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Hazard: Exposure to cement dust can irritate eyes,
nose, throat and the upper respiratory system. Skin contact may result
in moderate irritation to thickening/cracking of skin to severe skin
damage from chemical burns. Silica exposure can lead to lung injuries
including silicosis and lung cancer.
Hazard: Exposure to wet concrete can result in skin
irritation or even first-, second- or third-degree chemical burns.
Compounds such as hexavalent chromium may also be harmful.
Hazard: Unguarded machinery used in the manufacturing process can lead to worker injuries.
Hazard: Workers may be hit by falling objects from conveyor belt systems, elevators or concrete block stacking equipment.
Hazard: Improper lifting, awkward postures and repetitive motions can lead to sprains, strains and other musculoskeletal disorders.
Hazard: Mixers and ready-mix trucks have confined spaces that pose safety risks for workers.
Hazard: Poorly maintained or improperly handled
vehicles can lead to crushing injuries at the plant site or other
injuries for truck drivers.
The following checklists may help you take steps to avoid hazards
that cause injuries, illnesses and fatalities. As always, be cautious
and seek help if you are concerned about a potential hazard.
Implement a comprehensive safety and health management system to find and fix all hazards at the worksite.
Establish a written hazard
communication program to inform all employees about chemical hazards and
hazardous substances, reporting of hazards, appropriate personal
protective equipment and what to do in emergency situations.
Train workers in safe work practices
and methods for all work activities, procedures and equipment as well as
how to recognize and respond to potential workplace hazards, including
rendering first aid.
Put in place personal protective
equipment programs. Train workers in selecting, cleaning and maintaining
equipment such as respirators, protective clothing and goggles.
Use safe work practices and
appropriate personal protective equipment for all welding, cutting and
burning; handling of chemicals (e.g., moist concrete, epoxies, form
release agents); and during grinding, chipping, wire brushing, scraping
Ensure that all tools and equipment --
including forklifts, cranes, hoists and rigging -- are maintained in
good working condition, are inspected regularly and are operated by
thoroughly trained, tested and competent workers.
Set up a noise control program to
reduce noise sources. Include sound-level measurements, audiometric
testing, training and/or hearing protection equipment.
Implement machine guarding and
lockout/tagout procedures for all equipment and machinery servicing
and/or maintenance work to prevent workers from being injured.
Establish a confined-space entry
program to protect workers cleaning the inside of mixer drums, storage
bins, hoppers and other confined spaces.
Avoid exposure to cement dust to prevent bronchitis and silicosis.
Prevent burns and skin and eye irritation by avoiding skin contact and eye contact with cement dust or wet cement.
Wear the appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves, boots, goggles or HEPA-filter respirators.
Avoid dusty areas and wet down work areas, as appropriate, to reduce or eliminate dust.
Use special HEPA vacuums to clean up dust instead of dry sweeping.
Reduce silica exposures during
chipping, drilling and sawing of concrete materials with engineering
controls, such as wet methods and local exhaust ventilation.
Identify and fix fall hazards, such as
slippery surfaces, damaged ladders and walkways, and any loose or
unsteady hand- or footholds used to climb up and down on trucks and
Make sure all portable ladders have
safety feet and are the proper length for the specific task. Secure them
or tie them off to prevent movement.
Ensure scaffolding and walking/working surfaces have adequate guardrails, safe accessibility and no tripping hazards or holes.
Implement appropriate work practices
and/or controls to help reduce or eliminate potential back injuries from
twisting, turning, lifting, awkward postures and whole body vibration.
Train workers in appropriate
mechanical and manual materials handling techniques and safety
procedures to help reduce or eliminate musculoskeletal injuries.
Provide dollies, handtrucks and conveyors to help minimize, reduce or eliminate the need to bend and lift.
Most resource materials can be found on the OSHA website at www.osha.gov
Downloadable electronic advisor software (1997), 2MB.
This software guides the user in identifying confined spaces and protecting workers who enter them.
Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout)
OSHA Publication 3120 (2002), 174KB PDF,
This booklet provides guidance on protecting workers against
unexpected energy releases from mechanical and electrical equipment.
Lockout/Tagout e-Tool Interactive online training program (1999).
This e-Tool offers an overview of OSHA's Lockout/Tagout standard, including interactive case studies.
Materials Handling and Storage
OSHA Publication 2226 (2002), 559KB PDF, 41 pages.
This booklet outlines OSHA requirements covering handling and storing materials, focusing on forklift safety and ergonomics.
Permit-Required Confined Spaces
OSHA Publication 3138 (2004), 486KB PDF, 22 pages.
This booklet covers highlights of the OSHA standard for confined spaces.
Safeguarding Equipment and Protecting Workers from Amputations
OSHA Publication 3071 (2001), 1.2MB PDF, 78 pages.
This booklet offers guidance on machine guarding and other safe practices to reduce the risk of amputations.
OSHA Publication 3072 (1996), 866KB PDF, 28 pages.
This booklet covers all aspects of sling safety.
Stairways and Ladders
OSHA Publication 3124 (2003), 155KB PDF, 15 pages.
This booklet covers safety issues related to both fixed and movable stairs and ladders.
Crystalline Silica Exposure Card for General Industry
OSHA Publication 3176 (2003), 37KB PDF; OSHA Publication 3178 (Spanish) (2003), 42KB PDF.
This laminated pocket card offers workers a concise summary of silica
health hazards and lists precautions to take to limit exposure.
OSHA Fact Sheet (2002), 52KB PDF, 2 pages, also in Spanish (2003).
This Fact Sheet highlights the hazards of silica and provides guidance on preventing exposures.
Downloadable electronic software (1998).
This e-Tool describes the hazards of silica and offers guidance on protecting workers.
Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance
OSHA Publication 3111 (2000), 112KB PDF, 33 pages.
This booklet provides an overview of OSHA's Hazard Communication standard and gives specific guidance on compliance.
OSHA Publication 3074 (2002), 157KB PDF, 32 pages.
The booklet explains how to establish an effective hearing conservation program that meets OSHA requirements.
Personal Protective Equipment
OSHA Publication 3151 (2004), 629KB PDF, 46 pages.
This booklet offers guidance on when and how to use personal
protective equipment to guard against occupational injuries and
OSHA Publication 3079 (2002), 273KB PDF, 42 pages.
This booklet outlines OSHA requirements on respiratory protection and
offers guidance on establishing an effective respiratory protection
Respiratory Protection e-Tool
Downloadable electronic software (1998).
This e-Tool enables users to determine whether they need to establish
a respiratory protection program and what type of respirators to use.
Small Entity Compliance Guide for OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard
OSHA (1999), 706KB PDF, 149 pages.
This booklet provides help for small businesses seeking to meet OSHA requirements for respiratory protection programs.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) offers many useful publications available on its website at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh
Comprehensive Safety Recommendations for the Precast Concrete Products Industry. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 84-103 (1984).
Elements of Ergonomics Programs: A Primer Based on Workplace Evaluations of Musculoskeletal Disorders. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-117 (1997).
NIOSH Hazard Review: Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2002-129 (April 2002).
NIOSH Alert - Preventing Worker Deaths from Uncontrolled Release of Electrical, Mechanical, and Other Types of Hazardous Energy. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 99-110 (August 1999).
Ready Mixed Concrete Truck Drivers:Work-Related Hazards and Recommendations for Controls,
Nancy Clark, Jonathan Dropkin and Lee Kaplan, Mt. Sinai - Irving J.
Selikoff Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Sept.
2001), available at http://www.elcosh.org
OSHA recognizes worksites with excellent safety and health management
systems through its Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP). These model
worksites are willing to share their expertise and many are available to
mentor other businesses. For further information on how VPP
participants can help you, contact the VPP manager in your OSHA Regional
Office (see www.osha.gov for listings) or the Voluntary Protection
Programs Participants' Association, 7600-E Leesburg Pike, Suite 440,
Falls Church, VA 22043, telephone (703) 761-1146.
Alliances enable organizations committed to workplace safety and
health to collaborate with OSHA to prevent injuries and illnesses in the
workplace. Two of OSHA's national Alliances have an impact on the
concrete manufacturing industry.
Mason Contractors Association of America
Reducing hazards related to wall bracing, falls, scaffolding and
forklifts is the focus of OSHA's Alliance with the Mason Contractors
Association of America. The joint effort will include developing
education and training programs on these issues as well as developing
and disseminating case studies illustrating the business value of safety
American Concrete Pipe Association
OSHA's Alliance with the American Concrete Pipe Association (ACPA)
focuses on reducing and preventing exposure to confined space hazards.
Under this Alliance, OSHA and ACPA will develop and disseminate outreach
materials, work together on eTools and participate in other efforts to
reduce injuries or illnesses associated with confined space hazards.
Every state offers a free, onsite consultation program to help small
employers find and fix hazards and establish effective safety and health
management systems. Funded primarily by OSHA, consultation is provided
at no cost to small employers and is delivered by state authorities
through professional safety and health consultants. More information on
OSHA's Consultation Program appears on the agency's website at
The process began when CRH, a multinational conglomerate that
manufactures construction materials worldwide, sent new managers to the
Building Systems Division of Oldcastle. The new managers brought
cultural change and a renewed commitment to safety and health to the
Managers came to know all employees on a first-name basis. They
encouraged employees to ask questions and voice any safety concerns so
that management could address them immediately. The managers emphasized
the importance of employees as a company asset and made clear that
employee participation is key to eliminating hazards and reducing
employee injuries and illnesses.
"Having a safe work environment is just good business," according to
the division's general manager. "We need to make the necessary
commitment to safety at all levels of the company, and we are
responsible to follow through with the safest route, no matter what the
cost," he explained. In the process, Oldcastle learned that safety
investments pay for themselves, time and again.
Oldcastle decided to aim for VPP recognition, knowing that working
toward this goal would drive the facility toward excellence. Typically,
injury and illness rates for VPP sites are 51 percent below industry
norms. To qualify, Oldcastle had to submit an application explaining the
site's safety and health management system. Then OSHA examined the
company's safety records, programs and history, and conducted a detailed
onsite review. Once in the program, Oldcastle had to undergo periodic
reviews to maintain its status.
To improve its safety program to qualify for VPP, Oldcastle set
objectives and provided the necessary resources to accomplish them; they
performed daily facility inspections and corrected any problems; and
they informed employees, vendors and contractors of the program's status
throughout the process. "We knew we had to boost existing programs and
initiate new ones to comply. We knew our efforts would make our company a
safer place to work and that was our goal," noted Oldcastle's safety
After two years of preparation, Oldcastle applied for VPP
recognition. OSHA evaluators spent four days assessing the facility.
Their onsite visit included an opening and closing conference, employee
interviews, industrial hygiene surveys and a complete evaluation of the
site's safety and health management system.
One of the highlights of Oldcastle's program, according to Norman R.
Deitch, OSHA's New York VPP Manager and the VPP Team Leader, was the
company's effort to involve Spanish-speaking employees. Oldcastle also
received high marks for its extensive use of digital photos to record
unsafe conditions and the results of corrective actions for worker
For the precast concrete industry (SIC 3272) in 2000, the nonfatal
occupational injury and illness incidence rate was 13.7 per 100
full-time workers. When Oldcastle applied for VPP, its rate was 13.4.
Now it is 2.0. Oldcastle found that reducing worker injuries and
illnesses is not only the moral and humanitarian thing to do, but it
also reduces costs associated with workplace accidents while increasing
the division's competitiveness.
Oldcastle's Accident Prevention Program remains effective because
everyone - the general manager, department managers, supervisors,
employees and the safety manager - takes a personal interest in accident
prevention. Every effort is made to ensure that every worker knows,
understands and observes the requirements of applicable laws,
regulations and standards.
Oldcastle's plant manager credits employees on the shop floor. "We
could be the best managers in the world, but the men on the front line
need to embrace the safety culture," he observed.
The Manchester facility manufactures and installs hollowcore plank
and precast concrete structural systems throughout Western New York.
Some of the more than 2.58 million square feet of precast products weigh
in excess of 25 tons each. The facility's sales manager related,
"Either you make precast concrete pieces safely, or you don't make them
for very long."
Oldcastle's safety manager spearheaded the division's commitment to
safety and took charge of the VPP application process. She credits the
plant employees for their hard work and continued dedication to their
Under the VPP, Merit worksites are recognized as having the potential
and commitment to achieve Star status within three years. Oldcastle's
goal is to reach Star status within twelve months. According to the
safety manager, "This achievement is looked upon by Oldcastle as a
positive step in achieving a safe workplace for our employees and will
only further aid us in ensuring the complete safety of our workplace."
Additional information about OSHA's Voluntary Protection Programs is
available on the agency's website at www.osha.gov, from regional OSHA
VPP managers or local OSHA offices. The Voluntary Protection Programs
Participants' Association (www.vpppa.org) administers a mentoring program for those worksites considering participation.
Oldcastle Precast's Manchester New York Division.
Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace
for their employees. OSHA's role is to assure the safety and health of
America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing
training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and
encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.
This informational booklet provides a general overview of a particular
topic related to OSHA standards. It does not alter or determine
compliance responsibilities in OSHA standards or the Occupational Safety
and Health Act of 1970. Because interpretations and enforcement policy
may change over time, you should consult current OSHA administrative
interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health
Review Commission and the Courts for additional guidance on OSHA
This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully
or partially, without permission. Source credit is requested but not
This information is available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 693-1999; teletypewriter (TTY) number: (877)
Occupational Safety and
U.S. Department of Labor
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