower than those in thin braids prices. Page 190
Straw hats are sewn with tiny straw mats sewn on the other; they start with the middle of the cap; forming a button and turning on the straw itself is the well conduit until it has made a great enough to round an ordinary cap. The sizes vary those heads that we want to do.
When the workers arrived at this point, it bends the two rows of straw so as to begin the so-called decline of the cap; Then she sews her always turning straw, being careful to also lead, that is to say not to drink more in one place than in another, which would form bumps that fade difficult to rolling and reappear at the slightest moisture.
The cap is complete, that is to say, reached the height that you want to give him, be folded into four: the front, back and sides of the ears, where to start the password; Taking straw, it is given a slight curve, and it starts from the fold indicating the right ear by turning the form to the fold indicating the left ear where one stops and the the straw is cut, taking care in the sewing of the drink lightly to force the pass to get up. The worker must be careful to spread the straw in the ears, that is to say, almost completely covers so as not to miss a very small portion to give way to all the ends of straw should call his pass; it must still be observed beginning how long is she wants to give the password of his hat, as if she wants to make a nearly round hat, so she does not radiate much or not at all. If his pass must be ten inches forward and four back, then it will cut its flaws and radiate until it six inches in advance; then, instead of cutting the straw P Page 191 as it has done until now, it will continue to sew by turning around the cap so she arrived ten inches in advance; the back will necessarily have four.
Children's hats are all round, that is to say that the form is complete, without leaving the straw, it is made to drink heavily, which forces her to get up and begin to advance and that 'Then we continue always turning until it is determined that the hat is big enough. When the first six laps of the pass is completed, workers must frequently ask his hat on a table to see if his lead is flat, as if the straw is too far ahead godera, something to be avoided ; if on the contrary it is not enough, it will fall on the eyes as a lampshade. Each piece of straw with only twelve yards long, one is forced to make frequent rentrures. Several cut through straw, leaving a strand of the braid at both ends, which, forming the hook fit into one another. This way is very clean, but very solid. My suggestion would cross his straw on one another, the length of only one line, taking care to keep the two ends by a point one above the other below; the small bump formed by the junction flattens the cylinder, and never risk to shed when cylindreur forces the shape of the hat to give it greater dimension than that for which it was made.
From the énuenchage.
Straw, some equal that we can choose the preserves sometimes browner parts that are only seen when the hat is finished; the worker must cut all shades and replace them with another straw whose color matches perfectly with the hat; she managed to hide this kind of mending Page 192 crossing the straw as I just said above.
The are used to make hats sewn straw small braids made in Switzerland, bundled twelve yards, and the price varies depending on the fineness or white.
Most estimates are those that come from Freiburg. Packets, folded over a quarter in length, are tight and arrested the two ends: that straw is a rounder, strong, and whitens very well.
Aargau instead is sold in packets of folded half a yard in length, arrested one end; its texture is loose, flat, and straw, although white when new, yellowing in the sun and whitens evil; Sewing can be indistinctly on both sides; Fribourg has to the contrary, it is known that small prickles form straws when making the braid; at the point they are all placed downwards, backwards and upwards. If the hat is made in reverse, it is studded with lots of little bits that the cylinder can not even lower and form a kind of stuffed that night and completely spoils the effect a hat.
I mentioned earlier how cylindrer these hats. One also uses smooth straw called French straw; manufacturing the cap is the same; fashion varies forms and straws that are used for sewn hats.
This note was given to us by a lady that modesty does not allow us to name.
The wooden hat are two ways: the first one operates with braids made with wood strands more or less fine, and like those of straw quality of these hats is known as the PA Page 193 rice straw ; the second is played by a very fine weave, like baskets and coarse hats of straw. Is used to manufacture the white wood without knots, very Lians and very flexible when they have just been cut. Preference is given to willow wood, poplar, willow, linden, etc. The process involves dividing them into very thin sections like brooms willow we are annually carried by the Alsatian. Several methods are known, one that seemed the easiest and best thing is a kind of jack plane with two chains, one of which is in sharp teeth in the vertical direction; it is followed by another which is usually iron: this provision that the chip removal thereof is divided into as many strips or threads, plus one, as the first tooth. It is good to add that in order for each tooth always returns to the same place, the jointer is constantly slipping between two guides.
We can dye the strands of wood like straw; the process is no different. If one wants to get white, these strands are dipped or hats made of cold water in a soap containing some indigo solution and extends them for a few days in a meadow, from taking care that they begin to dry to water them with pure water.
It grows three main species wicker France:
1 ° red osier, Salix purpurea . LIN.
2º Wicker yellow, Salix vitellina .
3rd Wicker White, Salix viminalis .
The red osier has Lians more than the other two branches, but it acquires less in length and thickness; yellow is a little less binder, but its branches are slightly longer and thicker; Finally, white is still Page 194 bigger, longer and less binder. It would appear from this that the red osier deserves preference for making hats.
Hats wood Bernardière.
Mr. Achilles Bernardière, because of its special education, managed to make beautiful hats and wicker schakos complexion. For Division wicker strands, it makes use of the machine that the English use to the straws, and they call bric-a-brac . This machine or instrument 54 is a cylinder ivory, iron or steel, 5 to 6 mm in diameter, 55 to 60 in length, which is topped with a cone height of 5 mm. Is proposed to take twelve strands of straw, divide the base of the cone into twelve equal parts, and using a triangular file division is pushed until we got to the point of cone, but not exceeding Clearly, the cone must have twelve equal edges and sharp. When we want to divide the straw, it has the peak of the cone as a pipe, and that the instrument is pushed wafer into twelve equal straw strands. The bric-a-brac have from three to forty divisions, according to the fineness you want to give straws and size of it.
Note 54: (return) See Technological dictionary.
M. Bernardière, using an instrument that differs little from the bric-a-brac , small wicker in very thin sections, it makes much thinner and more narrow by passing them in a variety of sectors sharp and so tight that these wicker strips barely half a millimeter in width; it is what is, so to speak, the frame of the fabric. Chain or frame adds Page 195 ML is part wicker part in whale; that is to say, alternately two wicker strands and strand whale suitable for this purpose as wicker.
These hats are then dyed, such as straw; they should not be confused with the following. We will attach here the report that was done about it by Mr. Bouriat to the Society for encouragement of domestic industry.
Report by Mr. Bouriat, on behalf of the Committee on Economic arts, on wicker hats M. of Bernardière.
The board instructed its Committee on Economic arts to visit the factory of wicker hats M. Bernardière, located in the house of correction Poissy, and to report to the products of this factory. The committee, unable to point transport mass at this distance, has asked me to go and take all the information he wanted, and tell him before you submit his opinion on this new kind of industry. I visited the workshop and many others that exist in the same house. I will be honored to give you an overview, after speaking from Mr. Bernardière of which is the main subject of this report.
I took in every detail the work that run on; I saw that the most incompetent hands could prepare wicker that is used to make hats. First this wicker split into five or six, according to the size of the strand, is thinned by species of cutting dies through which it is passed, and are graduated so that the opening of the latter more may pass a very thin and narrow strip. These are the strips which, according to their degree of thickness, form the fabric or string, because you can Page 196 pass tapered whale to support the body of the hat, the fabric is made by hands more skilled than the first. These hats, made up, are likely to receive the dye different colors according to the taste of a dealer who buys them. This is not without difficulty that sets the color wicker; also that part of the factory she still deserves some research on the part of Mr. Bernardière and dyers.
The strength of these hats is far superior to those made with straw; M. has also Bernardière he intended to make for light troops, and in peacetime, wicker schakos much lighter than felt. I put on the table a sample of schakos dyed black and covered with a plate to designate the regiment.
The price of these hats, though inferior to those of felt, did not appear before this committee in the proportions you could need; also he advised Mr. Bernardière to employ mechanical means to thin wicker. If, as we have no doubt it can reach arm to do without this preparation, the longest and most expensive, it can significantly reduce the price of his hats.
Your committee has seen in this kind of industry, a rather interesting object, since it tends to reduce considerably the use of hare that derives from abroad, to light felt hats that people rich wear during the summer. M. Bernardière has already made this year a lot of hats wicker; but he could not, despite his zeal, provide only some of the orders that were made to him. He will work tirelessly over the winter to be able to meet next summer all applicants.
After you have made known to the factory of Mr. Bernardière, you may learn some interest Page 197 activity prevailing in the House of Correction at Poissy, and the benefits to home and workers. Each inmate is a kind of occupation following his moral and physical faculties: the child as old engaged in a soft and easy. For this, it was determined workshops of various kinds; there include those of a weaver, jeweler, of braid maker, cabinetmaker, maker chard, shoemaker, tailor, finally a spinning colon and hat factory I just like to talk. It is with such occupations that often managed to change or modify the slope of several criminals who might have spent time in detention to ponder the most sinister plans if they had remained idle.
These results are due to the zeal and ability of Mr. Poizel, director of the institution, which has found a great ally in Mr. Picard, contractor work from home.
The price list for both prisoners is decided each year by the Prefect of the department of Seine-et-Oise. This salary is divided into three parts: one for home maintenance, some distributed to the workers every Saturday, and the third is set aside to be given to them when they leave. There's a lot that received 300 francs. at the time of their release, despite the short time that this scheme is fixed because it was only in March 1821 made the produce during the first twelve months of works was 48,000 fr., and this year, as the number of prisoners has increased, Headmaster thinks it will not be below 80,000 fr.
I now return to the factory of Mr. Bernardière on which your committee has taken all appropriate renseignemens. For you, for my body, thank the maker of the communication that you Page 198 made its new kind of industry, and all the processes he employs in his factory, worthy of being known to the public through the Bulletin.
Adopted at the meeting, 21 August 1822.
Signed Bouriat, rapporteur .
In this report we will join the one that was taken off to a widow of Reyne.
Report by Mr. SILVESTRE, on behalf of the agriculture committees and crafts together, the manufacture of straw hats and like those of Italy, established by Widow REYNE, Valencia, Drôme .
Gentlemen, November 28, your committees mechanical arts and agriculture together got your approval for an interim report that they have had the honor to present you on applications that the widow Reyne you had addressed to the occasion of his hat factory Italian Straw established currently in Valencia, Drôme.
Your Commissioners have therefore done justice to the zeal of Ms. Reyne, who, after careful consideration, in Italy, the production processes of raw materials and those of their manufacture was imported into France a kind of industry that had could still be naturalized before it; they also expressed regret that the failure of several key documens the émetttre should prevent a final opinion on the success of a similar business; they hoped to get new importans renseignemens, and correspondence long since followed the Ministry of Interior in this regard, and one that could later be interviewed Ms. Reyne itself. Page 199
The Minister has kindly let you file concerning this matter. Ms. Reyne has answered many of your requests, it mainly expresses the desire that the report will be submitted promptly; accordingly we will put before you the results of the main documens we collected.
But before we deal with this presentation, and then not divert your attention from what especially concerns Ms. Reyne, we think we should put some general considerations on the importance and the difficulty of such an undertaking; its novelty and the likelihood of success.
The importance of a hat factory Italian Straw is notable enough for our trade; it would be to free ourselves from the annual export value of a million and a half, we give to Italy alone to acquire the objects of this kind: it is true that this cash balance does not take place not in cash. In exchange for straw hats and other items we provide Italy, we provide linens, wine, dry goods, jewelry, china, books, patterns, etc., etc., etc. ; and it should be noted that the tables formally trained to establish the balance of trade in our favor, an annual profit of more than eight million of the reciprocal exchanges. Anyway; these bases are not immutable, foreign industry always tries to make them more favorable, and we have no doubt welcome with interest all that can tend; is to consolidate our advantages or find within ourselves that our soil and our industry can provide (at price equal to those from abroad) to consumers.
This last consideration brings us back to the factory Ms. Reyne and circumstances leading up to his business; correspondence from the Minister of the Interior Page 200 provides us with that useful documens. It appears that similar attempts to hers were made; that patents similar to hers were issued. You know too well, gentlemen, the principle of these patents to be amazed at our assertion: the patent does not prove that the possessor has invented or has imported, but it only proves that at one time he said that determined he had invented or imported, except for him to prove if any, and to whom it may concern, the reality of his assertions or the priority of the request.
Some attempts have been made before Ms. Reyne in France to make straw hats of Italy; it is known to the merchants of such objects, in Paris, many of these attempts have been unsuccessful. In 1814, a patent was issued free importation Mr. Bastier, which aimed to raise a fabric of the same kind as that of Ms. Reyne.
Around 1815, Pierre Couyère established in St. Melaine, Calvados, a manufacturer of straw hats like those of Italy, with stems of native grasses. Apparently it is pratense phleum he used for this purpose. He received in 1819 a patent for ten years; match it with a factory sewing and finishing established in Paris by his brother and provides trade for over 40,000 fr. per year. In 1808, Mr. de Bernardière had also obtained a patent for five years for making similar to those of Italy hats, with the stems of native cereals; it seems that it was also the pratense phleum he used most commonly.
But a company even more similar to that of Ms. Reyne held for three years in the department of Haute-Garonne, and the care of hospice directors of Toulouse; it employs the same wheat straw used for this purpose in Tuscany, and is cultivated Page 201 success around Toulouse. Factory are a much surer advantage, His Excellency the Minister of the Interior has kindly sent to a hospice machines invented by Mr. Meigné prepare and mentioned in No. CXCIX page 6 of your Bulletins 1821 This machine is intended, at no risk to workers' health, to the proper hundred twenty-six finish caps a day, while men who were doing hard work in hand could not prepare eighteen .
It may be added that all the details on the wheat that provides in such work straw and processes that relate to the art of preparing the straw and make hats, were described in detail in Italian verse, by Mr. Lastri, Tuscan. Finally, in 1805, Count de Lasteyrie had brought from Italy seed wheat that will make straw hats: that seed has since grown every year in King's Garden by Mr. Thouin care . Mr. Yvart was also, in 1812, Italy reported that cereal seeds, and had successfully grown. So we knew long since the first and all the means of implementing substance; but one obstacle, which is the nature of this work, was always opposed to good hits. This obstacle appears the same for all the jobs that are not likely to use the machines, and we have to do to arm in countries where labor is higher than in places where the mill originates. It's about how to equalize the price of the first manual labor that we would want to have more positive renseignemens order to assess the probability of success that Ms. Reyne designs hope.
It was towards the end of 1817 that Ms. Reyne returned to Florence; during the three years of living she had done in this city, she had formed there plans to establish Page 202 in France a hat factory Italian Straw; she had carefully studied all the processes of wheat that provides clean straw in this work, and those of its preparation and its use in manufacture.
She first settled in the town of Bourg-Saint Andeol department of Ardèche; while she still had her husband who seconded in his work: they spoke for the first time the Minister of the Interior, in February 1818; then they have announced in their workshops thirty young people who took care to craft straw hats, equal in quality to those of Italy. They argued that they planted in France wheat grains marzole said they had brought from Italy; These grains are good outcomes, and besides that they had found in France even cereals, the rod had the same property. They hoped to provide, in a short time, the amount of caps needed for consumption in the kingdom, and they demanded the free issue of a patent of importation: the prefect of the Ardeche supported their petition. The Minister asked the renseignemens and samples were sent to him; Then he consulted the Advisory Committee on Arts and Manufactures, the Committee was of the view that Mr. and Ms. Reyne deserve to be encouraged when he was apparently found that their factory was providing to trade in straw hats of the same quality and finesse than those of Italy. He postponed at that time the decision to be made on the level of interest that the government should take in their work. Consequently, the Minister refused to grant the patent applied for free; but he left the hope that it might encourage the efforts of the manufacturers, when they would have provided constant trade in straw hats of the same quality as those of Italy.
He spent about fifteen months between the decision and the new demands that were made. In February 1820 Page 203 Ms. Reyne wrote to the minister that she had lost her husband, and moved his factory in Valencia, Drôme; She then announced that his factory supplied to trade, and in sufficient quantity, straw hats of the same quality and finesse than those from Italy. The petition was supported by the mayor of Valencia, who regretted not being able to give a small incentive, and the prefect of the Drôme, who sought relief for Ms. Reyne. The Minister gave 600 francs, and asked the prefect information respecting the activities of the institution, the number of workers employed, the amount of hats delivered each year to trade, and price compared with that of similar hats from Italy; Finally, what would be the amount needed to give all pertinent extension work. The prefect replied to these questions that the factory occupied seventy workers, it could provide eight hundred thousand annually hats, the price of these hats was almost the same as those of Italy, they were equal in quality; He also announced that prices would fall by a sixth if Ms. Reyne had suffisans funds to set up his establishment; he asked her a sum of 12,000 francs. April 12, 1820, the Minister agreed to grant 2,400 fr. to be used to a greater extent in the work of Ms. Reyne. It seems that indeed some of that money was used to purchase a press for finishing straw hats.
But soon after Ms. Reyne felt new needs; she spoke to you, gentlemen, in a letter which was supported by the prefect of the Drôme and the Mayor of Valencia, and who returned to the consideration of your committees mechanical arts and agriculture, was the purpose of the interim report that was presented to you on November 28, and according to which, according to your intentions, Page 204 your committees have had to deal with research and new checks.
Two orders of main renseignemens have come since then. Some were drawn from a large dossier concerning this matter, which you received by His Excellency the Minister of the Interior and we just present the analysis; others come from the direct correspondence we interviewed Ms. Reyne or his principal in Paris. We can not present them as mere assertions, the main memory that is part of having been seen by the Mayor of Valencia, including certifying that the manufacture of hats sent had occurred in said city, and seen by the Prefect for the legalization of the signature of the mayor.
Anyway, the result of this correspondence, 1 the hat you distinguished garment factory is Madame Reyne; 2d, that this lady and principal say she continues to use straw on the species of wheat that reported from Italy, and whose culture succeeds perfectly in the vicinity of Valencia; that the benefit of the workers it employs depends on their ability; these are usually the children who weave; as No. 30, taken for example, costs 15 cents the light sewing and weaving; a braider is a day seven or eight yards, and a seamstress sews always double. The labor of a hat this number back to 8 francs; namely, 6 francs 75 centimes for weaving and sewing, 75 cents for straw and 50 cents for the primer. The higher numbers become more expensive, to wit: No. 40-16 fr. 70 percent .; the 50-27 fr. 50 percent. Finally the No. 60, which is roughly similar to that set out in front of you, back to 52 francs.
As for the number of hats made annually Page 205 Ms. Reyne noted that manufacturing has limits that due to limited capital it can devote She cites several cities of the south and especially the fair Baucaire as its main markets.
She could not meet the demand of sending hats than the one she had previously sent the company straw; she only sent a few men's hats, the quality is insignificant to prove the superiority of its manufacture; She noted that the current situation in a few populous city and provides too few workers at low prices, is not very favorable; it proposes to move home again; she would like that without the encouragement same company, the government or the capitalists might set able to give all the desirable growth in its manufacture.
After you have presented the current state of affairs, your committee should not have you ignorant that she found herself embarrassed to present the findings in the case of Ms. Reyne. His workmanship is good and interesting; its products are very remarkable in the most important and most difficult parts of this work; it will find perfectionnemens to its handling here, where it is known as well and even better than in Italy, together braids butt bleaching straw hats and dress; and there is no doubt that it can eventually reach perfection in this. We have no doubt either that greater than those that could be obtained to date are very necessary for a proper pulse manufactures its capital; but your règlemens do not allow you to spend money to quicken the particular manufactures. On the other hand, the interior minister, giving 3,000 fr. Madame Reyne, wisely expressed that he understood Page 206 not ride his factory, but only to provide some encouragement.
Ruined, as it exposes, through various circumstances beyond her, she can not wait suffisans means of actions that capitalists who might take an interest in his work.
You can not give to Ms. Reyne tips and testimonials of respect.
Under the first report, you can recommend it to especially treat meeting her braids butt, bleaching and finishing of his hats; you can ask if it is possible to place her in an institution for orphans hospice or in a house of detention, finally a place where labor is at the lowest possible price.
Under the second report, and considering that Ms. Reyne appears to be the first to be introduced in large, growing the plant used to make straw hats in Italy; Whereas what is lacking in his work also performs here with great perfection and can easily be inserted into its own factory, we have the honor to propose to award him a silver medal in your next sitting .
Signed SILVESTRE, rapporteur.
Adopted in session, February 20, 1822.
This proposal was adopted, and in his public meeting, Mr. Charbonnel, attorney for the lady, received the silver medal intended for him.
Hats wood M. BERNARD.
These hats are different from the preceding ones in that it is only the carcass formed light wood, cut into thin, narrow blades by mechanical Page 207 he invented. These side plates are bonded to one another on a fabric that combines the light fastness; and the top edge of the cap are prepared in the same manner; and when he gave these three pieces the proper form and that he has met, he covers it all with a waterproof varnish. When it is dry, the cap is covered with a silk fabric plush, which mimics very hairs called gilding hats usually felt; Finally, the author goes on a plush sort of varnish around each strand of silk, do not trap dust and prevents water from entering. These hats have the advantage of still kept as bright and never deformed. For more details we refer to the Proceedings of the National and foreign industry, in August 1825.
Hats of straw.
All broom can be used to manufacture common hats, called plaiting; but it is mainly the Spanish broom, spartium Junceum , used to manufacture. It is used for the finest rods to make tissue, not into separate braids. Included three types of these hats are known white , straw-colored , mixed various colors . The fabric of straw is sold in square pieces, each of which is enough to make a hat. Their price is for 2 fr. up to 10 fr. the part of their beauty.
This patented invention of summer hats, made from wafers fabrics, painted black and varnish, is due to Joseph Lantenhammer Vienna. ( Archiv. fur Gesch, stats, liter, kunst und , July 1824, No. 89 and 90)
These hats, said the editor of the city, is recommended Page 208 by their shape, light weight, and even by the time they expect from their service. Mostly they deserve, he added, preference on straw hats, which the public has had the good sense not to grant his favor so far with reserve.
Hats braids other than straw.
We will devote this article to manufacture hats with braids formed of silk, cotton, flax and horsehair. The first reached such a degree of superiority, they seem to compete with the finest straw hats in Italy.
Silk woven hats.
The first hats braided silk were produced in Florence; since, ladies Manceau, of Paris, managed to wear this kind of production to such a degree of perfection that their tresses silk hats mimic the finest straw hats in Italy, producing a complete illusion by the nuance and by finesse and fabric construction. Already in 1823, ladies Manceau had obtained the exposure of French products industry a silver medal, which was confirmed in 1827 that they employ this manufacturing premium quality silk, weft and woven according to the fineness that is seeking. Regularity braids requires the utmost care; they are using mechanical materials that put in motion; they are then primed, assembled shaped hats and submitted to the cylinder. These hats together with lightness and strength are very easy to clean; Add to that they are twice cheaper than Italian Straw, as we shall see below.
2 The common qualities from number 34 to the 50 range between 28 and 56 francs.
To raise awareness of the method employed by the ladies Manceau, we will report the patent that one of them has taken on this issue.
Clean process to do with raw silk hats imitating straw hats Italy by Julie MANCEAU miss in Paris. (Invention Patent of five years.)
We first made fabrics made of raw silk of the finest quality and the best possible choice, which is deposited in dyeing; the dyer preparing these tissues so they retain some stiffness that approximates the state of consistency of straw or bark; then, using a mechanical plaiting, silk braids are converted into more or less fine and more or less tight, as the fineness of hats that we want to do; braided strips are carefully checked throughout their length, in order to prune the damaged components and parts that would affect the identity of the fabric.
These braids are prepared aunées, set balls in suitable quantity, and data to the workers responsible for the assembly; This operation runs the needle with silk cord with three strands of twisted fabric shade.
Lost seam is obtained by engaging the left portion of the braid with the right side of that on which it must be assembled, so that the seam, taking as a zigzag on the other side, is hidden Page 210 in all contact points. These hats are constructed in two pieces, crown and front.
We begin the first part through its center, the assembly points are combined so that as the circles get larger, spiral-shaped seam that has the facility to develop and assemble without binding; the cap must be made of a strip of a single piece.
The front of the hat runs according to the same procedures, the look and used to determine the seam in this work through the forms and contours. This piece also made of a single piece is assembled to the cap and then be primed and train the entire hat.
This primer consists of ten parts of gum tragacanth, a portion of alum and nineteen parts water. These materials having reached a mixed state by the action of heat, the fabric was dipped to saturation, and then left, not completely dry, but losing the excess moisture, to be made to the press and pressed hot.
Is used for this purpose, according to the form that we want to give to the cap, cylinder or other solid wood, composed of several pieces together in the center drilled a hole for receiving a tapered piece of wood. This cylinder is placed in the interior of the cap, the pressure on the conical piece and passing through the center of the shape determines the tension of the fabric, which therefore is ironed with a hot iron, whose size and shape are those of the object on which it must pass.
If, instead of using unbleached silk, we wanted to use hair, hats confectionneraient is the same way.
The raw materials were ordinary raw silk, are replaced by the hair of ales, which has the advantage of making the finest fabric, not to produce inequalities, and give shades of colors enjoyable.
The hats were made of two pieces are now in one piece by the continuity of a single braid.
The first primer had the disadvantage of leaving stains as it dries, this is avoided by using gum tragacanth prepared, and, second primer coatings consisting of mastic in tears, to make them waterproof.
One cylinder by means of a mechanical press, which, at the same time press the caps, gives them a freshness that they could get with the iron.
We make hats for men by the same process.
Mrs. Milcent-Scherckenbick had obtained in 1823 an honorable mention for impervious called hats, woven silk and linen in a variety of colors. The same distinction was granted to the exhibition of 1827 These hats are a very fine fabric, light, elastic, and can easily be made new when they were deformed or stained. We will publicize the patent Madame Milcent took for this production, there will be a recipe for waterproof varnish it employs for this purpose. Page 212
Making hats made of cotton laces, thread and silk , by Madame MILCENT-SCHERCKENBICK in Rouen. (Invention Patent of five years.)
The loops of cotton yarn and silk, are using mechanical composed of nine to thirteen spindles or coils son every four to eight or even more, depending on the fineness. These loops are added together as a knitting needle; they are made to take the figure of hats on a wooden form, as one knits.
The hats are trained prepared with the following composition, enough for a dozen hats:
Four ounces, isinglass,
two ounces, gum arabic,
four ounces of potato starch;
Half a pint of spirits of wine and about a pot of water.
To make these waterproof hats, applying it, a brush, nail Venice for white hats, and gum copal varnish for people of color.
The varnish applied to hats, they switched to hot roll.
Various kinds of hats for use by men and women, and made up of different tissues braids . (Invention Patent granted for five years, August 26, 1820, to Mrs. MILCENT-SCHERCKENBICK in Paris.)
Women's hats are in braids and even knit cashmere braided or knitted merino, braided or knitted wool, and finally in braids or knit camel or goat.
All hats made with braid emmaillent needle as straw hats of Italy; those knit being made as usual, are pulled by the hair through the thistle and the card. They are then ready with isinglass dissolved in spirits of wine, which is mixed with a solution of gum arabic, gum and starch Senegal: After this operation, the cylinder with a hot iron.
All these hats are very strong and can be cleaned dye in all kinds of colors.
Other hats are white satin embossed or pressed, or any kind of silk, wool, cotton, etc., of all colors and various designs.
Etched drawing on a piece of copper or wood; the fabric is glued with the above composition, and this plate is subjected to the action of a strong press to obtain the drawing.
There are still hats that are made by plaiting straw-colored silk formed ecru, silk and cotton, white cotton with white thread, and yarn and cotton.
Manceau ladies also make hats braided cotton, which perfectly mimic their white rice straw.
It is also makes hats braided horsehair. We will publicize the process, according to the same invention patents taken by their authors.
Millinery horsehair , J. REINS. (Patent of invention and development of five.)
This process consists of braiding horsehair three or five wicks, and sew by observing increase or decrease according to the different shapes or sizes you want to give hats; then applying a primer that resists moisture and rain, and caught hats proper form while giving them more substance.
We also applied this method of manufacturing the cups for use by troops; Here the process of M. Cavillon, according to his patent.
Manufacture of hats woven horsehair, for use by troops, and to replace those in bearskins , Mr. CAVILLON, furrier in Paris. (Invention Patent of five years.)
So far we have made these hats with bearskins Louisiana, schools of Newfoundland, Virginia and Canada, not Russia, as many people think. Russian bears are not unique to this job, they have leather and hair too late, that would be a misuse, and become four times more expensive than in Canada; Page 215 it is the latter that is used for hair troops.
You can count the English are going to France twenty thousand bearskins a year, at forty five en form a sum of nine hundred thousand francs.; if we add to this account those who spend on the continent, it will amount to approximately four million we are their tributaries. My new processes will provide the means for France to overcome this tribute.
The methods include forming a cow carcass reinforced on its form, arcançonnée and restated on the back, to accommodate a loop with two barbs, maintained by a enchapure black sheep, and against girth, as in sheep, to tighten cap at will.
This carcass is covered with a black cloth strong wire Laval raised very fair, and forming, as it were, one body together.
How to make cloth.
Take Collière or horsehair tail strand finest, start with good curry comb and to the suin out; if it is too fat, it should be boiled in water, remove it and let it dry; after which you cut four and a half inches tall, then you do braiding three strong son of silk, to the height of three inches: eighteen lines that remain are to line the braid. You then place your first braid down, turning and looking away three lines from one to the other. In this way, you cover the whole canvas, leaving uncovered parts of the cap for receiving plates or other ornaments.
Mrs. Celnart, in his interesting book 55 , published an article in the manufacture of hats gimp cotton or silk, imitation Italian straw. We will transcribe.
Note 55: (return) Manual ladies , part of the encyclopedic collection of Mr. Roret, 3rd ed.
Following the procedure described for the flat braid, small pieces of cotton and silk that goes shaped hat was prepared as follows:
One takes a boss hat a little big, because the strap is tightened by the laundry and work: this pattern or model consists of the password and the shape of the hat; it must be straw or cotton. We start with the middle of the bottom; one attaches the end of the cord in the center, and it is turned on itself by describing successively larger circle. These circles were built each other, as it has a certain amount, and after they have been attached with pins; but as soon as these circles are slightly enlarged, it is better to build on, not only to each other, but after the banding pattern. Thus, any circularly surrounds the shape of the model; then threading a needle end of the colon and if the cord is white cotton, and straw-colored silk if the cord is silk 56 , you sew the straps together at points lying Overlock, taking these points in the small mesh the edge of the strap. This is done, the book is removed from above the form, return it, and you go up the front or the pass in much the same way, except the difference controlled Page 217 of the model: we measure passes half, and it is from this fact that half the cord from the right and left on the brink of going to see where it takes the cut on the side to get the roundness of the pass. Banding strap on each row of the pass, so as not to lose too by trimming around the edges, or not having to start over if, by chance, a piece was too short is measured before.
Note 56: (return) must ensure that the color of the silk used to sew the loops is well matched to the loops so that the eye can not see the point that seam.
It thus raises twenty rows or so, in the Baguant well after the pass, and then building one after the other. At this point, we have to make étrécissures , that is to say, cut the cord before the end of row and lose the tip of the strap between the strap of the previous row and the next row, so it does not form a crease. This is achieved by cutting edges on both somewhat strongly. As we work backwards, the excédantes parts do not appear when the hats are returned. It is impossible to indicate the number of étrécissures; they depend on the shape of the cap. Must sew the pass like shape, and then join together. When the hat is made of cotton and bleached and primed, it has the appearance of a hat of white wood, said rice straw ; if the cord is silk hat has the look of those Italian straw. It is good to note that the continuous suture braids should be done after close, lest they deviate and fight it out in the laundry. We can give these loops cotton or silk for various colors, besides white hats and straw-colored, black hats, gray, etc.
It is obvious that by the same process, that is to say with loops made with flax, hemp and other filamentous material, we can make similar hats; as the mode of operation is the same, we do not feel bound to return. Page 218
Hats of men and women, with the warp and weft whale in silk, cotton, or other filamentous material twisted . (Invention Patent granted for five years, September 27, 1822, the Sieur de Bernardière (Achilles), in Paris.
These caps are made using a wooden; the system is in whale and weft silk, cotton or other filamentous material twisted; turns around the frame of the chain, which is fixed to the form by the simple relief of the fingers of the hand.
The hat, emerging from the hands of the workman, is bleached, dyed and primed.
Although hats poultry feathers are developing hats braid or braids, however, as they are neither covered nor any felted fabric, we thought it best to store a result thereof.
Awards granted since 1798 until 1827, at exhibitions of the products of French industry, in the manufacture of hats.
The exhibition of the products of French industry is one of the finest human conceptions; it can be seen as a life-giving spirit of science and chemical and industrial arts, development of which she chairs, and as a way to know all our resources and all the progress of the domestic industry. Walking through the beautiful products that are on display in the galleries of the Louvre, is believed to be transported in these enchanted palace due to the imagination of poets, and of which there are such brilliant descriptions Page 219 in oriental tales: the appearance of so many masterpieces, the observer, the mind filled with admiration, remains immersed in a kind of ecstasy which he emerges only to pay a cult esteem and gratitude to these hard-working men who, by their talents, honor and homeland, the century should see the rise; it is in this sanctuary of science and industry that we are really proud to be French, and in the eyes of Europe learned the ignorant squire is forced to bend with respect humiliated his forehead before the genius the arts.
We must not forget that this is one of the most illustrious men nowadays, Count Francois de Neufchateau, then Minister of the Interior, this institution is due.
There was remarkable was that he put it into effect in the year VI (1798), just as we were closing the British seas. François Neufchâteau this exhibition, made known to all Europe all the resources of our beautiful France, and rekindled the flame of our industry as England sought to extinguish. Besides, this is not the only service that celebrated man has made in science and the arts; His ministry, like the Count Chaptal and Lucien Bonaparte, will always time in their history.
The first show was held at the Champ de Mars; it lasted only three days.
The second in the consulate, in the year IX (1801), in the courtyard of the Louvre, where, under one hundred and four porticos who were high, were placed two hundred and twenty to nine exponents: duration was eight days.
The third took place in the year X (1802), under the ministry of Count Chaptal; there were five hundred and forty exponents.
The fourth, in 1806, under the ministry of M. de Champagny: three thousand four hundred twenty-two exponents Page 220 built on the Place des Invalides, and eleven rooms of bridges and causeways. It was distributed twenty-seven gold, silver and sixty-three, and fifty-three bronze.
The fifth was held in 1819; it was the most brilliant, here we live with the immense astonishment perfectionnemens that chemistry had produced almost all branches of industry; and we have not forgotten the flattering testimony Count Berthollet, of illustrious memory, and the Count Chaptal, received by Louis XVIII for the part they had taken in that progress. In this exhibition the number of exponents is further increased, and fifty six gold medals were distributed, as well as hundred forty-eight silver, and one hundred and fourteen bronze.
The sixth took place in 1823, and was remarkable for the variety of products that the large number of exponents; must however admit that the ease with which it had been accepted as trivia, these pretty nothings, fruits quackery and greed, had converted this fine institution into a kind of bazaar or visit the merchants who came to distribute addresses. It is an abuse that the jury in 1827 had the courage to attack; hope that eventually uproot completely. The exhibition in 1823 was celebrated by the products of our cotton mills. That is still to this exhibition we saw the glittering chemical arts, which have put France at the head of all nations.
Finally the seventh exhibition was held from August 1, under wooden rooms, located in the courtyard of the Louvre and some of those in this magnificent building. An immense concourse of strangers was quick to come here to admire the progress, always growing, which took place not only in the quantity of products but also in improving processes and many applications Page 221 that were made to the arts of many discoveries; as we see with transportation structures that appear to have exceeded the limits of the human mind. Must witness the beauty of those who are subject to this scholarly event, to judge merit. However, we are forced to admit that this exhibition was neither as large nor as varied as that of 1823, since it has counted about six hundred and fifty thousand exponents, more than eight hundred of Paris. Should we put this discouragement to the woes of the time, or the fabricans province they believe that the jury's judge him impartially? They can rest assured the talent and loyalty of MM. Arago, Darcet, Gay-Lussac, Biot, Thenard, Malard, Brongniart, Heron Villefosse Oberkampf, Gerard, Camille, Beauvais, etc., whose reputation is European, should fully reassure them.
We said that the exhibition of 1798 only lasted three days; no paper manufacturer did not appear there; instead of medals that were awarded in other exhibitions, it is granted to it that distinctions of first , second and third order.
In 1801, he was awarded the gold, silver and bronze, as well as honorable mentions. The jury found along with the distinctions of first and second order of 1798 were equivalent to gold and silver; he gave the awards to the exponents of the first exhibition, in 1801 réexposèrent their advanced products.
In 1802, awards were the same. It was also decided that fabricans which in this exhibition would present the products of previous exhibitions in the same state of development would not have a new medal, but a reminder of their past would be granted. Page 222
In 1806, these four rewards, is added in a fifth as the citation ; it comes after the mention . A remarkable fact is that, for a well misunderstood stinginess, one gave a medal to several fabricans who were obliged to draw lots; but it looked like all the others who had, since it was recognized that they had earned.
In 1819, besides the distinction of 1806, was granted decorations and titles of Baron and monetary rewards.
And the rewards are well graded:
Quote : This is the lower; Honorable Mention ; Bronze medal , Silver medal , gold medal , Decorations , Honorary .
It also sometimes gives monetary rewards. As for fabricans whose progress has sustained, without having increased, they were awarded the same medal, under the title Return of the medal won .
We will now publicize fabricans who won awards since 1798 until today. Taking a look at the table we are going to present, it will be easy to see the influence that exposures have had on this branch of French industry.
Exponents since 1798 until the 1827 exhibition.
Exposition of 1798.
Exposition of 1801.
It was the same with this one.
Exhibition of 1802.
It was only after this exhibition that headgear began to appear among the products of French industry. The fabricans who were the first to respond to this noble call are:
MM. Bardinel, Limoges, for hats;
Bellegarde (Joseph), Gaillac, id. ;
Brouilland son, id. ;
Viot, Marseilles, id. ;
Desaint Riquier young of Quevavilliers for braids hats.
No compensation was awarded to the headgear.
Exposition of 1806 .
Many fabricans followed this year's early momentum, and this show, if it was not for the brightest headgear, was at least the most numerous. We saw included:
MM. Bellegarde (Joseph), for hats;
Bernard eldest of Moulins, id. ;
Berthier (François), Issoudun, id. ;
Beylard elder, Marmande, id. ;
Boulanger, Rennes, id. ;
Bourdachon, d Issoudun, id. ;
Dulerys (Pierre) Bourganeuf, id.
Florentine Couyère and Co. for straw hats;
Guiffray et Cie, Lyon, id. ;
Juhel, Sens, id. ;
lama, of Oleron, id. ,
MM. Lamorte, for hats;
Meissonier, id. ;
Monnereau, Niort, id. ;
Pascal (Pierre), Marseilles, id. ;
Patoors, id. ;
Ribolet, Lyons, id. ;
Rouliés, Agen id . ,
Sade, Anduze, id. ;
Sandrot (widow), Grenoble, id.
All these exponents, MM. Guiffray only obtained an honorable mention. This failure cools so the zeal of these two fabricans only reappeared in the following exhibitions.
Exhibition of 1819.
This exhibition was less numerous than the previous; we saw only appear
MM. German, of Paris, for hats:
Brouilland son, id. ;
Chenard elder, father and son, id.
Couyère, hats willow
Delouchant, id. ;
Dormois and Co., id. ;
Guichardière, of Paris, id. ;
Lamorte, id. ;
Lauche (Antoine), id. ;
Lantier elder, id. ;
Masclet, id. ;
Maurisier, id. ; Poujal, id.
Thibault, for straw hats;
Vian de Mourche, Marseilles, id.
The latter won an honorable mention; it was the same Mr. Guichardière, who has since published some very good memories of hat-making. It is Page 225 regret that greater encouragement 57 were not granted to the widow Reyne factory in Valencia, Drôme, who in 1822 received a silver medal from the League of encouragement to the domestic industry. This lady being ruined was forced to abandon the operation. We promoted the report that was about it Mr. Sylvester.
Note 57: (return) Ms. Reyne asked the Government a sum of 12,000 francs .; that of 2,400 fr. was granted by the Minister of the Interior, April 12, 1820.
Exhibition of 1823.
We have not been able to obtain accurate information on the number of exponents of this year renseignemens; we could not know that those who received some awards. These were:
Ladies Le Mans , who obtained a silver medal for silk hats, imitation Italian Straw; and other hats braided cotton, imitation rice straw .
Mr. Dupre, of Lagnieux was honorably mentioned for his straw hats way to Italy.
Mrs. Milcent-Scherckenbick , honorable mention for hats, called raincoats, braided silk and linen in various colors.
Exposition of 1827.
The silver medal given to Le Mans ladies seems to have been a powerful incentive for other fabricans; Exposure 1827 also was the brightest for hat, the jury he had a much larger number of awards received. We will introduce, starting with the highest, and gradually descending to the weakest. Page 226
Le Mans ladies who had also achieved in 1823.
M. Dupré, for straw hats way from Italy.
MM. Percherand Dubois et Cie, for straw hats, mimicking those of Florence.
Home central Bicetre in Paris for straw hats.
M. Gancel (Pierre), for woolen hats, and hair calf.
M. Giroux of Paris, for felt hats.
M. Lenoir (Epiphanes), for woolen hats, well made and cheap.
Mrs. Milcent-Scherckenbick for waterproof hats silk and linen.
MM. Davilla and Dabbe for waterproof hats.
M. Dulong-Miergue, id.
M. Wansbroug, id.
M. Savornin for elastic hats.
Made substances which generally have a sour taste, redden litmus and most vegetable blues, and form a class known as salt body, uniting with the salt-forming bases. They are the result of the union of some body with oxygen, and then they are called oxo acid , or with hydrogen, and then they are known to hydracids ; Finally, they may be the result of the combination of some of them without body oxygen or hydrogen, such as chlorine with boron ; acid -chloro boric etc. We will indicate the acids that are used in the headgear.
Acetic acid . It is vinegar to the state of purity.
Citric acid . This is the acid lemons.
Muriatic acid or muriatic , formed by chlorine and hydrogen. This gives rise to acid salts or muriates muriates.
Nitric acid or etching . Extracted from potassium nitrate (saltpetre) acid. It consists of nitrogen and oxygen.
Sulfuric acid (oil of vitriol). Obtained by burning sulfur in large rooms lead. It is composed of oxygen and sulfur.
Tartaric acid . This is the acid with potassium hydroxide, which is the salt known as potassium acidulous tartrate (cream of tartar).
Alkali. Substances most greening plant blue colors have a pungent taste and urinous, saturated acids and form salts with them.
Atmospheric air . Elastic fluid, apart from all the fumes and vapors, etc., it contains, envelope everywhere the globe, rises to a height unknown, penetrates the deepest depths, is part of all body, and adheres to their surface. It consists of 0.79 and 0.21 nitrogen oxygen; 0.01 more carbonic acid.
Copper acetate (sub) . Green verdigris. Salt of acetic acid compound with excess copper oxide.
Copper acetate . Acetic acid salt compound and copper oxide in a state of neutralization.
Iron acetate . A salt of acetic acid and iron oxide compound.
Introduction of a glue, leaving the fabric flexibility in matted clumps parts, making it more consistent, stronger and more likely to retain the shape given to it.
Hats reached the point of making decent, do not have this brilliant nor sweetness that constitute beauty. It is these qualities that give them by appropriage . As for the felts for the salon, we merely pass to iron or put them in the press to catir as wool fabrics.
The tree is a species of a large bow, which hung from the floor to the middle, so you can place it in every possible direction. This bow is located on top of a table covered with a wicker rack end and tight enough to allow only the garbage. The hair is placed on the rack; we brought the rope of the tree in the heap, and without it so, they put it in play with a check mark , a sort of time hardwood, terminated at each end by a button mushroom. This is by hooking it with the bolt rope, and pulling strongly, it ends up on the slide button, and enter into it all the more accelerated vibration, the movement was more abrupt arçonneur . The worker is careful to raise or lower the tree.
Wool from lambs.
Lifting or pulling of hair hare.
In this operation, clamp the cutters down between the thumb and the blade of a knife said anvil, and pulling them down is washed away, and most of the jar remains on the skin. This complete tear plucking.
Impose a cap is in place similar to that it should have, taking care to take a slightly higher than that of dressage to the crowd form, that form the string does not occupy the same spot than where it was in the crowd, and thus avoid the cuts felt producing species étranglemens. It is only in terms of art called down the link.
Synonymous to walk the crowd this name is that most of this work is done with bare hands.
It is when the felt reaches the prescribed size , and is not subject to any further withdrawal for another crushing.
Basin and basting (du).
This is one of the main headgear; it must be done in a special room so that the worker no further exposure to the fumes produced during arçonnage. It gives the name of the basin to a set of hard wood and knit; and that of feutrière , strong canvas Alencon. We then wets the feutrière either with a brush or with a handful of willow sprig of heather or with a small broom rice; when it is wet enough, we place a few squares of thick, soft paper, overlaid with the hanging part, and we drive all that wetness also distributes. In this state, the worker held the feutrière and, after having drawn the papers, he fixes it, as we have already said, that is to say half of the basin, and the other pending on the front. Everything being thus prepared, the worker extends the feutrière parts on each other, taking care of the well spread, and especially that there are not any wrinkles or ridures on each piece, and after have slightly watered, it places a sheet of paper above; Finally, the last piece is covered by half the feutrière remained pending.
Parts working until 1 recognizes that they have become consistent enough and firm enough not to open or expand; 2 at the same time they are soft enough that, when brought together, they unite and bind so as to form a single and even felt. This is called building a felt .
This operation aims to rid the surface markers of the excess primer for therein and keeps hair stuck together, we notice that those who have not been subjected to the pelvis. For this, the edges of these hats are dipped in a weak solution of soap in boiling water; it is dripping then it is wiped, there emerges the hair and allowed to dry in an oven for submission to the appropriage.
Incline bench, placed around the boiler on which the workers operate crushing felts.
It is deleting the tail, legs, etc.
Burse the stuff.
It's making her do the basting pockets when not well managed.
Synonymous with dye.
This operation consists of sticking to the bottom of the hat bond paper, and another lighter around the shape.
You little card iron used to develop the down caps.
The term half-naked ad that gilding is higher than that of ordinary and less than cubs golden pens. So this quality takes a middle ground between the other two. Both gilding is applied to what are called felt, in terms of art, first and second pose .
These hats have a more beautiful and longer gilding. The word Pooh is that these hats for the hairy, are compared with the chickens, though he faille much that their hair is too long.
Hats called plumes , and lined , etc., differ cubs that what we do dore like these that one side or only on the edges, etc.
The hot is also known as the diving or fire ; its duration is 1:30 to 2:00.
Entrenched parts of the skin.
Salt of citric acid and iron oxide compound.
Colcothar red of England, Prussia red (tritoxide iron).
This oxide is a beautiful red, pulling a little on the brown, more fusible than iron, indecomposable by nonmagnetic caloric being reduced by the electric fluid, insoluble in water. It is the coloring principle of blood, red brown, etc.
These are the air bladders sturgeon ( Acipenser huso. LIN.), which is usually 24 feet long and 12 wide. These vesicles are cleaned, they are rolling on themselves, and they are dried, giving them the shape of a heart or a lyre; or, instead of rolling it folds like a briefcase.
Strong glue, glue Flanders.
Thus we call gelatin being removed ears and feet of cattle, horses, sheep, calves, and the white parts of these various animals. This glue is dry casting tablets, brittle, brown, yellowish, reddish, transparent or semi-transparent, according to their degree of purity and the care that was taken of the preparation.
Crystals of Venus. See copper acetate.
Bluestone, vitriolated copper, blue vitriol, vitriol copper vitriol of Cyprus, etc. (Deutoxide copper sulfate).
This salt is odorless, bitter taste and a very styptic into irregular tranfparent blue crystals, and sometimes octahedra and décaèdres, enjoying the double refraction, efflorescens slightly, and then with a powdery material greenish white; soluble in four portions of cold water, and the aqueous undergoing fusion. The volatile alkali precipitates the oxide which remains suspended in the liquor and gives it a nice blue color. We denote this preparation by the name of heavenly water . It is composed of sulfuric acid and copper oxide.
Rosacea, copperas, green vitriol, martial vitriol, March vitriolated, etc. (Iron sulphate).
Recently crystallized salt is in rhombic prisms, a beautiful emerald green, transparent, and effleurissant air by absorbing its oxygen; it then converts tritoxide iron sulfate, which is yellow spots on the above crystals. Iron sulfate is odorless, stytique, and if water soluble, nine parts of the boiling liquid to dissolve said salt twelve. It is composed of sulfuric acid and iron.
Cross the crowd
Is the set of all the movements that we are obliged to turn to roll the felt on all sides that shows his face and trample on each roulemens .
This is descrambling the hair by means of a card.
The hair on the skin is often filled with dust and foreign matter that is important to rid it: this is what we call in terms of art, dégaler . This operation is doing through a sort of little cards, known as the plaice . A worker walks slowly this tool on the hair, and then beats the skin with a stick on the opposite side; both operations continues until in strongly stirring the skin, it does so more dust.
This is the most beautiful is applied to the surface of the felt coat.
It is putting caps on the form, to give them the proper shape.
Trimming or plucking.
Hair beaver, rabbits, hares, etc., consist of down and jar. The fabricans have used various means to separate the fluff jar.
Trimming and plucking the words seem almost synonymous; However, there is a little difference between them. We have already said that in the beaver and rabbit, jar adheres less to the skin than down; it is because of this property and given the greater length of the jar that attaches to the pull; this is called plucking , while the trimming there also applies, but more commonly the hare skins whose jar is more adherent to the leather than down.
After entering some of the hats on the proper forms and have stopped with a string, they are immersed in a bath of boiling water for pure extract disgorge and cream of tartar that can contain hair; after keeping in a few moments the boiler covered, they are read and placed on the similar to those of the host trays, and at their lower end having a flange which carries the water flowing out of the felts cottage. That's when we put the felt on form, until there is properly applied and that offers no cover. We then made two rounds of string around the middle of the form using a noose that greenhouse poorly.
This operation is also known under the name tear.
Materials used in the manufacture of hats that were converted by the basting in a kind of cloth called felt.
Said bristles Flemish felts.
This name comes from what they originally this method of preparation was imported from factories in Flanders. This felt is most often made with pure rabbit hair and brushed with the striking surface , while the crowd , which gives off a very long and smooth hair, which is its quality and makes it the main beauty.
It gives the name of golden pens to those of ordinary or inferior quality, which covers the outer surface is a thin layer of material or finer hair.
We already know what is meant by Grigne; we will add here called felts grigneux who, having been passed and pressed between the fingers, by dragging them horizontally on each other, still offer these rough and grain are the Grigne. This defect recognized because: 1 basting too short given the felt by the worker, to make it happen more quickly to the desired size; 2nd Vice mixture that produced too soft stuff to be built larger.
These markers after their making, and pressed between fingers as above, offer points where the fabric has so little consistency that is about to dethatch or, if you will, to see an end adhesion and the interweaving of down which is the result of basting and pressing. According to Mr. Morel, this defect arises because the felt was built too big, and being achieved crowd before being reduced to the size requested, the worker continued to trample them in the hope of be reduced; or when, having been built in the right proportions, the stuff too feeble departed the area and chipped the late work the crowd. When this defect, the author adds, is carried to excess, it causes cracks and holes. We say that the stuff broke.
Felts said birds are a rich gilding for which use is made of the finest hare and the beaver. In general, this applies only when the foil has been trodden felt with the difference of the method of gold markers, for those birds of several layers or gilding is applied to hair.
Felt, basting after process is far from having the consistency, strength and adequate to assure him some time strength; he is given these qualities through the crowd , which go in all directions hair on themselves and thus tightens the tissue and make it more consistent, much stronger, or in terms of art, more substantial. Hair, taking this new arrangement, occupy less space than before; also the stuff is it shrinks in all directions; also felt, coming out of basting, must have a third or twice the size it will look upon the crowd. This new felting always goes hot with a few agents that increase the quality of felting materials there is not yet chemically identified this new mode of action.
Hats with feathers, of whatever kind, are singed before receiving the first pose. For this, while the worker reduced the background to the size where it needs to be asked , he drained as much as possible with the roulet, and passed over a fire of straw or shavings The surfaces on which the poses are to be applied in order to get rid of hair that cover and that would affect the introduction of those who make up the pen. We give it after buckling, a light tap anywhere matches, to thoroughly clean these surfaces.
Wet cloth you put on the felt to soften.
This gum is the same as the one that oozes from the bark of apricot, almond, cherry, plum, etc. Gum arabic is solid, often in cells, odorless, a bland flavor, transparent, colorless when pure, golden yellow, or more or less reddish when it is united with foreign bodies.
Roughness that can be seen on the felt when they are not well drawn.
This dyestuff is provided by the leaves of many plants almost all rows in the genre, because of this property, I was given the name of indigotifera. Plants where it is specifically removed are:
1 ° The indigotifera argentea , wild indigo. This species provides less than others; but, however, it is the most beautiful.
2 ° The indigotifera tinctoria , indigo French; it is the one who gives the most, but it is also the least beautiful of all.
3rd The indigotifera disperma or Guatimala. This plant is the highest and most timber; its indigo is better than the last.
4th The indigotifera anil , or anil. His indigo is a minimum of oxidation.
These plants are native to India and Mexico, where they were transported to the Americas, China, Japan, Madagascar, Egypt, etc.
Black hair and bright which is very large, which only felt the point.
Brush glaze used for shining hats; there also has brushes half luster.
Kind of instrument made of leather soles, whereby the worker plunges, without burning, felts place in the boiler to each bearing, and even felt that the ride is over; the felt is so hot.
This name is given to a round excrescence produced from the buds of Quercus infectoria of Linnaeus, by the bite of an insect named by the same naturalist wasp Quercus folii , and Geoffroy, diplolepsis gallae tinctoria . This oak is very common throughout Asia Minor; it is found from the coast of the archipelago to the borders of Persia, and the Bosphorus to Syria, etc.
Gas which accounts for twenty-one hundredths in the composition of the atmosphere, which, by uniting with the metal substances, passed the state of oxides or rust.
Red and black balls.
This woolly coat comes from the East, and takes its name from the shape into a ball given to it in the bullets used to transport; it is due to the goats of a particular species of Asiatic Turkey. There is a significant difference between the red and black balls. The latter pilling easier, but instead the red hair is much thinner. Goats of Tibet also have a very fine down, besides the jar. It was found that our goats also, besides their long hair, a kind of excellent wool hat.
Piece of padded down we pass on the felts.
The piece is a tool of copper, which is used to make the liquid and impurities that may contain the felt out.
Called diving or hot, in hat, what ordinary dyers call fire. The duration of each dive or fire is 1:30 to 2:00.
Thus we call a finger skin that serves to secure the edge of the tool when the jar press against the same edge with that finger.
We must first comb the Flemish those hats and pens; about the hats ordinary hair, they dress, that is to say, they gently brush the surface with a piece of skin of dogfish, to produce a thick short hair, and end.
The shako is a particular hairstyle troops and takes various cylindrical shapes, sometimes descending slightly to the top, and sometimes rather widening much. The schakos are manufactured as wool felt hats; they can also be stuffed with silk, cotton, horsehair, leather, and generally in the same way that the various hats that we have listed. Strictly speaking the schakos hats are a particular shape, rimless, with the leather skullcap and often provided with a patent leather visor.
The sécrétage is an operation that subjected the hair to increase their felting property. Once the principle is employed in France for this purpose, but with limited success, a decoction of marshmallow root and comfrey or symphitum. It was around 1730 that a journeyman hatter, named Matthew, brought from England the process of sécrétage skins using the nitrate of mercury.
It makes this dye Auvergne, Dauphiné, etc., with several lichens, mainly with varidaria Orcina Achard. The method involves spraying the leaves of these lichens, to make a paste with urine and half their weight of ash gravel, taking care of the urine added as it evaporates. After forty days of putrefaction, the mixture acquires a purple color; it is then placed in another trough, and further added thereto urine; that's when the blue color develops. Then we divide the paste is added thereto and the urine and lime. For last preparation, consideration is the composition of the paste thus obtained calcium carbonate to give it consistency, and is reduced to small bread is dried.
By the name of violin , an assembly of sixteen to eighteen strings whip, about eight feet in length, which are retained by their ends into two brackets drilled enough holes distans two to three means inch to each other. Ropes and whip easily arranged when one of cleats being fixed to the floor, knocking on the carder double past him with the other cleat hits that has a handle with a foot and a half long. The worker must be careful to stir from time to time the job with two sticks so that work or mixing also takes place; he continues to whip until the various materials are blended, only in terms of art called erased .
Table of Contents.
PRINTING OF CHEVARDIÈRE,
STREET Colombier, No. 30.